« PoprzedniaDalej »
Dec. 15, 1865.
as in the previous form of the apparatus. On bring- barometer, the case of which is made perfectly air-tight, ing the porous cell into a gas containing carburetted but the interior of which may be placed in communicahydrogen, some of the gas diffuses into the cell, causing tion with the external air by opening a small screw a rise of the mercury in the glass tube and a correspond fastened on the handle. The brass back of the barometer ing movement of the index.
is replaced by a thio plate of porous earthenware, All these modifications of the apparatus must be and may be covered with a brass cap or back placed on a watched in order to obtain any information from them; hinge like that of a watcb. Under ordinary circumbut Mr. Ansell has constructed an alarum, which rings stances the screw remains open, bụt when it is required a bell if any quantity of gas SLOWLY ACCUMULATES to test the gas in a mine, the screw is closed and the round the indicator. The instrument Fig. 5 consists of cap removed from the porous plate. Immediately diffu
sion takes place, and the pressure increasing, causes a corresponding movement of the hand of the barometer. In about forty-five seconds the maximum effect is produced, when the position of the hand indicates by means of a vernier the percentage of mine gas present. If the apparatus be left for a sufficient time, the internal pressure forces the excess of gas through the porous plate, and the needle returns to the zero point. On subsequently allowing diffusion to take place into pure air, the index retrogrades to the same extent (if the mixture does not contain more than 10 per cent. of mine gas or "firedamp") to which it had previously advanced. This apparatus, which is not larger than an old-fashioned watch, will undoubtedly prove of great service to the mine overseer, as it can at any time be carried into the gallery of a mine. The percentage of gas is determined in less than a minute.
As is to be expected, the motion of the train of trucks running into, or out from the pit, causes a variation of the pressure, therefore it is necessary to avoid such intervals in making observations by the instrument last described. It is well to mention that temperature need not be taken into account, for it is found that the temperature of the same part of a mine does not vary from year's end to year's end. The instiments denoted by figures 2, 4, and 5 are connected wita telegraph arrangements, and tbese as well as the aneroid barometer have given full satisfaction to practical miners in several mines where they have been tried.
PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES.
Thursday, December 7.
were enumerated and acknowledged. These included the one of the thin india-rubber balloons (a) so well known at Annual Report for 1864 of the Danish Academy of the present time. One of these is placed on a piece of Sciences, the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinbrass, which can be raised and lowered by a screw. The burgh, the Proceedings of the British Pharmaceutical upper end of the balloon presses against a lever (6), Conference (Birmingham, 1865), and copies of Dr. A. W. which, when raised, liberates a train of clock-work at (), Hofmann's " Introduction to Modern Chemistry," besides and rings a bell (e). To increase the movement of several other works and periodicals of scientific interest. the lever a band of linen is bound around the equator The candidates proposed for admission into the Society of the balloon in order to prevent lateral expansion and were, for the first time, Mr. Thomas B. Redwood, 19, to concentrate all increase of volume in a polar direction. Montague Street, Russell Square ; Mr. John Conroy, If this apparatus be placed in the gallery of a mine, the Christ Church, Oxford ; Mr. Robert Henry Smith, Rodney presence of or an increase in the quantity of mine gas Barclay and Speir, chemical manufacturers, Newcastle
Street, Pentonville ; and Mr. James Speir, of Messre. will cause the expansion of the balloon, and consequent upon-Tyne. For the second time were read the names of ringing of the alarum. The balloon remains in its ex. John Percy, M.D., F.R.S., lecturer on metallurgy in the panded state until the composition of the atmosphere is Royal School of Mines ; Mr. Ernest T. Chapman, George altered.
Street, Portman Square; Mr. Charles N. Ellis, Bow Mr. Ansell has devised an instrument which for ele- Common; and Mr. Thomas Ward, Bolton. The names gance and utility far surpasses all the others, as it admits of the following gentlemen were read for the third time, of the determination of the quantity of mine gas present and they were duly elected by ballot, -viz., John Hunter, in a mixture. The apparatus consists of a small aneroid M.A., Queen's College, Belfast ; Mr. Theodore Maxwell;
Dec. 16, 1865.
