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Aug. 11, 1865. }

College of Physicians. acid would be better represented by a chain of three circles substantially the same. The empirical formula for carbonic than by a trefoil, as contrasted in the diagram below: acid-by which I mean hydrated carbonic acid-is CH,Og, Populine.

while that for urea is CH N,0. But regarding the two
bodies as derivatives of the double atoms of water and
ammonia respectively, or as the hydrate and amide of
carbonyl, these formulæ become (CO)”H,02, corresponding
to H2O2, and (CO)"H N, corresponding to H N, respec-
tively. Accordingly, the representation of urea as a com-
pound of carbonic acid and ammonia with elimination of
water, or as a variety of carbonic acid in which certain
elements of water are replaced by the corresponding
elements of ammonia, is shown in these almost identical
equations :
Carbonic Acid. 2-Ammonia. 2-Water. Urea.

CH,03 + HN, H40, = CHÁ,0
(CO)H,0, + (H,)H.N, = (H,)H,0, + (CO)H,N..

Glycocine, or sugar of gelatine, the next compound on Although, as I have said, the benzoic and ammoniacal the list, contains, as I have already observed, a residue of residues may be left in combination with one another by ammonia and a residue of glycolic or oxiacetic acid. the excision, so to speak, of the glycolic residue. Be this Leucine, a body upon which I shall offer some observaas it may, I shall assume that hippuric acid consists of a tions in a future lecture, is a homologue of glycocine, and residue of benzoic acid and a residue of glycocine, which contains a residue of ammonia and a residue of leucic acid. last consists of a residue of glycolic or acetic acid com- We now come to spermaceti, which contains a residue of bined with a residue of ammonia ; and similarly in the case palmitic acid, an important member of our primary series of many other bodies composed of more than two ultimate of fatty acids, united with the residue of a solid alcohol, residues, I shall assume, with greater or less warrant, that the cetylic, which bears to palmitic acid precisely the same we can ascertain the mode in which the residues are suc- relation that common ethylic alcohol bears to acetic acid, cessively appended to one another, as in the list of bodies so that spermaceti is a true homologue of acetic ether, as which I am now about to bring under your notice.

shown in these equations :The compounds whose names are written up in the first

Acetic. Ethylic.

Acetic Ether. column of the following tables occur either as natural C, H, 0, + C, H, O – H,0 = C, H, 02. products of the animal body, or as constituent residues

Palmitic. Cetylic.

Spermaceti. of such natural products. In the second and third C13H300, + CH3,0 - 4,0 = C3, 1600%. columns are given the names of the simpler molecules, Next, we have myricine, which forms from 60 to 80 per by the mutual combination of which, with elimination cent. of ordinary beeswax, and is composed of a residue of of water, the corresponding bodies named in the first palmitic acid united with a residue of another solid column are produced. I think I may, venture to say alcohol, the melyssic, having the formula C30H620. that in every instance the bodies in the first column The three following bodies are selected as examples of have been proved to consist of the residues which they are the true fats. The first of them, namely, palmitine, is here represented to contain, although, as I have said, in

an important constituent of palm oil or butter, and also those bodies which are composed of more than two ultimate exists in human and other soft fats to a considerable extent. residues, the order in which the residues are successively Palmitine, stearine, and oleine are produced in accordance combined, or the relation in which any two of them stand with the same typical equation, 3A +B-3H,0 = X, as to the remainder, may be to some extent a matter of shown below :assumption. In these tables the word “ acid ” is omitted

Fatty acid. Glycerine. for the sake of space :

3C15H300, + CH 03 – 31,0 palmitine. Isethionic. Alcohol. Sulphurous.

3CH3402 + CH 03 - 3H20 stearine. Methylamine. Wood spirit.

Ammonia.

3C,;H320, + C,H,0, – 3H2O oleine. Urea, Carbonic.

Ammonia. You observe that stearic acid is a homologue of palmitic Glycocine. Glycolic.

Ammonia.

acid, to which it stands next but one on the series ; but Leucine. Leucic.

Ammonia.

oleic acid, which differs in composition from stearic acid by Spermaceti. Palmitic.

Cetal.

a deficiency of two hydrogen atoms, belongs to another Myricine. Palmitic.

Melyssal.

set of compounds altogether, namely, the secondary series Palmitine. Palmitic.

Glycerine. of fatty acids. The first known member of this series is Stearine. Stearic.

