Obrazy na stronie


Academy of SciencesNotices of Books.


Oct. 27, 1865.

carb-anhydride, and by that oxidation of generating a sence in soda waste of a compound of lime, and sulphide certain amount of heat, or its equivalent of motion :- of calcium insoluble in cold water, and observed that the Water. Uric acid. Oxygen.

analyses of M. Knpp confirmed his views on the producH2O + CAN H,03 + 03

tion of carbonate of soda by Le Blanc's process. M. Carb-anlıyd. Urea.

Scheurer-Kestner states that his analyses prore that the C20,(CN,H,0)2 + 03 = 300, + 2CN,1,0. residues do not contain an oxysulphide, but are made up Hence, uric acid must be considered to result from the of a mixture in variable proportions of oxide, carbonate, incomplete burning and using of nit genous tissue, and sulphide of calcium, and he adds that it is impossible whereby, instead of urea and carb-anhydride, urea and car- to represent the composition of the residues by any forbonic oxide are produced.

mula. The composition of the waste will necessarily vary (To be continued.)

according to the proportions of the chalk and sulphate used in the manufacture, and the relations between the

sulphur and the calcium in the waste can always be calACADEMY OF SCIENCES.

culated in advance. We have no space at present for more October 16.

of this note. M. BOURSINGAULT continued his memoir “On the Respira.

[We may state here that we have received a letter from tion of Leaves.In the dark, leaves produce carbonic M. Kopp, who complains of our notice of his recent acid, which mixes with the surrounding atmosphere if the memoir as “a little too severe. We extremely regret parenchyma is not thick and moist enough to retain it, as

that our esteemed correspondent should have so interis the case with some plants. In former experiments the preted our remarks. In our next we shall publish his author determined the amount of oxygen produced in the letter, which is, however, in places, difficult to decipher.] light by a given extent of leaf under the influence of car

M. Gal communicated a study of " Some Nero Combonic acid, and he now gives the amounts of carbonic acid pounds Formed by Hydrocyanic Acid."

One of these emitted in the dark. It is seen from these experiments is the compound of hydriodic and hydrocyanic acid, a that for an equal extent of surface and in an equal space description of which, by M. Gautier, is given in another of time a leaf decomposes much more carbonic acid in the place. M. Gal also describes a compound with hydrolight than it forms in the dark. Eighteen experiments bromic acid. This author's views of the constitution of show that a square metre of leaf (oleander leaves were these compounds differ somewhat from that of M. Gautier. employed) will decompose in sunlighi on the average 1:108 He considers that they may be regarded as belonging to litres of carbonic acid per hour. Pour experiments, how the type NX,. Hydrocyanic acid belongs to the type NX2: ever, showed that the same extent of leaf only formed and the molecule of hydriodic acid comes in to complete o'o7 litre of carbonic acid in the dark. Thus leaves placed the saturation of the nitrogen. in carbonic acid in sunlight produce in the end a respirable M. A. Semenoff presented a note “ On the Mono- and atmosphere. But in darkness, they after a time lose the Dihydriodate of Allylene and Acetylene,". Allylene.compower of decomposing carbonic acid, and although they bines almost instantaneously with hydriodic acid if the remain green and are to all appearance healthy, they are gas employed is perfectly pure and the acid very concendead. I'heir death must be attributed to the absence of trated. The result is always dihydriodate of allylene, oxygen, the presence of which is indispensable to the C,H,1, a heavy liquid with faint aromatic and bituminous elaboration of carbonic acid by slow combustion or respi- odour, having the sp. gr. 2.4458 at oo. This is isomeric ration : the leaves, in fact, die asphyxiated. Nothing of with iodide of propylene. To prepare the monohydriodate the sort happens when leaves are secluded in a respirable the author digested the above-mentioned with an equivaatmosphere. In this they preserve their vitality, and the lent of potash in alcoholic solution, and distilled in a water same leaf will alternately produce oxygen in the presence bath. It is a very volatile, colourless liquid, of a strong of carbonic acid and carbonic acid in the presence of oxygen. but agreeable odour, boiling as 82°, and having the sp. 57.