Mr. W. J. Barnes, Buckhurst Hill, Essex ; Mr. W. E. diamates of silver, barium, calcium, zinc, copper, nickel, Bickerdike, Dalton Square, Lancaster; Mr. Richard Fitz etc., have been examined by the author; they are for the Hugh, Nottingham; Mr. Alfred Gardiner Brown, M.R.C.S., most part flocculent precipitates readily soluble in acids, Trinity Square, Southwark; and Dr. William B. Ritchie, ammonia, and even in the aqueous solutions of ammoniacal Belfast.
salts. The mercuric chloride gave no precipitate, neither A communication entitled “ Notes on Pyrophosphodiamic did solutions of aluminium, chromium, and magnesium. Acid" was presented by Dr. J. H. GLADSTONE, F.R.S. The pyrophosphotriamic acid, of which the formula is The author stated that it had been his original intention given above, P,N,H,02, was stated to be insoluble in to address the Society upon the subject of a newer product water, but readűy soluble in warm acids. with the investigation of which he had been lately en- The CHAIRMAX, after moving a vote of thanks, ingaged. but inasmuch as the analyses of pyrophosphotria- quired of Dr. Gladstone the grounds upon which he mic acid and certair, of its compounds were not yet com- used the prefix "pyro" in connexion with the diamic and pleted, the speaker preferred for the present to limit triamic acids, since these bodies were not produced by fire? himself to an account of some new modes of preparation, Dr. Gladstone replied that the bodies in question were and a further description of the properties of pyrophos- framed upon the type of pyrophosphoric acid. phodiamic acid. This substance, originally called deuta- Dr. FRANKLAND would rather have confined the use of zophosphoric acid by Dr. Gladstone, was more accu- the term “pyro" to tetra-basic acids. rately described in a paper by the late Mr. Holmes Dr. ODLING entertained a different opinion, and preand himself, which was read before the Society about ferred to have regard to type rather than to basicity, thus : eighteen months ago. Its formula is, — PN, H 95, in which two atoms of the hydrogen are replaceable by
P,H,O, metals. Three methods of preparing it have been pre- Pyrophosphodiamic acid (P203) (HO)(NH) viously described-18t, by decomposing chlorophosphide of nitrogen by an alkali; and, by saturating phosphoric The mono-acids would be respectively, anhydride with dry ammoniacal gas ; and 3rd, by saturat
(PO)(HO). and (PO)(HO),(NH2). ing oxychloride of phosphorus with the same at a low Or, starting from the oxychloride of phosphorus, we temperature, and dissolving in water. The two stages of should look for the following amides :the reaction were explained thus : PC1,0 + 2NH2=PNH,C1,0+NH,Cl.
Pocl(NH) 2(PNH,C1,0)+31,0 = PN,H05+4HCI.
Pocl(NH)2 The two last methods may be modified by using the very
PO(NH2). strongest solution of ammonia instead of the gas. There are also other methods of producing this acid-4th, by
Dr. GLADSTONE said he could not give a reason for the throwing pieces of pentachloride of phosphorus into the change from one type into another; he had never been liq. ammon, fort. when some pyrophosphotriamate of able to prepare the body last named in the series, the
triamide. ammonium is at the same time formed; but the main result
Dr. HUGO MÜLLER said he could avail himself of the accords with the following equation :2PCi5 + 12NH+54,0 =P,N,H.05 +10NH,CI.
