Obrazy na stronie

July 7, 1865.
On the Present State of the Chemistry of Gas Lighting.

7 sulphuretted hydrogen, the ammonia, and the other im- so that a tray of acid sawdust in the purifier remains for purities which still remain in it. In continuation of the months without being saturated. After this complete system already adverted to, it is well to submit the gas to removal of ammonia, the gas should be submitted to the the action of a copious stream of ammoniacal liquor after action of wet lime, or, failing this, on sanitary grounds, it leaves the purifiers. As far back as the year 1846, Mr. to oxide of iron; and lastly to a few trays of dry lime to Lowe directed attention to this, and he patented a process remove carbonic acid, which, as I shall show you directly, for effecting it. Very recently Mr. Hawksley has, from is a very objectionable constituent of gas, on account of independent observations, and from a chemical considera- its lowering the illuminating power. tion of the subject, recommended a like process. * He The order, then, of purification is :- 1st, slow but comadvises that the gas should be drenched with ammoniacal plete cooling ; 2nd, washing with ammoniacal liquor ; 3rd, liquor to the extent of a sixteenth of the volume of the the removal of ammonia by water or acid ; 4th, the gas. The effect of this is to strengthen the liquor and to abstraction of sulphuretted hydrogen by lime or oxide of remove from the gas ammonia, sulphuretted hydrogen, iron; and 5th, carbonic acid. I have been particular in carbonic acid, and the objectionable compounds of sulphur recapitulating all this because of its great importance in with carbon, and the hydrocarbons. In practice it is found the manufacture of good gas. that the gas thus treated never contains more than twelve We will now pass on to the proper subject of the lecture grains of sulphur in any form in 100 cubic feet—the -namely, the examination of the chief constituents of average being about nine and a-half grains; and, to use purified coal gas. These may be classed under three the words of your president, “it thus appears that all heads :considerable gas companies may, by a very simple, and in 1. The combustible non-illuminating constituents. other respects very useful process, remove a large propor- 2. The illuminating hydrocarbons. tion of the objectionable sulphur compounds which usually 3. The impurities. continue to exist in coal gas after it has been passed 1. The Combustible Non-Iuriminating Constituents of Coal Gas. through lime or other metallic oxide."