M. J. Pelouze made a communication." On Aventurine 18346 at oo. It is isomeric with iodide of allyle. coloured with Chromium." The author gives the following Acetylene combines but slowly with hydriodic acid, and proportions for the preparation of a glass comparable with forms a mixture of mono- and dihydriodate. The monoVenetian aventurine :

hydriodate was prepared in the same way as the correSand

250 parts

sponding compound of allylene. The monohydriodate Carbonate of soda

of acetylene is a very volatile liquid, colourless, and of an lime 50

agreeable odour, boiling at 620 Analysis showed it to Bichromate of potash


have the composition 6,11,1. It is easily seen that this The glass is full of exceedingly brilliant crystals, which body is isomeric with monoiodated ethylene, but not refect light like the diamond. It is extremely hard, and identical

, for the ethylene compound boils at 56°. Monowill scratch ordinary glass. This hardness adds greatly to hydriodate of allylene is probably isomeric, but not its value for artistic purposes.

identical with monoiodated propylene. M. Pelouze presented another note “ On the Colouration of Glass by Selenium.” Some months ago (see CHEMICAL NEW6, vol. xi., p. 250) the author showed that the yellow

NOTICES OF BOOKS, colour of ordinary glass was due to the presence of sulphur and sulphides coming from the reduction of sulphates pre- Int. oduction to Modern Chemistry, Experimental and sent in some ingredients. He was now anxious to ascertain whether selenium would commuvicate any, and what,

Theoretic. By A. W. HOFHANN, F.R.S., LL.D., &c. colour to glass. Experiment proved that it gives a beau.

London : Walton and Maberly. 1865. tiful orange tint, resembling that of some varieties of topaz, This work is, beyond comparison, the most masterly and and zircon hyacinth. One per cent. of the metalloid will luminous exposition of the modern philosophical doctrines produce the effect. Thus the analogies between sulphur of chemistry that has hitherto fallen under our notice. and selenium extend to their reaction on the earthy and Dealing with subjects essentially abstruse and intricate, alkaline silicates.

and rendered still more difficult of treatment by the transiM. Scheurer-Kestner presented a note “ On the Theory tional state of opinion at present prevailing in the chemical of M. Dumas concerning the preparation of Soda by Le Blanc's world, the collaborating authors have succeeded in imProcess." It was a reply to some observations made by pressing upon their work a unity of conception, a cogency M. Dumas after the reading of M. Kopp's memoir on the of demonstration, and a felicitous harmony of style, that utilisation of soda waste. M. Dumas believes in the pre- fascinate the least attentive reader, and lead him on, with



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Oct. 27, 1865.

Notices of Books.



scarcely an effort, from the first to the last page of the the new doctrines have acquired a logical consistency, and book. In twelve discourses, of barely twenty pages each, a consequent ascendancy throughout Europe, auguring is compressed a succinct yet perfect outline of the great at length for our long-agitated science a period of comphilosophical edifice whose foundations were laid up- parative calm." wards of a century and a half ago by Homberg, extended We cannot better convey to our readers an idea of the in the course of the following century by Wenzel and scope and purport of this work than by the following Richter, and completed during the present century by the further extracts from the preface. After referring to the imperishable labours of Dalton, Wollaston, Gay-Lussac, “stormy controversial period” from which chemistry is Proust, Berzelius, Dulong and Petit, Mitscherlich, Laurent, but just emerging, as one during which the lecturer's Gerhardt, Dumas, Regnault, Hermann Kopp, Ampère, teachings have often seemed “ to resemble those dissolving Liebig, Cannizzaro, Deville, Wurtz, Odling, Kékulé, scenes which, at a certain moment, present two landscapes, Williamson, Frankland, Cahours, and (last not least) the one in the act of melting away, while the other is unfold. author-in-chief of the work before us.