Glycerine. the acrolic acid, which is a member of the propionic group, Oleine. Oleic.

Glycerine. and which, as you may perceive by referring to the previous The first of these bodies, namely, isethionic acid, is a table of propionic compounds, bears to propionic acid the constituent of taurine, and is formed by the union of same relation that oleic acid bears to stearic acid. alcohol and sulphurous acid with elimination of water,

All the bodies in the table we have just considered conor, in other words, it contains a residue of each of these tain the residues of what may be regarded as primary moletwo bodies. Next on the list is methylamine, a frequent cules ; but one or other of the residues contained in the product of the putrefactive decomposition of animal several compounds included in the next table is itself a matter. It contains a residue of wood spirit and a residue complex body built up by the union of two or more of ammonia.

simple molecules. Then we come to urea, which contains a residue of Taurine.

Isethionic.

Ammonia. carbonic acid and a residue of ammonia. In my first Sarcosine.

Methylamine. Glycolic. lecture I spoke of urea as being the ammoniated form of Allophan.

Urea.

Carbonic, carbonic acid--as bearing to carbonic acid the same relation Paraban.

Urea.

Oxalic. that ammonia bears to water-whereas I now represent it Alloxan.

Urea.

Mesoxalic. as a compound of carbonic acid and ammonia with elimina- Hippuric. Glycocine. Benzoic. tion of water ; but a little consideration will show that Bile acid a. Glycocine, Cholic. the two modes of regarding this and similar bodies are Bile acid B. Taurine.

Cholic.

68

CHEMICAL NEWS,

College of PhysiciansRoyal Institution of Great Britain.

Urea.

Alloxan.

Thus, taurine, of which I am able, through the kindness POYAL INSTITUTION OF GREAT BRITAIN. of Mr. Lloyd Bullock, to exhibit a very beautiful specimen,

Friday, June 9. contains a residue of ammonia united with a residue of

" On Researches in Organic Chemistry in the Royal Instituisethionic acid, which already contains a residue of alcohol tion." By EDWARD FRANKLAND, Esq., F.R.S., Professor of and a residue of sulphurous acid. Sarcosine, which is a Chemistry, R.I. constituent of kreatine, contains a residue of glycolic acid

The vast crowd of organic compounds with which modern and a residue of methylamine, which itself contains a research has made us acquainted have been grouped into residue of wood spirit and a residue of ammonia. Allo

a comparatively small number of families, each containing phan is a purely artificial product, closely related to para substances closely allied in chemical character. Thus, ban and alloxan, which are products of the oxidation of amongst others, the following families or series of organic uric acid. These three bodies contain respectively a bodies are well known and sharply defined :residue of carbonic acid CH,O3, of oxalic acid C,H,04, 1. The Marsh-gas Family. and of mesoxalic acid C2H,05, combined with a residue of

2. The Alcohols. urea, which itself contains a residue of carbonic acid and

3. The Organic Ammonias. a residue of ammonia. The constitution of all three bodies

4. The Fatty, or Acetic Series of Acids. is expressed by the same typical equation A+B-2H,0=X,

5. The Organic Oxalic Acids, or Lactic Series. as exemplified below in the case of alloxan.

6. The Acrylic Series of Acids. Mesoxalic.

The speaker referred especially to the last three families C,H,O + CHÀN,0 – 2H,O = C,H,,0,. as having been the subjects of the researches carried on in

the laboratory of the Royal Institution during the past We next come to hippuric acid, which, as

we have

year by his friend Mr. Duppa and himself. Two of these already seen, contains a residue of benzoic acid and a

families had already received the careful study of many residue of glycocine, which itself contains residues of chemists; the

acetic having been especially illustrated by glycolic acid and ammonia. This is succeeded by the the classic researches of Kolbe and Gerhardt, whilst the two principal acids of the bile, the first of which, or glyco-lactic family had quite recently had the advantage of the cholic acid, contains a residue of cholic acid, and a residue equally remarkable investigations of Wurtz and Kolbe. of glycocine, and consequently differs from hippuric acid Nevertheless, there seemed to be still some points of great in containing a residue of cholic acid C244005, instead interest regarding the arrangement of the atoms of these of a residue of benzoic acid C,H.02. The other bile acid known as tauro-cholic acid contains a residue of not yet received elucidation ; whilst the acrylic family had

acids,-their atomic architecture, so to speak,—which had cholic acid and a residue of taurine, which already contains residues of ammonia and isethionic acid, the latter hitherto enjoyed comparatively but little attention from

chemists. body further containing a residue of alcohol and a residue

It had been proved by Kolbe and the speaker, nearly of sulphurous acid, thus:

twenty years ago, that methyl (CH3) is a constituent of Cholic acid

acetic acid, and more recently that acetic acid and acetic Tauro-cholic Ammonia

ether are constructed upon the carbonic acid or tetratomic Taurine

Alcohol. carbon type, the formula of acetic ether being-
Isethionic

H
Sulphurous.