These form a very large proportion of its bulk -- as from The residual impurities-namely, the ammonia, sul- 30 to nearly 60 per cent. They are hydrogen and carbonic phuretted hydrogen, and carbonic acid are next to be oxide ; and their sole function seems to be the purveying removed in proper order. Washing the gas with water, or carrying the illuminating hydrocarbons. or with weak ammoniacal liquor, and finally with water, (a) HYDROGEN (H) exists in coal gas to the extent of will at once abstract a considerable amount of all these from 12 to nearly 50 per cent. It is in greatest abundance impurities ; and although there is a prejudice with some in poor gas of low illuminating power, and it no doubt engineers that this kind of purification is objectionable on comes in great part from the decomposition of the richer account of its lowering the illuminating power of gas, yet, hydrocarbons by the high temperature of the retorts. It as we shall see hereafter, the prejudice is not founded on is also produced by the moisture of the coal giving up its fact-excepting that the process undoubtedly removes oxygen to the red-hot carbon, and setting free its hydrogen. such compounds as tar and naphthaline, which, though The gas is singularly inert—it has no colour, no taste, no of high illuminating power, are nevertheless better out of odour, and no action on the human body. It is the lightest the gas than in it, seeing how much mischief they do by body known, its specific gravity being o'0692, atmospheric subsequent deposition in the mains and service pipes. air being 1 ; and 100 cubic inches of it weigh only 2.15 You will have an opportunity of seeing at the Saltley grains, the same quantity of air weighing 31 grains. It station of the Birmingham and Staffordshire Gas Com- burns without any light; and, as you perceive when I hold pany, in this town, the good effect of thoroughly washing a cold glass over the flame, the product of its combustion the gas with water or weak ammoniacal liquor before it is water. One cubic foot of hydrogen requires half a cubic passes to the purifiers. Mr. Young, the experienced foot of oxygen, or 2 cubic feet of atmospheric air, for engineer of the Company, has for some time past adopted combustion. The temperature of the flame is very highthis practice. The gas, on leaving the condensers, tra- about 5898° Fahr., and a cubic foot of the gas, in burning, verses successively three washers, or as they may be more will raise 5220 ounces of water, or 16,250 cubic feet of properly called, douche scrubbers; each of them is 25 air, 1° Fahr. Lastly, it is but slightly absorbed by water feet high, 8 feet long, and 4 feet wide ; and the liquor or -100 volumes of water taking up about 1'93 of hydrogen water is delivered into them at the rate of 1815 gallons an gas; and it is not condensable by cold or pressure. hour, the gas passing at the rate of about 66,000 cubic (b) CARBONIC OXIDE (CO) is a compound of one proporfeet an hour. The water or liquor flows through a pipe or tion of carbon and one of oxygen. By weight, therefore, jet with a very small orifice, and dashing upon a disc im- it consists of 6 parts of carbon and 8 of oxygen ; and by mediately below it, is splashed out into a fine shower volume, of half a volume of carbon vapour and half a which meets the ascending gas. The rate of flow, there- volume of oxygen, united without any condensation. It fore is about 27+ gallons for every 1000 cubic feet of gas. is not a large constituent of coal gas, the proportions rang. In this manner the gas is thoroughly cleansed before it ing from about 5 to 16 per cent. ; but it forms a considergoes to the purifiers, and the contrivance is such that no able part-about 34 per cent.-of the gas made by the pressure is put upon the gas, for it passes through the decomposition of steam by red-hot carbon. This, indeed, washers without friction. The quantity of ammoniacal is the chief source of it in common coal gas. Like hydrogen, liquor which is thus obtained amounts to 44 gallons per it is colourless and odourless ; but, unlike it, it is a deadly ton of Staveley coal, the strength of the liquor being 4 of poison. I have ascertained that 2 per cent. of it in air Twaddle, or about 8 ounces of sulphuric acid. Before this will kill birds almost instantly; and, according to Leblanc process was adopted, the quantity of liquor of the same and Dumas, an atmosphere containing one per cent. of it strength was only 25 gallons per ton ; and the profit will kill a small dog in a minute and a half. It is a little arising from the sale of the liquor is more than 2000l. per lighter than atmospheric air, in the proportion of 0.967 annum in excess of the former returns. I find from an to 1 ; and 100 cubic inches of it weigh nearly 30 grains. examination of the gas, that its illuminating power is from It burns with a pale bluish and somewhat opaque flame; 15 to 16 sperm candles of standard quality, and that there and, as you here see, it forms nothing but carbonic acid. is no loss of power by deposition in the mains-the gas, The flame cannot be got from the small jet over the indeed is absolutely free from ammonia, naphthaline, and governor. I am obliged to burn the gas from a very large carbonic acid, and the amount of sulphur in any form jet over the pneumatic trough, and therefore I am not able does not exceed 16 grains per 100 cubic feet. When the to show you the size of its flame in comparison with coal gas has been thus washed, it contains but little ammonia, gas. In the act of burning, i cubic foot of carbonic oxide * Journal of Gas Lighting, vol. xiii., p. 542.

consumes half a cubic foot of oxygen, or 2d cubic feet of 8

On the Present Stute of the Chemistry of Gas Lighting.


July 7, 1865.

coal gas.

air ; and the heat of the flame is very nearly as great as When mixed with twice its volume of chlorine gas and that of hydrogen, it being 5508° Fahr. A cubic foot of it fired, its hydrogen is consumed, and its carbon is depowill raise the temperature of 5400 ounces of water, or sited in the form of soot. It is also slowly absorbed by 16,500 cubic feet of air, 1 ° Fahr. It is but slightly absorbed chļorine, in the dark as well as in the light, forming a by water-100 volumes absorbing 2.43 volumes - but it is heavy oily liquid of an ethereal odour, called Dutch very freely absorbed by a strong solution of sub-chloride liquid (C,H,C1). In like manner it is absorbed by broof copper; and this is the agent used for its detection in mine, and by fuming sulphuric acid. The gas is slightly

soluble in water, to the extent of about one-eighth of its 2. The Illuminating Constituents (Hydrocarbons) of Coal Gas. volume, and it is freely soluble in alcohol, ether, volatile

These are all compounds of carbon and hydrogen ; hence oil, and fixed oil. Turpentine, for example, will take up their name, hydrocarbons. And as, in the same volume twice and a-half times its volume of the gas, and olive of the gas, there are very different proportions of carbon, oil will absorb its own volume of it. It is easily decomthe illuminating power of these several constituents varies posed by heat-a red heat converting it into carbon and considerably. In all cases the light which they evolve in marsh gas, together with a small quantity of tarry matter; the act of burning is due to their decomposition by the and the gas is condensable by great cold and by pressure. heat of the fame, and to the suspension of the liberated The test for the gas is bromine or fuming sulphuric acid, carbon for a definite time in an ignited state.

