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Nov. 24, 1865.
Society of Arts.
suming 33 feet of coal-gas per hour, is capable of melting Mr. Siemen's furnaces, I am happy to say, are not in a 8 oz. of copper and 6 oz. of cast iron; that the next sized state of mere experiment, but they have received the sancfurnace, consuming about twice the quantity of gas, will tion of a great number of manufacturers, and especially of melt 40 oz. of copper.
those who little expected that the necessary heat for their But the most important improvement which has been operations could be obtained without interfering with their effected of late years in the production of intense heat by manufacture, in the carrying out of which they thought the combustion of the gases generated through the dis- the production of smoke could not be prevented. Thus, tillation of inferior coals is that of Mr. C. W. Siemens, we find M. Siemen's furnaces employed with great success F.R.S., of Great George Street. The benefits which are and economy in glass works, in potteries, and in iron forges, conferred on manufacturers and the public by the furnaces - works which used to be a nuisance to their neighbours, devised by Mr. Siemens cannot be overrated. They are by the large volumes of black smoke which they were connot only economical in their use, but, as they enable the stantly emitting from their chimneys. manufacturer to use an inferior class of fuel to generate Before describing Mr. Siemen's furnace, it is necessary the heat required, they must undeniably be of great advan- that I should state that, in the ordinary furnaces, only tage; and to the public in general they will be a great about 25 per cent of the heating power of the fuel is renboon, as they do away with the nuisance attached to all dered available in carrying out the manufacturing operamanufacturing districts in the dark black smoke escaping tions. This is due to imperfect combustion, and to the fact from chimneys, polluting the atmosphere, and rendering that only the heat of combustion exceeding that of the it so disagreeable to those who are compelled by their body treated is utilised ; the remainder of the heat, in occupations to live within reach of its influence.
many instances, by far the greater proportion of the whole, I may state, en passant, that the large amount of black being allowed to escape uselessly up the chimney. smoke which floats in the atmosphere of Manchester, I shall now give a description of one of M. Siemen's furSheffield, Birmingham, and other towns, is not only inju- naces. The gas-producer and furnace are quite distinct, rious by depriving those places of much light, --so benefi- and may be placed at any convenient distance from each cial to life and health-but is also a nuisance from the other. The gas-producer is shown in Fig. 1. The fuel is immense amount of soot and dirt with which it is accom- supplied, at intervals of about two hours, through the panied. There cannot be a doubt that, owing to the im- covered openings A, and descends gradually on the inclined perfect combustion which the products undergo in many plane B, which is set at an inclination to suit the kind of of the furnaces belonging to manufacturers, and which is fuel used. The upper portion of the incline B is made shown by the appearance of the smoke itself, the air is rendered more unwholesome than it would be if the
Fig. 1. products that escape had undergone perfect combustion, because volatile matters escape which are known to have a most destructive action on health and vegetation. The improved state of the public squares in London, and especially of those which are on the banks of the Thames, can be witnessed by all who have observed their condition since the consumption of smoke has been made compulsory in London and its suburbs.
solid, being formed of iron plates covered with fire-brick, , putting in an iron bar occasionally to break up the mass of but the lower portion C is an open grate formed of hori- fuel, and detach clinkers from the side walls. Each prozontal flat steps. The opening under the lower step is ducer is capable of converting daily about two tons of fuel made larger than the others, to enable clinkers to be with into a combustible gas, which passes off through the drawn. The small stoppered holes F F at the front, and opening H into the main gas flue leading to the furnaces. G G at the top, of the producer are provided to allow of The action of the gas-producer in working is as follows : 248
Society of Arts.
Nov. 24, 1865.