ing itself to view," the writer proceeds to say, From the writings of these and other illustrious philo- * It will be apparent from the foregoing remarks, that sophers (for our enumeration is by no means exhaus- this work is of an essentially general and introductory tive), from their experimental researches, their instructive character, designed to elucidate the leading principles of controversies, their innumerable discoveries of fact, and chemistry, and by no means presented as an encyclopædic generalisations of law, our authors have collected the compendium of its facts. So far, indeed, from seeking leading principles which constitute, in their ensemble, the to multiply details, it has been the author's chief care to doctrine of the Modern Chemical School, -we had almost avoid them, and to enter upon descriptions of phenomena written, of the modern chemical Revolution.

only in subordination to his main design." This very expression is, indeed, employed in the preface Further on, the aim of the work is described as of the work before us, to characterise the latter portion of tially educational," and its method as, therefore, "experithe great Philosophical Movement in question :- mental and illustrative, proceeding constantly from the

"No chemist will need to be reminded that, during the concrete to the general ; and extracting from a limited last quarter of a century, the science of chemistry has range of facts the largest amount of theoretic and general undergone a profound transformation ; attended, during information which they can readily be made to yield.” its accomplishment, by struggles so convulsive, as to repre- For these reasons, the writer proceeds to observe, sent what, in political parlance, would be appropriately “The elements are, in this work, studied in a new termed a Revolution,

order, not gratuitously adopted, but determined by their ." Amidst continual accessions of fact, so rapid, so volu- aptitude, in his view, to lead up to the knowledge of minous, and so heterogeneous, as almost to exceed the general laws, in just and logical succession; and so also, grasp of any single mind, chemical science has been in while endeavouring to illustrate incidentally the leading travail, so to speak, with new laws and principles of co- topics of experimental chemistry, he has been mainly ordination, engendered, perhaps, partly by the sheer force guided, in his selection of experiments, by their fitness for of their own deeply-felt necessity, but partly also, and the elucidation of theoretical views. It is rather in mainly due, to the powerful initiative impulsion of a few accordance with these exigencies of his plan, than with philosophical master minds.

reference to the relative importance of the subjects treated, “Based on the concurrent examination of the volume that space has been meted out to these ; some topics, in tric and ponderal combining-ratios of certain typical ele- themselves of great moment, being dismissed with but a ments, and on the discovery, in their standard combina- passing notice, while others, intrinsically less interesting, tions, of a few well-marked structural types, these are elaborately discussed, on account of their bearing on principles have introduced into the domain of chemistry questions of principle.” the pregnant idea of Classification-the conception of a Referring to his lectures at the College of Chemistry as series of natural groups, resembling the gencra of the being embodied in this work, and constituting "its original biological sciences, and culminating in the establishment framework,” Dr. Hofmann observes that, in preparing the of an orderly system, where before there had seemed to be work for press, “such additional matter has been introbut a chaos of disconnected facts.

duced as appeared desirable for the more complete eluci“ Under the influence of these and certain other cognate dation of the great laws set forth.” ideas, new views have arisen as to the constitution and Dr. Hofmann concludes his prefatory observations by a chemical properties of matter; a reformed chemical nota- well-deserved tribute to his collaborator, Mr. F, O. Ward, tion has thence of necessity ensued ; and structural rela- “whose well-known powers of lucid composition, and tione, previously unsuspected, have disclosed identity of habits of philosophical thought, will be traced in every parentage in compounds till then deemed utterly diverse. chapter of this work. Attracted to the new chemical

" It appears to be wisely ordered, in scientific as in doctrines by their own intrinsic truth and beauty, Mr. social affairs, that the innovating spirit which belongs to F.O. Ward has willingly devoted himself for months past to youth has its check and counterpoise in the conservative the task of assisting in their exposition ; and in the course tendency essentially characteristic of age; so that, in the of these labours, as was to be expected, he has originated sharp collision of these rival forces, new principles, in any many valuable conceptions for their clearer elucidation kind, find a sort of fiery ordeal interposed between their and derelopment. One, indeed, of his friend's indications first enunciation and final acceptance ; doubtless the the author feels bound to mention here, as constituting a appointed test of their soundness and vitality.