which freely absorb it. The following are the principal members of this group,

(c) PROPYLENE, or, as it sometimes termed, Tritylene beginning with the least illuminating :

(C.H.), is a compound of carbon and hydrogen in the Marsh Gas, C,H,; Olefiant Gas, or Ethylene, c H4; same percentage proportions by weight as the last; but a Propylene, C.H.; Butylene, CpH, ; Acetylene, cu,; volume of it contains 15 volume of carbon vapour and Benzol, CiH, i Naphthaline, C., and perhaps some 3 volumes of hydrogen." Its proportion in coal gas has others.

not been accurately determined. It is colourless, and has (a) Marsu Gas is also called Pit Gas, Fire-damp. Light a stupifying action on the body. It is just half as heavy Carburetted Hydrogen, and Hydride of Methyl (c.). again as atmospheric air-its specific gravity being 1'455 ; A volume of the gas contains half a volume of carbon and, therefore, 100 cubic inches of it weigh about 45 vapour, and two volumes of hydrogen. It is a large con- grains. It burns with a bright yellow and somewhat stituent of the gas evolved from sewage, and the mud of sooty flame, which is fully three times as long as the a stagnant pool. It also forms from 79 to 91 per cent. of comparison jet of coal gas burning from the same sized the fire-damp of coal mines, and it constitutes from 30 to orifice, and under the same pressure; and the light 60 per cent. of coal gas. It is colourless, odourless, evolved from it is about three times as great as that from tasteless, and without action on the animal body, for common coal gas. A cubic foot of it requires 4 cubic miners breathe it with impunity. It is a little more than feet of oxygen, or 22 cubic feet of air, to burn it; and half the weight of atmospheric air-its specific gravity it produces 3 cubic feet of carbonic acid, and much being 0'5531 ; and, therefore, 100 cubic inches of the aqueous vapour. The heat evolved by it is also very gas weigh 17'15 grains. It burns, as you perceive, with great. It is but slightly absorbed by water, but it is a pale yellow flame, which is bluish for a considerable freely absorbed by chlorine, bromine, and iodine, forming distance up, the height of the jet being somewhat less compounds which correspond to Dutch liquid. It is than that of coal gas; and so also is its illuminating also absorbed by fuming sulphuric acid, and even by power. A cubic foot of gas consumes 2 cubic feet of strong oil of vitriol. The volatile and fixed oils dissolve oxygen, or 10 cubic feet of air; and the products of the it, and so also does a solution of proto-chloride of copper, combustion are a cubic foot of carbonic acid, and aqueous As in the last case, it is readily decomposed by a red vapour. The heat of the flame is about 5890° Fahr., and heat, forming marsh gas, and depositing carbon ; and it a cubic foot will raise 16,920 ounces of water, or $2,000 is also condensed by cold and pressure. cubic feet of air, 1° Fahr. The gas is but slightly (d) Butylene, TETRYLENE, DITETRYL, or Oil Gas (C.Hz), absorbed by water-100 volumes taking up 3.91 of the is a still further condensation of carbon and hydrogen in gas. It is not absorbed by chlorine, except after some the same per-centage weights as in olefiant gas. A volume time, and in the light; nor by bromine or fuming sul- of butylene contains two volumes of carbon vapour and phuric acid ; and it is not easily decomposed by heat; four of hydrogen. It is a large constituent of oil gas, and nor is it condensed by cold. There is no immediate test it exists in cannel gas to the extent of about from 3 to 4 for the gas.

per cent. Common gas contains it in very small proporBesides marsh gas, there are probably other members tions. The gas is colourless, and it has a peculiar odour. of the series present in coal gas, as Ethyl-hydride (C.Hr), Its action on the body is not known, but no doubt it is Propyl-hydride (CoH), Butyl-hydride (C.H10), and anæsthetic, like the other hydrocarbons of this series. It Amyl hydride (C1,112), all of which are found in the is nearly twice as heavy as atmospheric air, its gravity petroleums of commerce.