C H

H The last compound which I propose to bring under

с

0 your notice to-day is kreatine, a beautiful crystalline body, as you may perceive, from the unusually fine speci

O (C,H,) men lent me by Dr. Hugo Müller. This body, which From this formula it was seen that the radical methyl exists largely in the uice of flesh, and also, though to in acetic ether contained three single atoms of hydrogen much less amount, in human urine, is represented by the combined with a tetratomic atom of carbon; and the formula C,H,1,0,. Under the influence of caustic baryta speaker and his friend proposed to themselves the question: it absorbs water with transformation into sarcosine and Can this hydrogen be replaced atom for atom by the alcohol urea, the residues of which pre-exist in the kreatine, radicals methyl, ethyl, &c. ? In endeavouring to solve this thus,

problem, they availed themselves of that class of chemical Sarcocine. Urea.

Kreatin.

reactions in which an electro-positive atom is expelled C,HNO, + CH 1,0 – 1,0 = C,H,N,02. from a compound by a more electro-positive atom. Acetic As we have already observed, the urea contains residues ether was submitted to the action of sodium, by which of carbonic acid and ammonia, and the sarcosine residues two compounds of the following composition were obtained :

Na

Na of glycolic acid and methylamine, which last body further

H contains a residue of ammonia and a residue of wood spirit,

H
and

H as shown in this diagram

с

0
Carbonic
Urea {

OC,H,

These compounds, when brought into contact with the Kreatine

iodides of methyl, ethyl, &c., yielded ethers, exhibiting Sarcosine

.

the substitution which it was sought to obtain. In this way
there had been produced the following ethers :-
C,H,

C,H,
Concluding with these extremely complex animal pro- с "н

с C,H, с H н ducts, I trust I have satisfied you of the main position with

H
с
H
H Η

H which we started, that highly complex molecules are built C

0
O
0

O up of the residues of less complex molecules, which less

OC,H, OC,H,

, complex molecules are capable for the most part of being Ethacetic or butyric Dimethacetic

H,
OC,H, OCH

Diethacetic Enanthylic referred to definite positions in certain natural series or groups of associated bodies,-in such series as those of the These ethers readily yielded their respective acids by aromatic and fatty acids, aldehydes, alcohols, &c., and in contact with alcoholic solution of potash, and thus the such groups as the benzoic, acetic, propionic, and butyric, homologous series of fatty acids could be ascended step by for instance.

step, starting from acetic acid, and terminating with an

с

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Na

18c,н,

Methylamine { Ammonia

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CERAMICALNew } Royal Institution of Great Britain_Academy of Sciences. 69 acid of the composition of margaric acid, containing three which at the present moment appear so unapproachable. atoms of amyl in the place of the three atoms of hydrogen The work before us requires a vast amount of experiment in the methyl of acetic ether.

and thought. Would that more labourers were engaged C.Hu

in it! How many men of leisure and ability are almost compelled to pass through life with no higher object than

their own amusement: Why cannot our schools and C 0

universities furnish the next generation of such men with OH

the scientific knowledge necessary to enable them to take A similar inquiry had been instituted with regard to the part in the glorious work of investigating Nature ? family of acids of which lactic acid is a member, and it had been proved that this series of acids are derived from

ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. oxalic acid by the substitution of one atom of diatomic oxygen, in the latter by two of hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, &c. The following, amongst numerous other examples, M. E. FRÉMY made'a second communication, entitled were referred to in illustration of the relations of the pri

Chemical Researches on the Green Matter in Leaves." mary to the derived acids ;

By a reference to our pages we find that it is five years (Η

since M. Frémy made his former communication (see (CH, (CH, OH CH, C,H,

CHEMICAL News, vol. I., p. 228), in which he announced Cg

OH
OH
OH

his discovery that the green matter of leaves was composed
10
C,
C.