opportunity of making a few remarks on the subject of
“ Phenylo- Phosphoric Acid." Some years back, when sth, by exposing oxychloride of phosphorus to ammonia engaged with some experiments on phenyl-compounds, he gas at 100° C., when four equivalents of the latter are examined the deportment of phenylie alcohol with phosabsorbed (instead of two, as described under the third phoric anhydride and chloride of zinc, with the view of method), and submitting the product to the subsequent obtaining by means of these agents the hydrocarbon action of water
phenylene. He found, however, that phenylic alcohol PC1,0 +4NH, =PN,H_CIO + 2NH CI,
was not acted upon as expected ; and whilst chloride of 2(PN,,CIO)+31,0 =PN, 4.0,+2NH,CI. zinc showed no action whatever, the influence of the phos6th, by performing a similar experiment at a much higher phoric anhydride was confined to the formation of phenylotemperature, the same amount of ammonia yields different phosphoric acid. On mixing crystallised phenylic alcohol products, among them one which is insoluble in water, but with phosphoric acid, a pasty mass is formed with elevawhen heated with sulphuric acid dissolves with the formation of temperature, which, after the application of a tion of pyrophosphodiamic acid ; 7th, the same compound further heat, becomes gradually homogeneous. On raising is formed when pyrophosphotriamic acid is heated in a the temperature, some of the phenylic alcohol distils over similar manner with sulphuric acid
unaltered, and the residue, on being dissolved in water
and treated with carbonate of barium, yields phosphate of PAN,1,0 + 1,50, +H,0 = P,N,1.0s + NH,,HSO,
barium and a solution of phenylophosphate of barium. Or, 8th, when the same acid is heated alone until it begins The metal having been separated by sulphuric acid, the to suffer decomposition ; 9th, Gerhardt's phosphamide, aqueous solution, on being carefully evaporated, yields the when heated with sulphuric acid, also yields pyrophos- phenylophosphoric acid in the form of a heavy oily liquid, phodiamic acid, thus
which separates from the concentrated solution. The 2(PN, H,0) + H,80, +3H,0 =P,N,2.0, +(NH),80,
phenylophosphoric acid forms well-crystallised salts,
which show a considerable degree of stability. The The fourth method of preparation was exhibited by Dr. potassium and ammonium compounds are very soluble in Gladstone, and the characteristic reaction by which the water, and exist in the form of fibrous crystals. The pyrophosphodiamic acid could be identified was shown magnesium salt is readily soluble and indistinctly crystalexperimentally. [The pentachloride of phosphorus acted line. The barium salt is less soluble than the former, and rather violently upon the aqueous ammonia; the solution separates from its concentrated solutions in the shape of was filtered, and then strongly acidified with sulphuric beautiful long silky crystals resembling caffein. On mixing acid (one of oil of vitriol to two parts of water); a few
a solution of phenylophosphate of barium with acetate of drops of ferric chloride were added, and the solution lead, a white precipitate is obtained, which, after a short heated, when a white flocculent precipitate appeared. || time, becomes converted into a mass of silky crystals, or This ferric compound could be easily distinguished from in more dilute solutions the lead salt separates giadually, the ordinary phosphate of iron, which it much resembled or upon evaporation takes the form of beautiful crystallisain physical aspect, by its solubility in ammonia and pro- tions, which are very similar to the barium compound. duction in strongly acid solutions. The pyrophospho- | Nitrate of silver gives with the free acid, as well as
Dec. 15, 1865. with the solution of the barium salt, a flocculent white Several theories have been promulgated by chemists precipitate, which soon becomes changed in colour to and physiologists as to how the oxygen acts to convert yellow and brown. Solutions of copper, nickel, cobalt, renous into arterial blood. Liebig assumed that the and zinc do not give precipitates in the cold, but when blood dissolved oxygen as water dissolves that gas and heated produce focculent precipitates, which re-dissolve others; and he explains the greater solubility of oxygen 'on cooling. All the salts of phenylo-phosphoric acid in the blood than in water, by asserting, and that on ex. exhibit the highest degree of solubility at a temperature perin.ent, that phosphate of soda, which exists in blood, between 40% and 60° C., and show in this respect a great facilitates the solution of oxygen in that fluid. Dumas resemblance to the salts of the corresponding ethylo- states that it is the iron which exists as one of the elephosphoric acid. (Specimens of the lead and barium salts ments of the colouring matter of blood, called, as above were exhibited by Dr. Müller.] The author further stated stated, hematosine, which fixes the oxygen in the arterial that the barium salt appeared to be the only one which blood, and yields it again to various organic matters, was anhydrous, and its organic analysis by combustion either those originating from glycogen or those resulting presented some difficulties ; on this account the constitu- from the wear and tear of life, and which may be con. tion of the acid had not yet been accurately determined. sidered as refuse matters which require to be removed The body was altogether different from the phenylic phos- from the system. The iron thus becomes deprived of its phate of Professor Williamson.