distinct and raluable contribution to the new chemical *Hence the domain of chemical philosophy has, for edifice. He alludes to the Quantivalential Equilibrium many years past, rather resembled a tumultuous battle of the Nitroxygen Series, as demonstrated by Mr. Ward, plain, than a field bestowed by nature for peaceful culti- and displayed in the striking symmetrical diagram introvation by mankind. The new ideas, springing up of duced by him at p. 180." necessity one by one, and not always free, at their first We shall take an early opportunity of laying Mr. F. O. conception, from errors and inconsistencies, have been Ward's above-mentioned remarkable diagram, with its resisted, by the champions of the old chemical dogmas, as explanation, before our readers, and we shall also endea& gratuitous revolt against established authority. Con- vour to make room, in future numbers, for one or two troversy has naturally stimulated research, which, in its chapters as samples of this valuable work. The object of turn, has produced rapid modifications of theory; so that the present notice is merely to give our readers some the aspect of chemistry has been in a state of incessant general idea of its character and purpose. With this view, change. It is, indeed, only within the last few years that I having first quoted its preface, we may now cite its eloquent 204

Notices of Books.


Oct, 27, 1865.

conclusion-a rapid retrospective survey of the course, “Hence the sort of disjunctive conjunction by which we gracefully addressed by the lecturer to his students, as by annexed to our typical series of compounds this singular a guide to travellers under his charge :

body, marsh-gas : alien with regard to the non-volatile * But now, feilow-travellers, we have arrived at a point character of its typical constituent, carbon ; cognate in where our progress together must be interrupted for a respect of its ponderal, volumetric, and condensational time. The plan of this brief introductory course is ful relations with its standard constituent, hydrogen. filled ; and its objects, so far as my limited powers permit “To the establishment of the typical elements and their their achievement, are attained. Before we part, however, typical hydrogen compounds succeeded, naturally, the let us, as wayfarers are wont, rest awhile on the gentle study of the congeners in each kind; and we were thus eminence we have attained, and take a retrospective led to make acquaintance with bromine and jodine as survey of our route thus far. In other words—and to analogues of chlorine, and with their respective hydrogen drop metaphor-let us endeavour, by a summary recapitu- compounds as analogues of hydrochloric acid. With lation, to fix in our memory some of the leading facts and oxygen, and its hydrogen compound, water, we associated, principles which our experiments and reasonings, our in- in like manner, sulphur and selenium, and their respective ductions and deductions, have gradually unfolded to our hydrogen compounds cast in the structural mould of view.

water-gas. With nitrogen and its hydrogen compound, As our point of departure, we selected, you remember, ammonia, we connected phosphorus and arsenic, and their the familiar fluid, water ; of which we learned the com- ammonia-like combinations with hydrogen. With carbon, pound nature by an experiment, the simplest, perhaps, lastly, and its hydrogen compound, marsh-gas, we conand the most striking, in the whole range of chemistry. joined, in like manner, silicon and its hydrogen compound,

" This consisted in dropping on its surface a fragment of formed on the marsh-gas modet. the alkali-metal, potassium, which, at the touch of water, “In these four groups of typical elements and comtook fire, at the same time liberating from it an inflam- pounds, we recognised the germ of a grand conception,mable gas, called hydrogen. This, upon examination, that of a natural classification of chemical bodies into proved to be the lightest body known, and we accordingly genera and species, each distinguished by well-marked adopted it as our unitary standard of volume-weight. characteristics, not excluding individual varieties, but

• This standard gas we proceeded to liberate by the grouping them in subordination to collective laws. same simple means from two other bodies less familiar than "In the course of these experimental demonstrations, water, but very well known in the arts and manufactures we became acquainted with the meaning of the term - viz., muriatic acid and ammonia, both, in their pure chemistry, and we obtained our first notions concerning state, gases at ordinary temperature and pressure.