-The fuel, descending slowly on the incline plane B, three feet thick, takes up another equivalent of carbon, becomes heated, and parts with its volatile constituents, and is thus transformed into carbonic oxide (an inflamthe hydrocarbon gases, water, ammonia, and a small pro- mable gas), which passes off with the other combustible portion of carbonic acid—which are the same as would be gases to the furnaces. For every cubic foot of carbonic evolved from it in a gas retort. There now remains from oxide thus produced, taking the atmosphere to consist of 60 to 70 per cent. of purely carbonaceous matter to be dis one-fifth part by volume of oxygen, and four-fifths of posed of, which is accomplished by the current of air nitrogen, two cubic feet of incombustible nitrogen pass slowly entering through the grate C, producing regular also through the grate, tending greatly to diminish the combustion immediately upon the grate; but the carbonic richness or heating power of the gas. Not all the carbonacid (an incombustible gas) thus produced having to pass aceous portion of the fuel is, however, volatilised on such slowly through a layer of incandescent fuel from two to I disadvantageous terms; for water is brought to the foot of
the grate by the pipe E, which, absorbing the spare heat from the fire, is converted into steam, and each cubic foot of steam, in traversing the layer of from two to three feet of incandescent fuel, is decomposed into a mixture consisting of one cubic foot of hydrogen, and nearly an equal volume of carbonic oxide, with a variable small proportion
of carbonic acid. Thus, z
one cubic foot of steam yields as much inflammable gas as five cubic feet of atmospheric air; but the one operation is dependent upon the other, inasmuch as the passage of air through the fire is attended with the generation of heat, whereas the production of the water gases, as well as the evolution of the hydrocarbons, is carried on at the expense of heat. The generation of steam from the water, being dependent on the amount of heat in the fire, regulates itself naturally to the requirements; and the total production of combustible gases varies with the admission of air ; and since the admission of air into the grate depends in its turn upon the withdrawal of the gases evolved in the producer, the production of the combustible gases is entirely regulated by the demand for them.
The gas made in these producers has been frequently carefully analysed, and the average constituents of 100 parts have been found as follows: Carbonic acid.
9999 The furnaces are applicable for all purposes where intense heat is required, -such as for glasshouses, puddling, heating
249 iron and steel, iron melting for foundry purposes, steel by using inferior qualities, such as coal and coke dust, melting, muffles and copper smelting. In all applica- lignite, and peat. tions the furnaces are of the same construction in prin. The intensity of the heat, purity of the flame, and the ciple, the arrangements only varying with the different absence of cutting draughts in the heating chamber, is of operations to be carried on in the heating chamber. The great advantage for all metallurgical operations, tending heating furnace has been selected for illustration in Fig. 2. greatly to improre the quality of the produce, and
Underneath the heating chamber K are placed trans- occasioning a saving of about 5 per cent. in the waste of versely the four regenerators L LL L, which are chambers the metal treated in puddling and iron re-heating furfilled with fire-bricks built up with spaces between them. naces, &c. The regenerators work in pairs, the two under the right- The peculiarities and advantages of these furnaces are, hand end of the furnace communicating with that end of that gas fuel alone is employed, that perfect and entire the heating chamber, while the other two communicate combustion is obtained, and that the heat, which is usually with the opposite end.
allowed to escape up the chimney, is here stored up to be The gas passes from the main gas flue through the afterwards brought back to the furnaces. reversing valve S into the flues R R, at the bottom of one
(To be continuod.)] of the regenerators L, up through which it passes to the port M. Air is also admitted through a reversing valve at the back of 8 (not shown in the figure), thence into the
CHEMICAL SOCIETY. flues 0 0, up through the second regenerator L, to the port N, where it meets with the gas, mingles with it, and
Thursday, November 16. produces an intense and uniform flame, which distributes Professor W. A. MILLER, M.D., F.R.S., President, itself all over the heating chamber K.
in the Chair. The products of combustion together with the excess BEFORE proceeding to the ordinary business of the evenor waste heat of the furnace, instead of being passed, as ing, the PRESIDENT, pursuant to notice, reminded the in ordinary furnaces, up the stack, and either entirely Society that it had been proposed to entertain suggestions thrown away or only partly utilised, are carried down into haring reference to the disposal of some chemical speci. the other pair of regenerators, where they are deprived of mens and products which had from time to time been their heat, and thence proceed through the reversing valves presented to the Society, but were even now far from to the chimney by the flue T.