oxygen, and is ready to reabsorb a fresh quantity when it Professor A. H. CHURCH made a statement respecting comes again in contact with the oxygen of the atmosphere the properties of ethylo-phosphoric acid, and referred par- in the lungs. ticularly to the fact of its salts being less soluble in boiling These theories do not appear, 80 far as I am aware, to water than at a lower temperature.
have received the general sanction of physiologists ; and I A vote of thanks to Dr. Müller was proposed, and the therefore deem it to be my duty to call your attention to CHAIRMAN, previous to the adjournment of the meeting, took some interesting optical researches, due to that eminent occasion to announce that the committee appointed by the savant, Profeskor Stokes, of Cambridge. That gentleman British Association for the special consideration of weights has observed that when a small quantity of blood is mixed and measures had invited the co-operation of the Chemical with water, and the whole poured into a small tube, and Society in suggesting a suitable metal or material from this, in its turn, placed in such a position as to allow a ray which to manufacture the standards of the new metrical of light to pass through the blood solution, and that then system, the use of which had already been legalised in the ray of light is made to pass through a prism, he finds England. The committee would probably attend the next that the spectrum so produced has undergone certain meeting of the Society, on the 21st December, and the modifications, which consists in the fact that certain tints Fellows were therefore requested to give the subject their or colours of the spectrum have disappeared ; and he, best attention in the interim.
moreover, observes that these “bands of absorption," as he calls them, are characteristic, for they differ according
as the blood placed with the water in the tube is arterial SOCIETY OF ARTS.
or venous, and so delicate is this mode of investigation
that he can discern the slightest modifications which “On some of the most important Chemical Discoveries made blood undergoes. In fact, I may state en passant that he within the last Troo Years."
has applied this mode of investigation to distinguish
vegetable and animal matters, which, though having a By Dr. F. CRACE CALVERT, F.R.S., F.C.S.
great similitude, become distinguishable by the simple
mode of applying optics to their investigation. LECTURE 3.
Coming back to blood, I may state that the researches Tuesday, April 18, 1865.
of Professor Stokes on the action of oxidising agents on (Continued from page 274)
blood, have thrown much light on the phenomena conAlthough it is impossible in a lecture like this to attempt nected with the conversion of venous into arterial blood. to give a correct idea of all the phenomena connected He has remarked that if arterial blood is shaken with an with respiration, and all the data which bear upon that alkaline solution of sulphate of protoxide of iron, or protoimportant function of life, I may be permitted to give a chloride of tin, it assumes the dark colour of venous blood, few data, which will enable you, I hope, to have a general and that if he then agitates the same dark purple blood idea of the present theory of respiration. Man inspires with air, it absorbs the oxygen, becomes oxidised, and, about thirty times a minute, and at each inspiration there therefore, is converted into red arterial blood. rushes into his lungs about a pint and a-half of air, The facts, joined to many more which can be found in which penetrates into the myriads of cells composing the the Proceedings of the Royal Society for 1864, have led lungs, and comes in contact there with the blood, as Professor Stokes to the conclusion that the colouring above stated, which it converts from venous into arterial. matter of blood is the real carrier of oxygen; that it At the same time a certain quantity of air, or oxygen, is absorbs oxygen and becomes scarlet ; and that it yields its dissolved, which not only affects the above conversion, oxygen to organic substances during its circulation through but displaces from the venous blood a certain quantity of the system, and becomes purple or venous blood. He carbonic acid which it contains. Thus it is found by expe- has given to the colouring matter of blood the name of rience that one hundred parts of air that man inspires, cruorine, and calls it purple or scarlet cruorine either as it contains, in round numbers, twenty-one parts of oxygen; exists in the veins or arteries. whilst the gases he expires are represented by sixteen
I think it is useless to repeat here many facts connected parts of oxygen, four parts of carbonic acid,' and one with this subject, and which I brought to your notice in part of oxygen which has been transformed into water, my last year's lectures. thus making up again the twenty-one parts of gaseous Urine.-Having also dwelt in my last course at some matter in the 100 which he inspired. But the production length on the principal elements contained in this imof this carbonic acid is chiefly caused by the action of the portant secretion, I deem it my duty merely to call your oxygen dissolved in the arterial blood during ils passage attention to one or two facts of some immediate importance and contact with the animal tissues and the glycogen which have been published since then. One of these is existing in the capillary vessels ; for it is there that we due to Dr. Marcet, who has found in that secretion a subobserve the change of blood from arterial to renous, the stance which, until his investigations, had been unnoticed conversion from venous into arterial being, as above stated, by chemists. I mean an amorphous or non-crystallisable in the lungs.
acid, which he calls colloidic acid, from the circumstance
Dec. 15, 1868.