of a blue and a yellow matter, to which he gave the names 0 O 0

phyllocyanine and phylloxanthine. He then separated these OH OH он

OH Oxalic acid.

two bodies by shaking chlorophyll, extracted from leaves Lactic acid.

by alcohol, with a mixture of dilute hydrochloric acid and Dimethoxalic Ethylomethoxalic acid.

ether. Under the influence of the acid, the chlorophyll From the lactic family of acids access had also been split up, the yellow matter dissolved in the ether, and the gained to the acrylic family, for it had been found that the acid became of a blue colour. M. Frémy since this time abstraction of water from the ether of an acid of the lactic has occupied himself in discovering less energetic solvents, family converted it into the ether of an acid of the acrylic the plant, and were not produced by the chemical action

to satisfy himself that these two bodies really existed in family, thus :

of the hydrochloric acid on the chlorophyll. The author CH,

has now found that the earthy bases, especially alumina, CH,"

added to an alcoholic solution of chlorophyll, combine with OH -H,O=C3

the green matter, which is precipitated as a lake, leaving 0

the yellow matter in solution. With the alkaline earths, OC, O

and particularly baryta, the reaction is more distinct. (OC,H, Dimethoxalic ether. Methacrylic ether.

When an alcoholic solution of chlorophyll is boiled with

hydrate of baryta, it is split up, and the phylloxanthine, (C,H C,H,

which is a neutral body insoluble in water, is precipitated CH,

along with a baryta salt of phyllocyanic acid. Thus chloroOH -H,O=C,

phyll is seen to be a sort of coloured fat, which undergoes 0

saponification by the action of powerful bases, and in OC,H,

O
OC,H,

which the phylloxanthine appears to be the glycerine and Diethoxalic ether.

the bluish-green phyllocyanic acid the fatty acid. Alcohol Ethylcrotonic ether.

dissolves the former body from the mixed precipitate, and The production of these acids was not merely interesting the solution on evaporation yields crystals sometimes on account of the addition of new members to the acrylic yellow plates and sometimes reddish prisms, the colour of family, but their derivation from the synthesized acids of which reminds us of bichromate of potash. These crystals the lactic family afforded the most convincing proof of are insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and ether; the style of architecture in which they were built up. they possess considerable tinctorial power. The baryta

The investigation of the three families of acids had salt of phyllocyanic acid may be decomposed by sulphuric conclusively established between them the very simple acid, and a solution is obtained which, according to the relations exhibited in the three following formulæ :- strength, may be green, reddish, violet, or a beautiful blue. Lactic family. Acetic family Acrylic family.

M. Frémy does not think that the two bodies exist toge-
(H
(H
(H

ther in chlorophyll; he believes this body to be an imme-
H
H
CH,"

diate green principle of excessive changeability, which, OH

H
C
Cz

under the influence of reagents, and probably by the action
O
0

of vegetation, undergoes various modifications, and proон OH o

duces the bodies described above. We shall probably OH

return to this paper. Glycollic acid. Acetic acid. Acrylic acid.

M. Fouqué sent an analysis of the gases now escaping The speaker concluded as follows :-The day has almost from the fumaroles on Mount Etna. The following is the gone by when the experimenter was asked the use of such mean of some containing the maximum of carbonic acid :investigations as these ; nevertheless, it may fairly be

Sulphydric acid

0'45 demanded, Whither do such researches tend? What is

Carbonic acid

5'00 their object? The sole object that we have had in view in

Oxygen

17.27 these investigations has been the discovery of the laws

Nitrogen according to which organic compounds are moulded—those compounds, the transformation of which from one state of combination to another constitutes an essential part of the In some of the fumaroles the carbonic acid did not exceed phenomena we ca!l life. There is no royal road to this

i per cent. kind of knowledge. It is only by thus patiently and M. Hiortdahl presented a note “ On the Action of Zircon laboriously examining every part of the subject that the on Alkaline Carbonates and Chlorides." Silico-zirconates combined efforts of the physicist, the physiologist, and the are common in nature, and the author tried to produce chemist will one day be able to solve the organic problems them artificially; but he found that when silica, zirconia,

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Notices of BooksNotices of Patents.