being !'935; and, therefore, 100 cubic inches weigh just (6) OLEFIANT GAS, ETHYLENE, or ELAYL (C.H.), is a 60 grains. It burns, as you perceive, with a long sooty gas which contains twice as much carbon in a given fame, the jet being nearly four times as long as the com. volume as the last--a volume of it contains its own bulk parison jet of coal gas; and the illuminating power of it of carbon vapour and two volumes of hydrogen. It is about four times as great as the jet of common gas. A exists in fire-damp to the extent of from 2 to 16 per cent., cubic foot of the gas requires 6 cubic feet of oxygen, or 30 and in coal gas too from 8 to 27 per cent., cannel gas cubic feet of air, to burn it; and the products of its comcontaining it in the largest proportion. It is colourless, bustion are 4 cubic feet of carbonic acid and much aqueous and, when pure, is a little ethereal or sweetish in its vapour. Like the other hydrocarbons, it is but slightly odour, and it is anæsthetic or stupifying in its action on soluble in water, but it is freely dissolved by alcohol and the body when it is inhaled. It is very nearly as heavy by the fixed and volatile oils; olive oil, for example, as atmospheric air—its gravity being 0-967; and, there absorbs about six times its volume of the gas. It is also fore, 100 cubic inches of it weigh nearly 30 grains. It absorbed by chlorine and bromine, forming compounds burns with a long, bright yellow flame, the illuminating analogous to Dutch liquid ; and it is likewise freely power of which is fully twice as great as the last. A absorbed by sulphuric acid, a volume of the acid taking up cubic foot of the gas requires 3 cubic feet of oxygen, or 100 volumes of the gas. If it is passed through a red-hot 15 cubic feet of air for its combustion, and it produces tube, it is decomposed and resolved into marsh gas, hydro2 cubic feet of carbonic acid, and much aqueous vapour gen, and carbon. It is also easily condensed by cold and -evolving about one-third more heat than the last. I pressure, forming a thin, transparent, and colourless oil,


July 7, 1835.

On the Present State of the Chemistry of Gas Lighting,


of which I show you a specimen. In the days of oil gas the gas through a tube containing a little tow moistened when the Compressed Gas Company was in existence, this with benzole. This is a good example of the naphthalisaethereal oil was produced in rather large quantity ; 1000 tion of gas; and I have here another instance of it where cubic feet of the gas submitted to a pressure of 30 atmos- coal gas is passing over the benzole contained in a proper pheres produced about a gallon of oil, composed almost naphthaliser. You perceive the extraordinary richness of entirely of butylene, with benzole and an oil of doubtful the light. Experiments have been made for the purpose composition. It was from this mixture that Faraday of determining the value of the light for the benzole or obtained butylene.