the nature of chemical phenomena. We learned, for "The further examination of these three sources of example, the characters of elementary as distinguished hydrogen revealed to us the existence of three gaseous from compound bodies; of chemical combination as contrabodies,-chlorine, oxygen, and nitrogen, as being respec. distinguished from mere mechanical mixture; of comtively associated with hydrogen, in muriatic acid, water, bining proportions, volumetric and ponderal; and of the and ammonia.

immutability by which they are characterised. " The study of chlorine, oxygen, and nitrogen showed “While thus gradually learning the general principles us, in the first, one of the most active of chemical agents ; and laws of chemistry, we also became familiarised, as we in the second, the typical supporter of combustion ; in the proceeded, with the aspect and uses of chemical apparatus, third, one of the most inert bodies known.

and with the manipulations necessary for their dexterous “ By the analytic method, applied to decompose the employment. We gained experience more particularly of three hydrogen compounds of these gases, and by the the methods in use for generating, collecting, transferring, synthetic method, employed so far as available, to recon- measuring, desiccating, testing, and weighing gaseous struct them, we learned the proportions, as well by bodies, and for ascertaining the influence of varying temvolume as by weight, in which chlorine, oxygen, and perature and pressure on their bulk and density. nitrogen respectively combine with hydrogen, in muriatic “Our analytic and synthetic operations obliged us to acid, water-gas, and ammonia.

employ, by turns, the powerful agencies of electricity, “With one unit-volume each of chlorine, oxygen, and light, heat, and the specific power we termed chemism, in nitrogen, weighing respectively 35.5, 16, and 14, were order to bring about desired reactions ; and these we often found hydrogen combining in the unit-volume and weight. found to be attended with remarkable physical perturbaratio of 1 for the first-named body, 2 for the second, and tions, as, for instance, with the sudden development of 3 for the third.

light and heat, and often with more or less violent exploNotwithstanding this inequality in the number of unit- sion. The means of generating and applying the (so-called) volumes of the gaseous constituents of these compounds, imponderable forces, and of controlling their effects, when we found the volumes of the gaseous products to be excessive or dangerous, were thus brought prominently, exactly equal ; measuring in all three cases alike 2 unit- though cursorily, under our notice. volumes. "This curious circumstance proved to us that Upon the individual characters of the elements and condensation increases, in these typical cases, pari passu, compounds thus submitted to investigation we did not with the number of hydrogen-volumes engaged.

dwell at length; nor, indeed, did we enlarge even upon "We thus experimentally established three well-defined the general laws with which we met in our course: it was models of chemical structure, displayed in the combina- our care to note only such particulars as came within the tion of 3 typical elements with the standard element, scope, and promoted the purposes, of our immediate inquiry. hydrogen.

Doubtless, each subject which we thus touched by the " To these types, both of elementary and compound way opened a tempting path to our curiosity; as the bodies, a fourth in each kind was soon afterwards added; climber, whose appointed aim is the top of the tree, is carbon presenting itself to our notice as the type of the tempted by the fruit-laden branches he passes in his ascent. non-volatile elements; while the richest in hydrogen of its “But though we gladly accepted the incidental inhydrogen compounds-viz., marsh-gas-contributed its formation which our experimente naturally threw in our final term to our series of structural models. We had way, we forbore from prolonged digressions, and persisted found the three gaseous typical elements successively steadily in the straight course of our inquiry, engaging, within equal product-volumes (double the unit- “This led us next to the study of the curious and imvolume in each case), 1, 2, and 3 volumes of hydrogen ; and portant bodies constituting the nitroxygen series--a study now, in the like product-volume of marsh-gas, we found in which we broke entirely new ground, quitting the con. carbon engaging 4 volumes of hydrogen.

sideration of the typical hydrogen compounds, each of

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which only exemplifies combination in a single fixed ratio, and polyatomic structure of certain other inolecules, and and advancing to the examination of a new and pregnant with the molecule-forming and atom-fixing powers of the law of chemistry, that of combination in multiple pro elementary atoms, the former of which powers we found portions.