{ CHEMICAL NEWS,

Aug. 11, 1865.

and an alkali are heated together only the zirconia enters not alkaline, for they combine with ether as chlorides do; into combination with the alkali. By employing zirconia they are not neutral, for acids give them stability. In all or a corresponding mixture of zirconia and silica, he has respects they deserve to be called peculiar, as M. Dumas thus been able to prepare crystallised zirconates. When called them by anticipation forty years ago. zircon is fused with an excess of carbonate of soda, and A short description of " A New Air-pump with a Free the fused mass is treated with dilute hydrochloric acid, a Piston,” by M. Deleuil

, would not be intelligible without crystalline powder deposits, the analysis of which shows the accompanying woodcuts. The instrument appears to it to be the compound NaO8Zr0, + 12H0. Zircon, or a offer many advantages. The piston being free from the mixture of zirconia and silica, fused with chloride of walls of the cylinder, there is no friction and no resistcalcium or magnesium, produces crystallised zirconates ance; and no oil being required, the machine is always in exempt from silica. This, and the paper by the same order. It is a cheap machine, also. author we noticed last, are important contributions to our The remainder of the journal is occupied with a part knowledge of the rare element zirconium, and we shall of a memoir, by MM. Berthelot and de Fleurieu, " On the reproduce them in longer abstract.

Estimation of Tartaric Acid, Potash, and Bitartrates of M. Naquet presented a note" On Thymotide,” the body Potash in Vinous Liquors.An abstract of this paper, produced by the action of perchloride of phosphorus on from the Comptes- Rendus, appeared in the CHEMICAL News thymotic acid, resulting in the removal from the latter for October 10, 1863 (vol. viii., p. 173), to which number body of the elements of water. It is also produced by the we must refer our readers. action of anhydrous phosphoric acid on thymotic acid. The author regards thymotic as the homologue of sali- Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie. July, 1865. cylide, and remarks that these two bodies are to thymotic This journal opens with a paper by Dr. A. Ladenberg, and salicylic acid what coumarine is to coumaric acid, and perhaps camphor to camphoric acid.

On a New Method of Organic Analysis.We shall give MM. Millon and Commaille made a communication original, and may be useful in some cases. Erlenmeyer,

an abstract of this paper very shortly, since the method is On the Affinity of Caseine for Bases." caseine and magnesia together with a little water, the gives a preliminary notice of “ Distyrol, a New Polymer of authors obtained a liquid which, filtered into alcohol, gave hydrobromic acids for several hours in a sealed tube: A

Styrol,formed by heating together cinnamic and aqueous a flocculent precipitate of a compound of one equivalent heavy oily body is produced, which forms with bromine a of caseine, two equivalents of magnesia, and four equiva: crystalline bromide, of the composition €6H16Brz ; hence lents of water. They further discovered that caseine will the author concludes that the oil itself is distyrol, €16H16 unite with two oxides at the same time, and they formed All the other papers of interest have been noticed. various cupro-magnesic, cupro-calcic, and cupro-barytic, sodic, and ammonaical compounds with caseine. Combinations of oxide of zinc, potash, and caseine, mercuric MM. BUSSY AND BUIgnet communicate a paper

Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie. July, 1865.

"" On the oxide, ammonia, and caseine, and lastly a silver compound. Action of Tartaric Acid on Neutral Sulphate of Potash.. This last compound possesses the most interest. formed when a perfectly neutral solution of nitrate of From their experiments it appears that when an equivalent silver is poured into an ammoniacal solution of caseine, of sulphate of potash and an equivalent of tartaric acid and is precipitated as a cheesy mass, which must be washed

are dissolved in water and the solution evaporated, the with water, alcohol, and ether. When dried in the dark alkali becomes equally divided between the two acids. it is white, but turns

yellow in diffuse light, and blackens None of the other papers call for notice. in the sun. It is insoluble in water, but very soluble in caustic ammonia. The authors say that this compound

NOTICES OF PATENTS. deserves the attention of photographers.

GRANTS OF PROVISIONAL PROTECTION FOR

SIX MONTHS.
NOTICES OF BOOKS.