being a complete collection. Their number amounted to When one pair of regenerators has become considerably more than could be conveniently accommodated in the heated by the passage of the hot products of combustion glass cases of the adjoining library, and their importance for some time, and the opposite pair correspondingly cooled did not warrant an expenditure for their proper display; by the upward passage of the cold gas and air, the valves but, inasmuch as the Council did not feel themselves are reversed, and the currents of gas and air then pass justified in disposing of them without the sanction of the upwards through the regenerators last heated, whereas Fellows being first obtained, he was instructed by his the products of combustion pass through those opposite. colleagues in the Council to say that they would be preThe process of reversing is repeated at fixed intervals, pared to act upon any suggestion which met the wishes generally every half hour, so that two of the regenerators of the meeting. Dr. Miller concluded by reading an are always being cooled by the gas and air taking up the extract from the Royal Charter to the following effect :deposited heat and carrying it back to the furnace, and “And we further will, grant, and declare, that the whole two always being heated by the passage of the hot pro- property of the said body politic and corporate shall be ducts of combustion passing down to the chimney, and rested, and we do hereby vest the same solely and absodepositing their heat on their way there.
lutely in the Fellows thereof, and that they shall have full The flame in the heating chamber is uniform through- power and authority to sell, alienate, charge, and otherout, and perfectly free from all extraneous matter. Its wise dispose of the same as they shall think proper ; but chemical nature is also perfectly under command by means that no sale, mortgage, incumbrance, or other disposition of gas and air regulating valves (not shown in the engra- of any messuages, lands, tenements, or hereditaments vings), so that the most delicate operations can be carried belonging to the said body politic and corporate shall be on with great uniformity.
made except with the approbation and concurrence of a The gas and air reach the heating chamber (after pass- general meeting." ing through the regenerators) at nearly the heat of that It was then proposed by Dr. GLADSTONE, and seconded chamber itself, and in burning, in addition to the tempera- by Mr. Makins, " that authority be given to the Council ture due to their mutual chemical action, is added that to dispose of the chemical specimens in any manner which they have taken up in passing through the regenerators, may seem to them fit." 60 that an intensity of heat is obtained, which, unless Professor Church protested against the dispersion of moderated on purpose, would fuze furnace and all exposed the Society's Museum, which, although now but small, to its action.
might become the nucleus of a larger and more important The products of combustion are so completely deprived collection. He considered that the donation of specimens of the heat they brought out of the heating chamber K, should be encouraged, for he had himself derived benefit by passing among the regenerator bricks, that the heat in from their inspection, and had on more than one occasion the chimney-flue is seldom sufficient to singe wood; the been favoured with a loan for purposes of comparison. economy is therefore due to the fact that little or no heat To return them again to the donors was unsatisfactory, is thrown away up the chimney, as in the ordinary fur- and to distribute them in any other way was a breach of naces, and also to the perfect combustion of the fuel, good faith. which is evidenced by the total absence of smoke from Mr. J. Newlands spoke in favour of the desirability of the stack ; whereas in the common furnaces the combus- forming
a museum of chemical specimens. tion is so imperfect that clouds of powdered carbon, in The PRESIDENT reminded the Society of the limited the form of smoke, envelope all manufacturing towns, and nature of the accommodation at Burlington House, and gases are allowed to escape with two-thirds of their heat- put to the vote the original motion, which was carried by ing power undeveloped.
a large majority. The saving of fuel in these furnaces, as compared to The minutes of the last ordinary meeting were then the ordinary kind, ranges between 40 and 60 per cent. in read, and the donations to the Society's library announced ; weight, according to the fuel used. In many instances after which the members proceeded to ballot for the elecan additional saving can be made in the cost of the fuel tion of Mr. William Marriott, of Huddersfield, and Mr.
CHEMICAL News, 250 Chemical Society~-Pharmaceutical Society.