naphtha consumed; and the results are, that every grain (e) ACETYLENE, or Klumene (C2H,). A volume of this of the vapour taken up by a foot of common twelve-cardle gas contains its own volume of carbon vapour and one gas increases its light about 10 per cent. The various volume of hydrogen. The gas exists in but very small naphthas of commerce are more or less charged with benproportions in coal gas ; and it is remarkable as being a zole and its homologues, and they raise the illuminating hydrocarbon which can be obtained by the direct union of power of gas from 41 to 8 per cent. for each grain of the carbon with hydrogen, by igniting carbon, by the aid of vapour absorbed by the gas. In the act of burning, a electricity, in an atmosphere of hydrogen. It can also be cubic foot of benzole vapour consumes 7ă cubic feet of obtained by exposing a mixture of carbonic oxide and oxygen, or 37; cubic feet of air ; and it produces 6 cubic marsh gas to the action of a high temperature,-a circum- feet of carbonic acid, and much aqueous vapour. The stance which may hereafter be of practical utility in the heat of the flame also is considerable. Benzole is but manufacture of gas. It is likewise a product of the decom- slightly absorbed by water, but is freely taken up by position of hydrocarbons by heat. The gas is colourless, alcohol, ether, and the volatile and fixed oils. It is also, with a peculiar odour, and it is probably anæsthetic. It like the other rich hydrocarbons, absorbed by vulcanised is a little lighter than air, the specific gravity of it being tubing. The vapour is slowly condensed by chlorine and 0.898; 100 cubic inches therefore weigh just 28 grains. brumine in the sunlight, and compounds are formed con It burns with a brilliant light, as you here perceive, and taining six proportions of the halogens (C12H, Cle, and with a sooty flame, considerably longer than the flame of C2H.Bre), which present a certain analogy to Dutch coal gas; and when I mix it with a large volume of hydro- liquid. Sulphuric acid also absorbs the vapour, and forms gen gas, it still burns with a bright flame. A cubic foot conjugate acids; but the most interesting product of ben. of the gas requires aj feet of oxygen, or 12} feet of air, to zole is its substitution compound with peroxide of nitrogen, burn it; and it produces two volumes of carbonic acid, which is produced when it is brought into contact with and aqueous vapour. The gas is freely absorbed by water strong nitric acid. This, indeed, is the test for benzole ; to the extent of its own bulk, and it is again expelled un- so that if coal gas is passed through fuming nitric acid, as changed when the water is boiled. It also combines, with you here see, the benzole vapour is absorbed, and an oily great energy, with chlorine, bromine, and sulphuric acid. liquid is produced, which has the odour of bitter almonds. The best absorbent for it is a solution of ammonio-sub- This is easily purified by washing it with water, and finally chloride of copper. The solution is made by mixing a with a weak alkaline solution. It is then called Nitrodilute solution of chloride of copper with an equal bulk of benzole, or Essence of Mirbane. It is produced from benpure muriatic acid, and shaking the mixture in a bottle zole by the substitution of one proportion of peroxide of with copper filings, or boiling it with copper turnings until nitrogen for one of hydrogen (CHNO.); and I may it is colourless. The solution is then put into a bottle or remind you that, although it is used very largely in perflask, with three tubes adapted to it: one for delivering fumery, it is a dangerous poison ; I know instances where the coal gas into the solution, a second for the exit of the a few drops of it have produced fatal coma. Benzole gas, and the third for pouring in a strong solution of vapour is decomposed by a red heat, forming a gaseous ammonia. When the gas has displaced all the air from hydrocarbon, and depositing much carbon. It is also the bottle, ammonia poured into the solution until a easily condensed by cold, when it forms an ethereal liquid, deep blue liquid is obtained ; and this, as you here see, which freezes into a crystalline solid at 32°, and which absorbs the acetylene of the gas, and produces a choco- boils at 177° Fahr. This liquid is lighter than water, and late or reddish brown precipitate of acetylide of copper is remarkable for its solvent power for caoutchouc, gutta. (CH,Cuz), which is a compound in which two proportions percha, and all kinds of resins and fats. of copper have replaced one of hydrogen. This acetylide () The other members of the benzole series, as Toluol of copper is to be collected on a filter, washed with water, (CH), Xylol (C16H10), Cumol (C18H12), and, Cymol and dried. If it is heated in a flask, as I am now doing, (C20H1), are no doubt also present in coal gas, for they with dilute muriatic acid, it is decomposed, and the acety- are found in the naphth. distilled from coal tar ; but as lene escapes with effervescence. You will notice, too, they are less volatile than benzole, they are present in with what a bright yellow flame the gas burns.

smaller quantity. (f) BENZOL, or, as it is sometimes termed, Benzine, (h) NAPHTHALIN (C2.H.) is the last of the hydro, Phene, or Bicarburetted Hydrogen (C2H6). One volume carbons to which I shall refer. It is only present in gas of this vapour contains three volumes of carbon vapour which has been made at high temperature, and it is and three of hydrogen. It exists in coal gas in very vari- invariably a secondary product of the decomposition of able proportions. At times it is but barely discoverable, the richer hydrocarbons (tar, &c.) by the walls of the redand at other times it is present in large quantity. It is hot retort. In London, where it is the practice to work at often present in London gas to a considerable extent, and very high temperatures, the coal gas is always charged I attribute it to the practice which is occasionally followed with naphthalin, and its presence in the mains is a serious of pouring light naphtha into the mains for the purpose of inconvenience. The vapour of naphthalin is very rich in removing naphthaline. I here show you a specimen of carbon-a cubic foot of it contains five times, its bulk of nitro-benzole obtained from only 15 cubic feet of gas. carbon vapour, and four times its bulk of hydrogen. The The vapour of benzole is colourless, and it has a peculiar specific gravity of the vapour is 4'422, and therefore odour, which is rather agreeable when the benzole is pure. 100 cubic inches of it weigh rather more than 137 grains. It is powerfully anæsthetic, and will cause fatal insensi- It burns with a bright sooty flame, and if I heat a little bility if it be inhaled too copiously. The vapour is about of the hydrocarbon in a flask, and pass hydrogen gas 24 times as heavy as atmospheric air, its specific gravity through it, you will see how richly it naphthalises being 2.695; 100 cubic inches of it will, therefore, weigh the gas. In the act of burning, a cubic foot of the vapour 84 specific grains. The vapour burns with a very bright consumes twelve times its volume of oxygen, sixty times light--so much so that I have no difficulty in giving a its bulk of air, and it forms 10 cubic feet of carbonic acid strong illuminating power to hydrogen by merely passing I and aqueous vapour. Naphthalin is not absorbed by water,


Academy of SciencesNotices of Books.