Society of Arts.
that it cannot pass or diffuse itself through animal mem- of the curare, or the poisonous mixture used by the Indians branes. I may here mention that substances in general, at Madagascar, and on the banks of the river Oronoco. according to the theory of Mr. Thomas Graham, the These researches will be found in several articles published Master of the Mint, may be divided into two classes, by him in the Revue des Deux Mondes, 1864; and, to excite namely-those which crystallise, and which he calls crys- your interest in reading the articles, I may state on his talloids, and those which do not diffuse, and which he calls authority that the death which ensues by the injection into colloide, from the French word solle, or glue. M. E. Morin the blood ot a trace of this poison may be considered as has also published some elaborate researches on the rela. the most curious and distressing that can be conceived, tive proportions of oxygen and carbonic acid in urine, and and he further states that the physiological phenomena the following table will show you the influence which ex. which are witnessed during the process of death may lead ercise has upon the combustion of organic matter through to the most beneficial application of the substance as a the oxygen conveyed in the blood by the cruorine of Pro- therapeutic agent. fessor Stokes, converting the organic matter into carbonic Although time is pressing, I cannot part from you this acid, for this gas is found, as you will see, more abun- evening without calling your attention to the fact that dantly in the urine of man when in a state of activity than every day we are realising the cherished ideas of the when in a state of repose :
alchemiet, and of the medical men of the fifteenth and GASES IN THE SECRETION OF THE KIDNEYS.
sixteenth centuries, who laboured, the one to extract from
substances what they called the quintessence of them, and Quantities of Gases in Composition of tho 100 parts of Urino.
Activity. Ropoue. the other to apply what they supposed then to be such From 2.62
quintessences. From the imperfect state of science, Carbonic acid 73:56
chemistry included, at that time, they were unable to carry to Oxygen
1.65 1.89 Nitrogen
out what they conceived to be essential to arrive at a better 24'79 35'18
and more enlightened treatment of disease. They perfectly felt that the extracts or infusions of the plants they
had at their command had not a defined action in their I wish now to invite your consideration for a few treatment. All men of science know with what enthuminutes to some interesting facts which have lately been siastic perseverance Paracelsus advocated the employment published by Dr. H. Bence Jones, on the extraordinarily of quintessences ; and, although in his enthusiastic mind rapid absorption of certain substances into the animal he went so far as to pretend that he carried in the head of system. He has observed that substances, such as lithium his cane the elixir of life, there is no doubt that he and and rubidium, will be found to have passed into the whole his disciples left a germ, which has gradually grown to of the human system three or four hours after they have be a plant, and that the chemistry of the present day is been administered, either as medicines or as a matter of gradually succeeding in extracting from plants their active experiment. In fact, he has found that the absorption is principles. Although medical men were convinced of the so complete that he has been able to detect their presence utility of employing the active principles existing in plants, in the non-vascular textures of the body; and what as quinine, cinchonine (from cinchona bark), morphine enhances the interest of his researches is, that he employed, (from opium), &c., still we had not a correct idea of the as a means of analysis, for the detection of these substances, various actions which these diverse alkaloids exerted on the property which they have of communicating colour to the system. We are, therefore, much indebted to M. flame, and therefore applied to their detection the spec- Claude Bernard for his admirable researches on the troscope of Bunsen and Kirchhoff.
therapeutic action of the alkaloids of opium ; and owing Whilst on the subject of the rapidity of the absorption to his extensive physiological knowledge, as well as his of matter by the body, I may state that a French physio- perfect mode of carrying out his experiments, he has proved logist has observed that certain saline matters, such as that we can class the action of the alkaloids of opium iodide of potassium, nitrate of potash, or acetate of morphia, under three heads, as shown by the following table :will pass in a few seconds through the whole of the system.