Nov. 24, 1865. Charles Umney, 40, Aldersgate Street, London, both of along with it depended in all probability on the mode of whom were duly elected as Fellows. The names of the conducting the operation. State of concentration and following candidates were read for the first time :- viz., time of action of the acid must influence the result. John Percy, M.D., F.R.S., Lecturer on Metallurgy, Royal Toluol when acted upon by dilute nitric acid is gradually, School of Mines; Ernest T. Chapman, George Street, but entirely, converted into benzoic acid, nitrodracylic acid, Portman Square ; Charles N. Ellis, Bow Common; and and a very soluble and readily fusible acid, which may be Thomas Ward, Bolton. For the second time were read identical with the one just described by Dr. Mills, as the names of John Hunter, M.A., Queen's College, Bel- having been formed by the action of nitric acid upon the fast ; Theodore Maxwell; William Jacob Barnes, Starling benzoic acid obtained from amidodracylic acid. Lodge, Buckhurst Hill, Essex; W. E. Bickerdike, Dalton Dr. ODLING then referred again to some passages in Dr. Square, Lancaster ; Richard Fitz' Hugh, Nottingham ; Mills' paper, from which it appeared that he still enterDr. William B. Ritchie, Belfast ; and Alfred G. Brown, tains the views expressed on a former occasion with regard M.R.C.S , Trinity Square, Southwark.
to the nature of the nitro-compounds. A paper “ On Nitro-Compounds (Part II.), with Remarks Dr. MULLER then said it required a closer study of the on Isomerism," by Edmund J. Mills, D.Sc., was read by author's paper to enable one to enter upon a discussion of the Secretary. The author's experiments were mainly it, but he still thought that the assumption of the nitryl directed to the chemical examination of the alpha and occupying different places in the ordinary nitrobenzoic beta varieties of nitrobenzoic acid, and to the remarkable acid and the nitrodracylic acid, would suffice to account differences observed in the action of hydriodic acid upon for the differences exhibited by these bodies. Some years them, which are considered as indicating a difference ago, when engaged, conjointly with Dr. De la Rue, in the between the nitryl radicals they contain. Reference was investigation of the products of the action of dilute nitric made to a former paper in which this view was first acid on the homologues of benzol, he had prepared a large advanced, and the author believes he has established the quantity of benzoic acid from toluol, which, although sub. following facts and inferences-viz., that benzoic acid jected to various treatments for the purpose of purificaprepared from gum benzoin is nitrated only with difficulty, tion, yet showed a certain peculiar difference from ordinary whereas that obtained from B-nitrobenzoic acid is nitrated benzoic acid, and this gave rise to the opinion that the with remarkable ease. A mononitro-compound is obtained acid in question was identical with Kolbe and Lauteas the usual product of the first reaction, whilst in the mann's salylic acid. Fittig, however, proved afterwards latter case a dinitro-compound is formed. By raising now the identity of this acid with benzoic acid. A minute the energy of the mode of attack (by employing a mixture admixture of some other substance was the cause of this of concentrated nitric and sulphuric acids), the author has difference, and on repeating Fittig's experiments benzoic succeeded in procuring the dinitrobenzoic acid at once acid was obtained, which in every respect was identical from the ordinary variety of benzoic acid, and the fusing with the ordinary benzoic acid. As in all probability the points and other physical characters are found to be nearly acid obtained by the action of dilute nitric acid upon identical with those presented by the product of the action toluol is identical with that obtained from amidodracylic of nitric acid alone upon toluol, and described under acid, and inasmuch as this latter, according to Dr. Mills's different names by Fischer, by Wilbrand and Beilstein, experiments, shows a certain difference from ordinary and much earlier, by Abel. Dr. Mills thus recognises two benzoic acid in its deportment with concentrated nitric species of benzoic acid, which may, perhaps, bear a funda- acid, the acid obtained from toluol might, after all, turn mental relation to the two potassic benzoates discovered out to be not identical, but isomeric, with. benzoic acid. by Gregory. The concluding part of the paper is devoted Professor G. C. FOSTER said he was well acquainted to a critical examination of the nature of isomerism, and with the views held by his friend and former colleague, the author controverts the ordinary view which supposes Dr. Mills, and that he conceived the existence of two that all bodies are constituted of atoms fixed in space, and kinds of nitryl, one of which could be reduced to nitric that isomeric substances are produced by a variation of oxide, and the other to amide by the same mode of treatthe position of some radical or radicals in the same mole- ment. The speaker did not, however, give his assent to cule. On the other hand, the author advocates the prin- Dr. Mills's views. ciple of atomic motion-so largely accepted in physics, so The PRESIDENT moved a vote of thanks to the author llttle in chemistry—and believes that the energy of the for his interesting communication, and then declared the chemical reaction at the moment of transfer of the nitryl- meeting adjourned until Thursday, December 7, when Dr. radical may confer upon it specific functions, and may J. H. Gladstone would read a paper “ On Pyrophosphoaccount for the differences observed in the isomers--in triamic Acid." fact, that it is altogether a question of force.