Communicated by Mr. VAUGHAN, PATENT AGENT, 54, Chancery

Lane, W.C. Annalen de Chimie et de Physique, June, 1865. 653. P. Carlevaris, Genoa, “ Producing a light applicThe first article in this number is by M. A. Geradin- able to photographic purposes, to lighthouses, and to other " Researches on the Solubility of salts in Mixtures of illuminations.”—Petition recorded June 20, 1865. Alcohol and Water.It opens with an introduction giving 1790. A. V. Newton, Chancery Lane, " Certain ima review of the various theories advanced on the subject provements in the manufacture of superphosphate of lime of solution from Newton and Gassendi to Mulder and from guano.” A communication from G. A. Liebig, BaltiGraham. It may be useful to young readers to reproduce more, Ma., U.S.A.-July 6, 1865; this introduction, which, however, we must defer for the 1857. R. V. Tuson, St. Paul's Road, Camden Town, present. With regard to the solubility of salts in mixtures “Improvements in the preparation and preservation of of alcohol and water, the author has arrived at the follow- foods for animals.”'--July 15, 1865. ing conclusions :--1. All salts insoluble in alcohol and

NOTICES TO Proceed. soluble in water have, in mixtures of alcohol and water 765. J. C. Stevenson, South Shields, " Improvements at a constant temperature, a solubility decreasing as the in the preparation of hyposulphite of lime.”—Petition proportion of water in the mixture is diminished. 2. The recorded March 18, 1865. solubility of these salts is not proportional to the amount 777. R. T. Crawshay and J. A. Lewis, Cyfarthfa Iron of water contained in the mixture. The quantity dissolved Works, Glamorganshire, “Improvements in the manu. is always less than would dissolve in the same amount of facture of puddled iron bars and every description of water by itself.

malleable iron."- March 20, 1865. The next paper, by M. Nicklés, “ On the Existence of 864. F. Le Roy, Saint Saulve, France, “ Certain imPerchloride of Manganese," we have noticed already in provements in non-conducting composition for preventing our reports of the Academy of Sciences (C. N., vol. xi., the radiation or transmission of heat or cold."--March p, 129). Some further details are given here respecting 27, 1865; the formation of perbromides and periodides of manganese, 891. J. Player, Norton, Stockton-upon-Tees, “Imof the existence of which the author leaves no doubt. provements in ruinaces or apparatus for heating the blast These compounds are very peculiar (singulier). They are for furnaces used in smelting iron, and for other furnaces." not acids, for contact with bases destroys them; they are l-March 29, 1865.

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CHEMICAL NEWS,
Aug. 11, 1865.

}

Correspondence-Miscellaneous.

71

899. W. Brookes, Chancery Lane, " A new or improved

I may mention here that the Abbé Moigno has commode of rapidly reducing, cementing, and 'melting iron menced to publish the monthly review of scientific progress and other ores, also iron slag or cinders, drops, and scales which he delivers at the rooms of the Société d'Encourageor crust, to produce directly therefrom steel, or malleable, ment. Any one who does not read Les Mondes (and, I or cast iron." A communication from J. B. Helson, may add, the CHEMICAL News) would do well to subscribe Hautmont, France.

for the work, which is published exceedingly cheap, and 900. A. A. Croll, Coleman Street, “Improvements in will be issued immediately after each conference. The the manufacture of sulphate of alumina.”—March 30, 1865. reader will gain a good idea of what is done in France

980. G. Davies, Serle Street, Lincoln's Inn, “ Improve- month by month in the practical applications of science in ments in the means of, and apparatus for, increasing the the industrial arts, although, if continued as this first illuminating power of hydrocarbon oils and gases." -A number, they will gain no notion of the charming vivacity communication from T. s. Speakman, Camden, New of the learned and spirituel abbé. Jersey, U.S.A.-April 6, 1865.

I do not remember to have mentioned that M. Wurtz 1008. G. Davies, Serle Street, Lincoln's Inn, “An has been selected by the Academy for the biennial prize improved composition for preventing the fouling of ships of the Institute. A botanist, an engineer, and a chemist and other vessels."-A communication from W. B. Davis, were presented by the several sections, but the ballot was Brooklyn, Kingscounty, N. Y., U.S.A.--April 8, 1865. eventually in favour of M. Wurtz, who gained 28 votes,

1076. J. Dougan, Coed Talon, near Mold, North Wales, the botanist, M. Thüret, gaining 22. M. Dupuy de Lôme, " Improvements in apparatus for distilling hydrocarbons the engineer, was nowhere. No one, I imagine, will con. from coal schists and other minerals." - April 17, 1865.

test M. Wurtz's claims to the honour and the money, but 1159. J. C. Wickham, Elizabeth Cottage, Bow, and A. he has already been fortunate enough to obtain the Jecker E. Deiss, Bow Bridge, * Improvements in the manufac- prize twice, once in 1860, and again this year, as you ture of waterproof fabrics, and in apparatus to be made known in the CHEMICAL News. employed therein.”-April 25, 1865.