{, ,

July 7, 1885.


but it is by the volatile and fixed oils, and by naphtha usual in such cases. Another way of procuring the alkaand coal-tar ; hence the advantage of keeping the raw loid is to treat the aqueous solution obtained as above first gas until it is thoroughly cooled in contact with tar and with a few drops of nitric acid, and then with phosphoammoniacal liquor in a long hydraulic main. Hence, also, molybdic acid. The bulky precipitate is decomposed by the fact that the richer qualities of gas, containing much hydrate of baryta, and the mixture is dried and the mass hydrocarbon, do not deposit naphthalin ; and hence, also, exhausted with absolute alcohol, which takes up scarcely the use of naphtha as a remedy for naphthalin in the anything but curarine. An analysis of the chloroplatinate mains and service-pipes. The vapour of naphthalin is leads to the formula €1H N for this alkaloid, which is absorbed by chlorine and also by bromine, the products seen to be destitute of oxygen. There is but one other being liquids which have considerable analogy to Dutch instance of a natural alkaloid not containing oxygen. liquid. It is also absorbed by sulphuric acid. Naphthalin Curarine may be obtained in crystals by leaving a chlorois not easily decomposed by heat; it is quickly deposited form solution to spontaneous evaporation. by cold, forming brilliant white scales, which have a The soluble salts are all crystaīlisable ; of the insoluble tendency to collect in the bends of pipes, and wherever the chloroplatinate alone has a crystalline appearance. there is an impediment to the easy flow of the gas. These The alkaloid and the soluble salts crystallise in four-sided scales are slowly volatile at ordinary temperatures, they prisms. Curarine has a persistent bitter taste, is soluble melt at a heat of 174° Fahr., and they boil at 428o. in water and alcohol in all proportions, is but slightly (To be continued.)

soluble in chloroform and amylic alcohol, and is altogether insoluble in ether, benzole, turpentine, and sulphide of

carbon. Pure concentrated sulphuric acid gives to curaACADEMY OF SCIENCES.

rine a magnificent and lasting blue colour, which June 19, 1865.

reaction will serve to distinguish it from strychnine. “On the Extraction of Sugar," by M. Alvaro colour as with strychnia, but with curarine the colour

Bichromate of potash with sulphuric acid gives the same Reynoso, of Havannah, was read. The author uses acid is much more lasting. Strong nitric acid produces a phosphate of alumina, which he neutralises carefully with lime for clarifying the cane juice. Alumina and phosphate in animals. Alcohol extracts it, and it may be identified

purple colouration. The poison may be easily discovered of lime are precipitated, and carry down effectively the colouring and nitrogenised bodies. The author has also poison is obtained from many plants; he has extracted it

by the above reactions. The author states that the an ingenious way of getting rid of the bulk of the water himself from the dried fruit of the Paullinia cururu. in the juice. By some process described in his memoir, but not quoted in the Comptes Rendus, he submits the logical Effects of Curarine," by M. Claude Bernard, who

The other communication was a note “ On the Physiojuice to a very low temperature, and so gets a magma tells us that the effects of the alkaloid resemble exactly composed of thick syrup and little lumps of ice. He those produced by the substance from which it is obtained, separates the syrup from these by means of a centrifugal but are, of course, much more intense. Like the woorari machine, and then evaporates quickly in vacuo. M. Canizzaro continued his memoir " On the Amines of itself

, it is absorbed with great difficulty by the intestinal Benzoic Alcohol.. He described the method by which he canal, but operates with frightful energy when introduced obtained dibenzylic toluidine :

into a wound. M. Bernard promises another communica

tion relating to his experiments on the effects of curarine (C,H,)a

on the motor nerves. N{ (CHb

M. H. St. Clair Deville presented a note with the procHJb

mising title, “ On the Industrial Preparation of Alumina in which formula (C,H,)a stands for cresyle, and (C,H,)b and its Compounds, and on their Industrial Applications," for benzyle. The behaviour of the platinum salt of the but in the note he only tells us that alumina and its comweak alkaloid proves it to be isomeric with tertiary benzyl- pounds are made in large quantities at Newcastle, and at amine. The author has made many attempts to prepare Salindres, from Bauxite. There appears now to be no primary benzylamine free from the secondary and tertiary difficulty in making sulphite of alumina, which would amines, but without success. He finds that the greater seem to be a good defecator. part of the chloride of benzyle is always converted into