Dr. ODLING remarked that the paper before them was one which deserved a careful study, and he regretted,
PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY. from its having so recently come in possession, that he could not follow the author, on first reading, so closely as
Wednesday, November 1. he should have wished. He understood that Dr. Mills
Mr. Hills, Vice-President, in the Chair. contradicted the results of Fittig and others, and argued MR. HANBURY read a paper by Mr. L. W. Stewart, of the the existence of special functions on the part of the nitryl, Madras Army, “ On the Medicinal Uses of the Indian denying the necessity of replacing any particular atom of Species of Barberry.” It was stated that a strong tincture hydrogen in a compound molecule by NO2.
of the bark in combination with liquor arsenialis
had been Dr. Hugo MULLER said that, so far as he could follow found useful in cases of intermittent, remittent, and typhus the subject of the interesting paper just now read, it ap- fevers. The author conjectured that a tincture of the peared to him that Dr. Mills had somewhat changed his kind was one of the ingredients of Warburg's fever views regarding the nature of the nitro-compounds, and tincture. seemed now more inclined to ascribe the difference of From a conversation which followed the reading of the deportments of the nitryl (NO2) in various nitro-com- paper, we gathered that the composition of Warburg's pounds, when they are submitted to the action of reducing fever tincture was still a secret, and its value doubtful. It agents, rather to the peculiar nature of the “rest” than was formerly furnished to Indian troops by the Governto the polymeric nature of the nitryl which he sought to ment, but its use had been discontinued, and now little establish in his former paper. With regard to the forma. was sold in India. tion of nitrodracylic acid from toluol, the speaker said Professor REDWOOD read a short communication by Mr. that the quantities of nitro- and dinitro-toluol formed | Barber “ On Red [Oxide of Mercury Ointment." The
Nov. 24, 1865.
Pharmaceutical Society - Academy of Sciences.
author recommended the use of yellow in place of white with a white crust lost next to nothing in drying, while
The formula recommended was as follows:-Red a stick of transparent phosphorus exposed in distilled oxide of mercury, 1 part; yellow wax, 2 parts ; almond water lost weight as it became covered with the oil, 6 parts. An ointment made in this way kept its colour, crust. If the crust had been a hydrate, an increase of and did not become rancid. The Professor afterwards weight would have been observed. On becoming covered mentioned some cases in which colouring matter seemed with the crust phosphorus loses none of its properties ; of some importance. One was that of ceratum saponis, its solubility and fusion point remain exactly the same, which made with brown vinegar was a much more satis- and it is as readily transformed into red phosphorus. factory preparation than when made with acetic acid. Hence it would appear that nothing like an allotropic
Mr. HANBURY spoke of the importance of the use of difference is observable. Lastly, it is shown that water pure white wax in pharmacy, and more particularly in the deprived of air and oxygen has no effect on semi-transpreparation of cold cream.
parent phosphorus, while other specimens kept in water The CHAIRMAN mentioned that pure white wax is always containing air, and often renewed, become covered with sold in square blocks ; that in round cakes is always adul- the white crust, the water becoming acid from the formaterated. He added that the keeping of ointments sweet tion of phosphorous acid. was a matter of great difficulty ; but a most important point M. Oppenheim presented a “Contribution to the History of was never to fill a pot without having it well cleaned and Allylene." In continuation of his researches, the author has scalded out.
studied the action of oxygenated salts on the compounds Dr. ATTFIELD mentioned a gross case of quack impos- of allylene, with iodine, bromine, and hydriodic acid. He ture. He had had forwarded to him a white powder im- prepares iodide of allylene in quantity by exposing allylene ported from France, and sold here as solid cod liver oil. On in contact with a solution of iodine in iodide of potassium examination, it proved to be nothing more than sugar of to sunlight, in sealed flasks, for a couple of months. The milk, barely flavoured with cod liver oil.