THE ALKALOIDS OF OPIUM. Thus he was able to detect the presence of iodide of Soporific.
Toxic. potassium in the urine three minutes after it had been Narceia.
Thebaia. taken by the mouth. But certainly one of the most curious Morphía. Papaverine. Codeia. instances published of late respecting the absorption of Codeia.
Narcotine. Papaverine. organic matters in the system is that related by Dr.
Narceia. Letheby, and which tends to prove the correctness of
Morphia. Morphia. statements which have been published in former times, Narcotine. Narceia.
Narcotine. that certain chemists or persons had a secret of producing Thebaia. poisons, the action of which only became manifest a long Papaverine. period after they had been administered. Thus, Dr. These researches thoroughly prove the correctness of Letheby, states, in a paper which you will find in the Paracelsus's views, showing that in the employment of Proceedings of the Royal Society, and which contains opium due consideration should be given to the fact that some of the facts which he gave in evidence at a coroner's in the opium there are various agents acting in a defined inquest in London, that the death of a person ensued twelve manner upon the organs of the patient. months after he had taken the substance which caused I cannot conclude this lecture without drawing your death. A man engaged in a large chemical works in attention to several interesting papers which have been London had inspired, during his labours, a comparatively published by Dr. Polli, of Milan ; Davanne, Royer, and small quantity of a substance called nitro-benzine (now Le Maire, of Paris, tending to prove that the source of sold under the name of oil of bitter almonds, and used in many diseases, especially those of a contagious nature, large quantities for perfumery, and also for giving taste to may be due to the sporules or germs of certain animal various culinary preparations), and that this substance had or vegetable ferments which penetrate with the air into gradually become converted into aniline (a substance now the system, coming in contact, as it does, with the blood extensively used to produce colours, and also procurable in the lungs of man. The difference between the views of from coal tar), and had been the cause of the death of these gentlemen and those who preceded them is that the man.
formerly these statements were merely theoretical, whereas I would invite all lovers of animal physiology to read these gentlemen, by the aid of the powerful microscopic with attention the researches of M. Claude Bernard on instruments now brought into use, have been able to trace the physiological action of curarine, or the active principle the presence of vegetables or animals in blood either of 286
Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society.
Dec. 15, 1865.
animals or man affected with certain classes of disease. I it also suspicious. He was not aware that it could be may cite as an example the discovery in the blood of the shown that in aggravated cases another class of disease carbunele, of the presence of vibrios and bacteria. (Royer might not be produced. In Manchester we can see the and Davanne.) These facts explain why these gentlemen accumulation of matter taking place in the fog to such an have applied with such success the most powerful anti- extent that it lies like a cap over the whole town, and so septic agent yet known in the treatment of that disease increases that every sense is affected, whilst the lungs and namely, carbolic acid, and there is no doubt in my mind eyes suffer severely. The matter in solution in this case that the spread of either scarlet fever, typhoid fever, is not putrefactive, although injurious, or it would procholera, or any diseases arising from the decay of blood or bably sweep us of instantly. Probably no accumulation its decomposition, is brought about by the introduction into of putrefactive matter equal in amount ever occurred in the blood of certain ferments which completely alter the the natural atmosphere. It illustrates, however, the mode nature of that fluid, as in the case of the carbuncle and by which the emanations of the soil are collected in the similar diseases. If these views are correct-and I think atmosphere and presented in a concentrated form for I am justified in saying that they have the support at the us to breathe. He had for many weeks collected dew on present day of some of the most eminent men on the Con- a grass lawn in a garden, and from it had obtained organic tinent--the employment of carbolic acid, either to prevent matters unquestionably collected from surrounding objects, the spread of, if not to cure, these diseases, deserves the as it was known on one occasion to smell of flowers. If attention of the medical world.
this entered into putrefaction it would of course be unwholesome, but what kind of disturbance of health it
would cause it must be for others to find. The evening MANCHESTER LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL air of a rainy country like this is less dangerous than that SOCIETY.
of some other climates where there is more both evaporated Ordinary Meeting, November 14th, 1865.
and condensed, and neither wind nor rain to remove it.