A note On the Employment of Biphosphate of Alumina the secondary and tertiary alkaloids-a fact which connects the benzoic with the methylic series. Canizzaro Desvignes, who claims the first use of this substance, and

in the Manufacture of Sugar" was read by M. Kessler intends to continue the comparative study of primary moreover the discovery that biphosphate of magnesia will benzylamine and toluidine. Considering phenols as bodies

answer just as well as a defecator of sugar juice. intermediary between alcohols and acids, he regards aniline and similar alkaloids as coming between amines (those

A note “ On the Constitution of Hyponiobic and Tantalic properly so called) and amides; and he hopes to show Acids, and on their Association in the Mineral Kingdom," by incomplete substitution, disengages ammonia and replaces shall give abstracts next week. that while toluidine, in acting upon other alkaloids by M. Marignac, was read. Of this, and

another “ On a News

Process for the Manufacture of Steel,by M. Berard, we hydrogen by the radical cresyle (CyH,)a, benzylamine, under the same conditions, will do no such thing.

June 26.
Two communications on the woorari, or curara poison,
were read. We notice first that by M. Preyer, " on the

Journal für Praktische Chemie. Nos. 6 and 7. 1865. Active Principle of Curara.” To prepare the alkaloid, NUMBER 6 of this Journal contains no paper of interest the author treats the crude poison, scraped off arrows or which has not already been noticed in the CHEMICAL obtained from the Indians in little clay pots, with boiling News. In No. 7 we find a paper by C. Gilbert Wheeler alcohol, and distils the alcohol from the solution. The residue is treated with water and filtered to separate the gives analyses of the ashes of hops from various districts.

On the Mineral Ingredients in Bavarian Hops," which resin, and the filtrate is precipitated by bichloride of mercury. This precipitate contains all the curarine. It is things, but we have no space for them in our pages. The

These analyses deserve a place in a collection of such washed, suspended in water, and decomposed by sulphu- principal fact learnt from them is the large proportion of retted hydrogen ; and thus hydrochlorate of curarine is potash and phosphates which hops contain, and which obtained in solution. The purification may be effected as 1 points to the composition of a proper manure.


CHEMICAL 1886**,}

Notices of Patents-Correspondence.


The next paper is by Dr. T. Humpert " On the Action measuring quantities therefrom."-Petition recorded Feb. of Concentrated Sulphuric Acid on Arseniuretted and 14, 1865. Antimoniuretted Hydrogen, with Experiments on the Fre- 441. W. Kerrage, Gardner's Road, Victoria Park, “ An paration of Pure Aniimoniuretted Hydrogen.The improvement in ihe manufacture of artificial stone for arsenical gas passed into strong sulphuric acid gives a building purposes.”—Feb. 16, 1865. brown precipitate of a compound of hydrogen, sulphur, 477. W. E. Gedge, Wellington Street, Strand, “ A and arsenicum, which does not appear to have a constant chemical combustible substance, and apparatus to which composition, the proportion of hydrogen and sulphur it is applicable." A communication from F. Stoker, increasing with the duration of the experiment. A similar Faubourg St. Martin, Paris.-Feb. 20, 1865. compound is obtained when antimoniuretted hydrogen 500. J. Nicholas, Aspull, near Wigan, Lancashire, is passed through sulphuric acid. Sulphuretted hydrogen “ Improvements in the process and apparatus for producing is evolved in both instances. To obtain the antimoniuretted oil and coke from coal and slack.”-Feb. 22, 1865. hydrogen as free as possible from uncombined hydrogen 511. S. Saville, Bradford, Manchester, " Improvements the author gives the following process. He takes sodium in separating wool from refuse, mixed fabrics, , and amalgam, and places it in a flask with a tolerably con- materials." centrated solution of terchloride of antimony. The mix- 512. W. E. Newton, Chancery Lane, “An improved ture froths, and antimoniuretted hydrogen escapes, but it mode of preparing fertilising compounds or artificial is easily decomposed, even at the ordinary temperature. manures. A communication from G. A. Liebig, BaltiThe sides of the flask quickly become coated with a more, Maryland, U. S. A.-Feb. 23, 1865. thick layer of metallic antimony. This never happens when the antimonial gas is diluted with a large propor

CORRESPONDENCE. tion of hydrogen. When the gas obtained as above is ignited it burns with a pale yellow flame, with the separation of thick fumes of antimonious acid.