iodide formed is an oily body, which distils from 196° to [Can any one tell us what cod liver oil pills are made of 200°. Salts of silver, acetate and oxalate for example, We have seen in a window in Fleet Street a large bottle of sealed tubes with these salts and with ether or glacial
act on the iodide with difficulty; but when heated in brown cod liver oil, having a comparatively small hollow acetic acid, the iodide of allylene is almost completely stopper filled with pills ; a label attached states that the carbonised. An alcoholic solution of acetate of potash pills in the small stopper have the medicinal value of acts on the iodide, setting allylene free, while the acetic the oil in the big bottle. -Ed. C. N.]
acid and alcohol form acetate of ethyl. To form acetic
acid hydrogen is necessary, and therefore a part of the In the course of a conversation introduced by a reference iodide of allylene should be reduced to C,H,1, or C,HI ; to the Excise interference with the sale of quinine wine, but the author has not yet been able to prove the presence Professor REDWOOD took the opportunity of stating his of such bodies. Bibromide of allylene behaves with regard view of the law as it relates to the retailing of drugs. It to the salts of silver like the iodide. The reaction of was derived from a leading article in the Pharmaceutical tetrabromide of allylene with alcoholic acetate of potash Journal for August, 1843, embodying extracts from a is very definite, and is represented by the following equapamphlet published in 1830 on the Stamp Acts passed in the tion: years 1802 and 1812, wbich if they have never been re
C,H pealed, have never been enforced, nor held authoritatively
C2H,Brz + KBr +
0. concluding sentence of the article mentioned. “It would
that grocers, oilmen, hucksters, and other In this reaction it is seen that the tetrabromide of allylene unqualified persons, cannot legally sell medicines, either does not behave as the bromide of a hydrocarbide, but simple or compounded, without taking out a license, and cannot sell compounded medicines, such as tinctures, pills,
more like the hydrobromate of a bromated hydrocarbide
-the hydrobromate of bromated propylene, for example, &c., without attaching a stamp to each article."
Thus the bromine of the bromides of allylene seems to
be united with the carbon as strongly as the hydrogen ; ACADEMY OF SCIENCES.
the bromine, so to speak, has entered into the radical, November 13, 1865.
and then the bromides of allylene behave like substitution We may notice the last paper in the Comptes Rendus first, products, which do not exchange their bromine for the as being the most important. It is a note, by M. Campisi, residue HO. announcing the formation of “A Compound of Mercury The product of the above reaction, C,H,Bra, tribromated and Benzyle Hg($H,)2" The method by which he has propylene, is an unstable, colourless body, boiling at 183° prepared it is not yet given. The compound is found to-185°, and is distinguished by this characteristic from crystallise in white needles, which fuse at a temperature the isomeric compound formed by Liebermann by the above 200° C. It is slightly soluble in cold alcohol, more action of bromine on allylenide of silver (C,H,Ag). This so in boiling alcohol, and more soluble still in ether. By latter body, which may be regarded as bibromide of monomeans of this compound the author hopes to obtain other bromated allylene, is completely destroyed by boiling. metallic compounds with benzyle.
Tribromated propylene exposed :o the light with bromine The next paper in importance is a note by M. Baudri- is slowly transformed into a solid pentabromide, or bibromont, “ Researches on the Nature of White Phosphorus," mide of tribromated propylene. It crystallises from ether in which he establishes that white phosphorus is neither in beautiful prisms. Allylene is combined with hydriodic a hydrate nor an allotropic state of ordinary phosphorus, acid by introducing a concentrated solution of the acid and that it does not result from a sort of devitrification of into flasks filled with allylene. Heat is disengaged, and transparent phosphorus; but that it is, in fact, merely a heavy oil, bihydriodate of allylene, is formed. Alcoholic ordinary phosphorus irregularly corroded on the surface potash reduces this body to monohydriodate, which has by the action of air dissolved in the water, a slow com- nearly the same boiling point as its isomer iodide of allyl, bustion which is accelerated by the action of light, and from which, however, it is distinguished by its behaviour which ceases as soon as the water holds no
more towards bromine, and also by its odour. oxygen in solution. We give some of the experiments M. C. W. Blomstrand made another communication which appear to decide the matter. Phosphorus covered on the mysterious” metal Niobium. The author has