I ought also to have mentioned the sudden decease of 1679. J. Gale, Devonshire Terrace, Plymouth, “Im- M. 0. Reveil, one of our most industrious writers on provements in preparing and treating gunpowder.' pharmacy and toxicology, whose Annuaire Pharmaceutique June 22, 1865.

for last year has just appeared. Without being brilliant, 1690. M. A. Muir and J. McIlwham, Glasgow, N.B., he was a painstaking, careful experimenter, and a lucid “Improved sanitary apparatus or arrangements for pre-writer, who has done good service, and is much regretted venting noxious exhalations, such as arise when coating by his friends and colleagues at the School of Pharmacy, or treating iron or other articles."'--June 24, 1865.

I told you last year that a Berlin doctor attributed the 1885. G. Nimmo, Jersey, New Jersey, U.S.A., “An presence of cholera in Europe to the misgovernment of improvement in the mode of uniting different metals, such India by the English. The Berlin doctor, perhaps, is as iron and copper, or alloys, to form compound and not alone in the opinion, for M. Bonnafont, a doctor at metallic castings.”—July 19, 1865.

Arras, has just published a pamphlet in which he suggests

some rather extensive drainage works to the Indian CORRESPONDENCE.

Government. His pamphlet is entitled,—"A Memoir on the Necessity for Rendering Healthy Marshy Countries

in general, but especially those watered by the Delta of Continental Science.

the Ganges, as the only Effectual Means of Preventing PARIS, August 7.

Invasions of Cholera.” Sir Charles Wood, perhaps, will Our new “Codex,” which has not been quite so long in have time to read M. Bonnafont's pamphlet before Parliapreparation as the British Pharmacopæia was, is now

ment meets. completed, and will soon be published. It has been compiled by a special commission, appointed in June, 1861,

MISCELLANEOUS. and composed of professors in schools of medicine and pharmacy, which included most of our authorities on materia medica and pharmacy. The book has, therefore,

Daty on Patent Medicines. It is shown by been only four years in preparation. The last Codex was

an official document that in the year ending March 31 published in 1837, and it certainly needed revision. The

last the duty on patent medicines produced as much as editors are under no fear of meeting with such criti- 55,3331. os. 434. cism as befel the unlucky compilers of the British Pharma- Suspected Poisoning. — A young woman who copæia. The Codex is published by authority, and must seems to have been under medical treatment for some not be brought into contempt. Let it be noted also that time was admitted to St. George's Hospital on the 19th the authority put up the printing and publishing to com- July with all the symptoms of arsenical or antimonial petition, and accepted the lowest tender, that of MM. poisoning, and she died the next day. Dr. Barclay made Baillière and Sons.

a post-mortem examination of the body, and found no I see in Les Mondes a notice of the completion of another natural cause for the symptoms under which the deceased long-expected book by Professor Goeppert, “ On the had laboured; the stomach was in a state of extraordiOrganic Nature of the Diamond.The learned Professor nary congestion, and he was led to the conclusion that contends that diamonds cannot have been produced by the girl had died from poison-either antimony or arsenic. Plutonic action, since they become black when exposed to The Secretary of State was communicated with, and he a very high temperature. He considers their Neptunian ordered that the services of Dr. Swayne Taylor should origin proved by the fact they have often on the surface be called in for a scientific analysis to be made of the impressions of grains of sand, and sometimes of crystals, viscera of the deceased. At the inquest Dr. Alfred s. showing that they have once been soft. Moreover, they Taylor, Professor of Medical Jurisprudence at Guy's are sometimes found to enclose other crystals, germs of Hospital, said he received a jar containing the stomach, fungi, and even vegetable structure of a higher origin. &c., of the deceased on last Friday. The stomach had These facts would lead to the belief that diamonds are been opened. He examined the parts soon after. The really the final product of the decomposition of vegetable stomach and intestines were very much putrefied, and he substances. If so, some people may regret that you are could not form any opinion of their state at the time of using up your coal-fields so fast

, since, if sufficient time death. He analysed them to ascertain if there was any were allowed, the black diamonds might change to white arsenic or antimony present in them. The result showed and real jewels.

that there was no trace of either. He therefore con

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