Continental Science. Most of the other papers have been noticed, but we find

PARIS, July 2. a paper by Von Hauer“ On the Easily Fusible Cadmium Any addition to the comfort of railway travelling is Alloys," containing some particulars which we shall give worthy of notice, and therefore I may mention a plan in a table. There is also a process by Boettger for invented by M. Seris for laying the dust raised by a train. Etching on Zinc, and Gilding the Etched Places,” which This plan, by the special recommendation of the Emperor, we give in a miscellaneous paragraph ; together with

was tried last week on the Bordeaux line, and is said other short notices of a new synthesis of formic acid, a

to have satisfied the engineers who witnessed the trial, new process for the separation of potassium, rubidium, but I have at present no account of M. Seris' apparatus and cæsium, and a new process for the extraction of

to give. indium from Freiberg Blende.

I see also a notice of a plan of preventing boiler in

crustations which I am inclined to think is not new in NOTICES OF PATENTS,

England, but I quote it, since it may be new to some. It

consists in lining the boiler with a metallic network at GRANTS OF PROVISIONAL PROTECTION FOR some distance from the sides. The lime salcs will of SIX MONTHS.

course be deposited upon this network, which can be Communicated by Mr. Vaughan, PATENT AGENT, 54, Chancery easily removed, and from which the crust can be easily Lane, W.C.

detached. 1506. H. Allman, Ampthill Square, Middlesex, “ Cer- Dr. Carlier's fire extinguisher I think I have mentioned tain improvements in the manufacture of iron and steel, before, but may return to it again, since its efficacy was and in apparatus connected therewith."-Petition re- satisfactorily shown at the Abbe Moigno's last soirée. The corded June 1, 1865.

small instrument is really nothing more than a bottle of 1573. W. E. Gedge, Wellington Street, Strand, “ An what is in England called soda-water-that is, water satuimproved process for penetrating or impregnating woods rated under pressure with carbonic acid. A stopcock with various substances.”-A communication from J. L. lets out, and a pipe directs, the jet of gas and water to Hossard, Faubourg St. Martin, Paris.—June 9, 1865. the flames, which, of course, quickly succumb. Larger

1582. R. A. Brooman, Fleet Street, " Improvements in instruments may be made to generate the gas within kilne for firing porcelain and other ware.”-A communica- themselves by special arrangements. I do not see that tion from F. Durand, Paris, June 10, 1865.

this apparatus offers any advantage over Phillips's 1586. J. E. Poynter, Glasgow, N.B., "Improvements extinguisher. in purifying paraffine."

I mentioned, about a year ago, the laboratory started 1591. J. Thomas, Battersea, Surrey, “A new material by MM. Fremy and Chevreul, in which poor and ardent to be used in the purification of heating and lighting students might work, and have the advice of the two gases.”—June 12, 1865.

worthy Professors named, gratis. I am happy to say now 1595:--G. Haseltine, Southampton Buildings, Chancery that M. Duruy, the Minister of Instruction, has made a Lane, “ Improvements in fuses for shells for ordnance.”. grant of 10,000 franes, and that M. Ménier has offered to A communication from F. Schentel, Boston, Mass. U.S.A. supply the chemicals for nothing, and thus the cost of the

1600. C. J. Collins, Upper Thames-street, London, establishment has been provided for, although the Pro“A new or improved artificial fuel.”

fessors still superintend it without fee. The generosity of 1602. T. Routledge, Ford, near Sunderland, and W. M. Ménier does not end with the supply of the chemicals ; H. Richardson, Springwell, Jarrow-on-Tyne, " Improve- a few students who show special aptitude for research ments in the manufacture of paper and paper stock, and receive pecuniary assistance from a fund which he has in the utilisation of certain waste products resulting placed at the disposal of the Professors. therefrom."

I never remember to have read before an account of the 1605. F. A. Laurent and J. Casthelaz, Rue Sainte Croix way in which butter is made in Normandy; so, thinking de la Bretonneric, Paris, “Improvements in the manu- it may be new to others, I translate it from Cosmos. The facture of phthalic acid and chloroxynaphthalic acid, and cream is tied up in a canvas bag, and then buried in a in dyeing and printing.”—June 15, 1865.

hole in the ground for twenty-five hours. At the end of NOTICES TO PROCEED.

this time it forms a hard mass, which is broken up with a 414. W. C. Hine, Swineshead, Lincolnshire, “ Improve- wooden pestle, whereupon the buttermilk runs away.. A ments in stoppering bottles or other similar vessels, and small quantity of water is thrown on the butter to rinse

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