Notwithstanding this, he believed that more than the dew R. ANGUS SMITH, Ph.D., F.R.S., &c., President, in the was required, especially in northern climes. Chair.
The PRESIDENT also said, that when sitting in a railway MR. CHARLES BAILEY and Mr. Thomas Barker, M.A., carriage with his friend, Mr. James Young, of Bathgate, that Professor of Mathematics, Owen's College, were elected gentleman observed that the particles of dust which floated Ordinary Members of the Society.
in the air seemed to shine with a metallic lustre. Dr. S. im. The following extract of a letter from Thomas Ains-mediately collected some, and found that the larger class were worth, Esq., of Cleator, near Whitehaven, Corresponding in reality rolled plates of iron which seemed to have been Member of the Society, accompanying a copy of his heavily pressed and torn up from the surface. Another meteorological observations for October, was read by Mr. and smaller class were less brilliant, and when looked at Baxendell :
with a considerable power showed many inequalities of " The great peculiarity of the season has been the very surface which would be interesting to study. Probably heavy, dews we have had-great luxuriance of pasture these were the particles which were not torn up, but nourished by dews and not by rain. I have drawn Pro- rubbed off. The dust enters the mouth and lungs, and fessor Simmond's attention to this, as being a predisposing has to be taken as one of the evils of railway travelling, cause of the present cattle disease. Not that it really en- although we do not know that these small particles are genders the malady, but predisposes the animal to take worse than those of sand. At any rate, it is clear that this peculiar type of disease-my own experience from the sonie kinds of iron will wear down more readily than Teadings of my instruments some twelve or fourteen years others, and we ought to have that which will wear down ago having shown that disease of the same type attacked least. By observing what takes place in the carriages on my cattle and destroyed them, and each time when the a dusty day, every man may to some extent compare the high temperature of the day and the low temperature of iron of different railways. Those which give off the largest night gave us such heavy dews as to render the herbage pieces in greatest quantities are to that extent the worst, quite indigestible."
as regards health. Mr. BAXENDELL considered it very probable that cattle
A paper was read entitled " An Attempt to Refer some would be injuriously affected by feeding on herbage which Phenomena. Attending the Emission of Light to Mechanical had not been well washed by occasional showers of rain. Principles," by R. B, Clifton, M.A., Professor of Natural Dew had little or no washing effect, and it could not re- Philosophy in Owen's College, move the impurities which were deposited upon the leaves
The author attempted to show, by analogical arguments, of plants during long periods of dry weather. The cattle that it is possible to give some account of certain phenoplague is said to have had its origin in Central Asia,
and mena attending the emission of light, by assuming principles in this region there is very little rain, and the daily range closely resembling, if not identical with, those adopted by of temperature is very great. The herbage is therefore Professor Clausius in his well-known paper on “ The seldom well washed, and moreover the cattle that feed Nature of the Motion which we call Heat," upon it are exposed to frequent and violent changes of
Matter is assumed in all cases to have its atoms grouped temperature. We have no report of any cattle plague together into molecules, an assumption which seems necesbreaking out among the herds on the pampas of South sary when the different allotropic states of certain subAmerica, where rain falls more abundantly and the changes stances are considered. of temperature are much less violent.
These molecules are assumed to be in motion, and also The PRESIDENT said that the idea of deriving the cattle the atoms to be vibrating in the molecules ; for, whatever plague or any similar epidemic from the organic matter may be the laws of the forces which bind together the brought down by dew was at least in harmony with much atoms in the molecules, it is impossible to imagine the that we had learnt. The dews and fogs of evening over molecules to be in motion, and to be subject to mutual certain lands were known to produce colds, agues, or actions, without causing motion of the component atoms. fevers which could be avoided by rising to a certain height
In solids and liquids the molecules are supposed to from the ground. There seems little doubt that the mois-remain continually within the spheres of action of neighture in such cases is not the cause of disease, but only the bouring molecules, so that the internal motion in a molemeans of conveyance. These diseases were produced by cule is never due to the undisturbed action of the interbreathing the impure air. We know less of the effect atomic forces; the only difference between solids and when the matter is condensed and conveyed into the liquids þeing that in the former the same molecules are stomach, but the effect of impuse water made this use of
+ Phil. Mag., vol. xiv., for 1857.