to be in the ratio of their atom-weights, while the latter “As our induction thus extended itself and our facts we identified with their atom-freeing and atom-replacing began to accumulate, we felt the want of some instrument powers, all of which we included in the term quantiva. of record, less periphrastic than ordinary parlance, to epi- lence. These studies led us naturally to touch on and tomise concisely, and to bring graphically and simul- illustrate the principles of quantivalential coefficients. taneously under the eye, trains of phenomena which it “ Having learned this much from the study of binary would else be difficult to grasp and comprehend, firstly, compounds, we passed on to consider compounds of a in their mutual relations to each other, and secondly, in higher order—ternary, quaternary, &c., and the several their common dependence on general laws.

modes of their genesis from binary compounds, as, for “We were thus induced to represent our gas volumes instance, sometimes by molecular, sometimes by atomic by squares, lettered with the initials of the bodies depicted, inception, each sometimes attended, and sometimes not, figured with their relative volume weights, and forming by substitutional displacement of atoms from the parent

the germ of a symbolic nomenclature and notation which, compound. in the further stages of our progress, we were enabled at “Examples of ternary compounds generated in each of once to enrich and to simplify by incorporating in it our these modes were supplied to us in the lecture of to-day by newly-acquired facts, and eliminating from it forms too the four typical groups with whose study we commenced cumbersome for practical use, though invaluable as aids our course. In our rapid review of these compounds, we to chemical education.

noted their usually closely-packed product-volumes, or high " That our proportional numbers, abstract at first, might vapour-densities ; their frequent tendency to dissociation; acquire a concrete significance, we had to make choice of their habitual retention of the structural type of their some system of weight and measure in terms of whose parent compounds; and the principles of their progressive unitary standards to express those otherwise vague or serial development. The last gas, which, in becoming determinations.

methylic alcohol by inception of oxygen, threw open the “ This led us to study the admirable metrical system of gate of a new field of inquiry, and brought our present the French, which supplied us with our standard of capa- journey to its term. city, the litre, and of weight, the gramme ; at the same “In this rapid retrospective survey, I have not attempted teaching us, by means of Greek and Latin prefixes, to to be enclycopædic; my wish has merely been, at parting, express their multiplication and division in decimal pro- to recal the more important of the many deeply-interesting gression.

topics which flowed upon us in succession, as out of a “ The weight of the standard volume (1 litre) of our living source, from the pregnant conception of the molestandard element (hydrogen), expressed in terms of our cular and atomic construction of matter. new ponderal unit (i gramme), gave us the invaluable " It can now, indeed, be no matter of surprise to you co-efficient 0'0896 gramme, which, as you remember, we that we devoted so much time to the consideration of called our barley-corn weight,' or crith, by means molecules and atoms, and dwelt at so much length upon whereof, as a multiplier, we convert the figures represent. the methods in use for determining the molecular and ing the mere abstract specific gravities of the various gases atomic weights of the elements. These are the foundaand vapours into expressions of their actual or concrete tions of chemical knowledge; and the table in which litre-weights.

they are given, together with their symbols and coThe concrete values with which our symbolic expres- efficients of quantivalence, though, as we are aware, some sions thus became clothed increased the powers of our of the figures are still doubtful, deserve our close and system of notation, both as a language for recording frequent study. The more of its figures we can bear in phenomena and as an instrument to assist in their investi- mind, the more accurate and ready will our knowledge gation, experimental and theoretic.

be, whether for theoretic or practical applications. “ Thus armed, we ventured upon speculative ground; “But I must not linger on these themes, nor, to defer we sought the interpretation of the phenomena we had as unwelcome separation, trespass still further beyond limits yet but observed; we endeavoured to explain, by a rational already overpast. If, in conclusion, I resume my metahypothesis, the remarkable proportionality, ponderal and phor, and bid you adieu as fellow-travellers, it is because volumetric, of chemical reactions ; and, with this view, i deeply feel how much there is in the present transitional we entered on the inquiry, What is matter? Of what condition of chemistry to justify such an expression, and parts is it composed : How are these affected by the am almost painfully conscious how narrow is the explored solid, fluid, and gaseous conditions ? How are their inter. domain through which the teacher can be your guide in spaces filled? And what, in particular, is the corpuscular comparison with those vast regions of truth as yet unconstruction of a gas ?

known, in which we are all fellow-students together. "In studying these questions we were led to admit the “And thus, a learner myself, day by day, I can the better threefold divisibility, molar, molecular, and atomic, of appreciate your constant and sympathetic attention to my material bodies, and to refrain from asserting their infinite lessons, and am encouraged the more earnestly to hope divisibility. The elasticity of gases are attributed to a that the facts and principles which, in these few meetings, force connected, in some unknown way, with heat ; whose we have passed in review together will not merely afford specific relations to different bodies, and so-called latency us some present insight into the new doctrines now so therein, enabled us to understand certain, else inexplicable, deeply and, let me add, so wholesomely agitating the properties of gases, and to conceive these bodies as built chemical world, but will also serve as a firm basis on up of molecules, or atom-clusters, of which all gases are which, in future conferences, we may build up, stone by assumed to contain equal numbers in equal volumes. stone, the vast superstructure of the chemical edifice."

"In the light of these conceptions our symbolic language Nothing can be imagined more admirable in tone and took on a new significance. Besides representing volumes taste than this philosophical farewell, in which, with the and volume-weights, our squares became pictures, forms modesty which true learning inspires, we see the teacher of molecules, and atoms, whose movements of decomposi- humbly identifying himself with his pupils. We are, tion and reconstruction we were thus, in imagination, indeed, all of us, from the most eminent to the most enabled to follow.

obscure, “ learners, day by day," _“fellow-students in “We thus become familiar with the diatomic structure the great amphitheatre of Nature,~" fellow-travellers of the typical elementary molecules, with the monatomic I through the vast regions of truth unexplored! Happy if 206

Correspondence- Answers to Correspondents.


Oct. 27, 1805.

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it be permitted to us to bring, each but a single stone of

CORRESPONDENCE. the grand edifice which it has devolved on our generation to build up !

Water from a Maniacal Point of Vier.

To the Editor of the CHEMICAL News.

SIR, -Although the madmen here who have got me and a

number of other perfectly sane individuals under their GRANTS OF PROVISIONAL PROTECTION FOR charge will not allow me the use of chemicals and appa: SIX MONTHS.

ratus, my brain works as actively and as clearly as if I Communicated by Mr. VAYOHAN, PATENT AGENT, 54, Chancery had the Royal Institution laboratory at my disposal. I Lane, W.C.

have just made a most important discovery, which I lose 2137. R. A. Brooman, Fleet Street, London,

no time in communicating to you. provements in the manufacture of cast steel and cast iron,

I have discovered that water is a member of the already and the manufacture of a mixed metal.A communication from E. Martin and P. E. Martin, Paris.--Petition large tribe of ammonias. If we take the compound atom recorded August 18, 1865.

N" H' 2357. L. G. Sourzac and L. Bombail, Bordeaux,

H' Gironde, France, " Improved means for rendering leather more durable and flexible."-Sept. 15. 1865.

as a typical basis, nothing is easier than to replace the 2461. T. F. Caslim, Sheffield, and J. F. Allender, triatomic atom N" by the monatomic atom H' and the Parkgate, near Sheffield, "Improvements in the manu- diatomic atom 0", we then replace one of the H's by the facture of iron and steel, and of furnaces and machinery monatomic radicle HO, and the thing is done. . Water for purifying, puddling, or heating, the same."-Sept. 26, must, therefore, henceforth be formulated thus :1865.

Ho (H) 2483. R. Reece, Llandilo, Carmarthenshire, " Improve

0" H ments in obtaining and applying sulphurous acid and in

H' apparatus used therein."-Sept. 28, 1865.

and must be called dihydrohydorylhydroxamine. Hydrate 2523. C. D. Abel, Southampton Buildings, Chancery of potash will beImprovements in the mode of treating the roots

HO' of the lucerne plant for the purpose of manufacturing,


KY paper, pasteboard, fabrics, and ropes therefrom." A com


K' munication from J. P. Caminade, Rue d'Hilliers Orleans, dipotasshydorylhydroxamine. Of course the H' and 0." on Loiret, France.-Oct. 2, 1865.

2555: W. R. Barker, New Bond Street, “ Improve the left side of the bracket exist in a state of combined ments in apparatus for administering injections and separation, or separate combination, which allows them to douches to the human body.”-Oct. 5, 1865.

perform triatumic functions. NOTICES TO PROCEED.

I am now hard at work on marsh-gas, which, I have no 1469. P. Young, Manchester, “Improvements in the doubt, I shall also shortly be able to prove to be an construction of furnaces."-Petition recorded May 29, 1865.

ammonia. Yours ammoniamaniacally, 1884. G. Nimmo, Jersey, New Jersey, U.S.A., Im


Hanwell. provements in the manufacture of pots and crucibles wherein metals and other materials may be heated or melted.". July 19, 1865.

Detection of Sugar in Beer. 2008. J. W. Perkins, Norfolk-street, Strand, “Improve

To the Editor of the CHEMICAL Nows. ments in the treatment of hydrocarbon cr paraffine oils." Sir,—The statement of the Excise chemist, that sugar -- August 3, 1865.

cannot, in the present state of chemical science, be detected 2071. M. H. Blanchard, Blackfriars Road, Surrey, “Im

as an adulteration in beer, induces me to ask whether the provements in the manufacture of terra-cotta or vitreous fermentation or oxide of copper test is inapplicable in the stone."-August 10, 1865.

case of the adulteration mentioned. I can hardly suppose 2163. J. G. Avery, Regent Street, " A new composition that the experiments have not been made, and therefore I suitable for use as paint and protective coating."-A should be glad to have your opinion before I make any communication from W. Potter, Saratoga, U.S.A. myself.

I am, &c. August 22, 1865:

Tyro CHENICUS. 1547. D. Barker, Ceylon Street, Battersea Park, “ Improvements in the manufacture of artificial fuel.".

[It is one thing to prove the presence of sugar and Petition recorded June 6, 1865.

another to prore it an adulteration.-Ep. C. N.) 1590. R. A. Brooman, Fleet Street, London, « Improvements in furnaces." A coinmunication from F. Durand, Paris.-June 12, 1865.

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 1602. T. Routledge, Ford, near Sunderland, and W. H. Richardson, Springwell, Jarrow-on-Tyne, “ Improve- Alpha. -Put more oxalic acid and a little gum. ments in the manufacture of paper and paper stock, and Dr. Murpratt.-Received. Shall receive attention. in the utilisation of certain waste products resulting there- C. B.- If you have any difficulty in getting the book, it can be sent from."-June 13, 1865.

from our office. 1809. J. Baggs, Chancery Lane, "Improvements in the J. G. B.-The matter is too important for us to assumo the responproduótion of artificial light, and in the apparatus con

sibility of advising upon. ne ted therewith."-July 8, 1865.

T'yné. -- What examinations! You had better inquire of the Regts2100. J. T. Lockey, Suitun, Lancashire, " Improve.

trar at Burlington House. ments in and connected with the manufacture of copper." | wo understand, has gone abroad,

J. C.-We bave heard nothing about the book of late, and the anthor, -Aug. 16, 1865.

Chemicus would feel greatly obliged to the readers of the CHEMICAL 2440. G. E. Rolland and E. L. Rolland, Paris, “ An News if any of

em could give liim the names of any works on the improved liquid composition for cleansing, 'scouring, and manufacture of pigments and colours, in English, French, or German. bleaching textile, an mal, mineral, and vegetable subvention and Treatment by Sulishur," by Jobu Grove, I.D, &c. stances." —Sept. 23, 1865.

(Third Edition.)

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