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Oct, 13, 1865.
Royal Institution of Great Britain.
colours. The white balls are hydrogen, the green ones foundation, on each of which we place a hydrogen sphere chlorine atoms; the atoms of fiery oxygen are red, those ! as the first building stone. of nitrogen, blue; the carbon atoms, lastly, are naturally On one of these hydrogen atoms we fix a chlorine atom represented by black balls. But we have, in addition, to by inserting the solid arm of the former into the tubular exhibit the different combining powers of these atoms. arm of the latter, we have thus constructed a molecule of
hydrochloric acid. The attraction units of the two elements are saturated; we can add no more; the building is finished.
This we accomplish by screwing into the balls a number of
Again, an atom of nitrogen is inserted into the hydrogen metallic arms (tubes and pins), which correspond respec- atom on our third stand; the two nitrogen arms which are tively to the combining powers of the atoms represented, left exposed sufficiently indicate that two attraction units and which, while constituting an additional feature of remain unsaturated, and have accordingly to be provided distinction, enable us at the same time to join the balls and with two atoins of an univalent element. If this univato rear in this manner a kind of mechanical structure in lent element be hydrogen, the finished structure is the imitation of the atomic edifices to be illustrated. Thus molecule of ammonia. the hydrogen and chlorine atoms, which are univalent atoms, have each one arm, representing one combining er attraction unit; the atom of oxygen, a bivalent atom, has two, representing two attraction units ; while the nitrogen and carbon atoms, respectively trivalent and quadrivalent, are provided with three and four arms, indicating the three and four combining units respectively distinguishing these atoms.
of the newly-formed building materials let us make a preliminary trial in constructing the four hydrogen compowds just examined.
We start with four appropriately disposed stands as a
Formation of AMMONIA.
Royal Institution of Great Britain.
Oct. 13, 1865.
In a similar manner, lastly, we perceive that when a material may be handled enables us to construct even some four-armed carbon atom is fixed upon the lıydrogen atom, of the more complicated substances involved in these the three combining units remain unsaturated, and that considerations. the construction of a closed molecule of marsh-gas can be And, first, the building up of the oxygen compounds of accomplished only by the accession of three atoms of hydrochloric acid may be attempted. On opening the hydrogen.
molecule of hydrochloric acid, two attraction units (one belonging to the hydrogen atom, and the other to the chlorine atom), are liberated; they are exactly equal to the two attractions of the bivalent atom of oxygen. With the insertion of an oxygen atom, we perceive that the molecule is closed again ; no uncovered arm projects, no attraction remains unbalanced. This new molecule-we call it hypochlorous acid—we open again ; again two attraction units are liberated and saturated by a second atom of bivalent oxygen. The molecule of hypochlorous acid is thus converted into the molecule of chlorous acid. The insertion of one or two more oxygen atoms under exactly similar circumstances would give rise to the formation of the molecules respectively of chloric and of perchloric acids.
We are thus enabled, by availing ourselves exclusively of oxygen as building material, to convert the two-storied molecule of hydrochloric acid successively into a three , four-, five-storied molecule, and ultimately even into the
six-storied molecule of perchloric acid ; and there is no At this stage we may appropriately resume the question reason why a happy experimentalist, by using additional suggested by the earlier considerations of this evening. and more complicated scaffolding, should not succeed in The facility with which our newly-acquired building raising still loftier structures.
Formation of MARSH-GAS.
ACID. The reason why, when uniting with a compound, oxygen of another atom of hydrogen that the closed molecule of joins this compound, atom by atom, is now obvious. By ethylamine is formed. This molecule again we open, again opening a finished molecule, two attraction units are set we introduce an atom of nitrogen, and again we observe free; these may be balanced by one atom of oxygen, but that one attraction unit of the newly-added atom remains also by a chain of two, three, four,-in fact, of any number unsatisfied, and that an additional atom of hydrogen is of oxygen atoms. Of the two, four, six, eight, &c. attrac- required for the transformation of ethylamine into ethylenetion units possessed by one, two, three, and four atoms of diamine, and so again when ethylene-diamine is to be conoxygen, two, four, and six units are consumed in linking verted into vinyltriamine (Figs. 13 and 14). these atoms into a chain, so that only two units-one at each end of the chain--remain at our disposal, and may be the atom of oxygen, but always carries an atom of hydro
Why the nitrogen atom does not combine directly, like used in closing up again the broken molecule.
Not less satisfactory is the information supplied by the gen along with it, is now likewise demonstrated. If a consideration of a series of nitrogenetted compounds. In finished molecule be broken for the reception of a new hydride of ethyl we possess a molecule containing two atom, the number of combining units liberated is always atoms of carbon and six atoms of hydrogen. With the view rated by one atom of oxygen, or by a chain of oxygen
two. This, as we have seen, is the number which is satuof introducing an atom of nitrogen, we break this molecule. | atoms; but when these two attraction units are saturated A glance at our model (Fig. 12) shows us at once that, by a nitrogen atom, one of the attraction units of the by inserting between the fragments a nitrogen atom only, We are unable to reproduce a finished building, for of the nitrogen remains free ; when they are saturated by a chain three attraction units with which the nitrogen atom enters, of nitrogen atoms, the number of attraction units remaining two only are saturated ; one remains unsaturated; indeed, free must be equal to the number of atoms composing the one nitrogen arm projeets uncovered. It is only by addition
Academy of Sciences Notices of Books.
Oct. 13, 1865.
ACADEMY OF SCIENCES,
NOTICES OF BOOKS.
A Practical Treatise on Coal, Petroleum, and other Dis. The only chemical paper read was by M. E. Kopp, “ On
tilled Oils. By ABRAHAM GESNER, M.D., F.G.S. the Utilisation of Soda Waste, and the Residues of the
Second edition. Revised and enlarged, by_ GEORGE Manufacture of Chlorine.” All the ideas in this paper are
Weldten Gesner, Consulting Chemist and Engineer. old, and most of them will be found in Dr. Hofmann's Exhibition Report, pp. 32-33:
The author's present
London: H. Baillière. 1865. method of proceeding is as foliows :—He takes the acid ALTHOugh it is impossible to give unqualified praise to residual liquor obtained in the manufacture of chloride of any part of this book, we are bound to say that it is one lime, allows the solid matters to deposit, and then adds which, in the present dearth of practical works on the just enough soda waste to destroy the free chlorine and subject deserves some commendation. It seems strange convert the per- and sesqui-chlorides of iron and man- that so important an industry bas not produced more ganese into protochlorides. Some sulphur is separated, books, but the reason for this, we imagine, is to be found in which may be collected, and some sulphuretted hydrogen the fact that the manufacture of coal oils has been so is evolved, which may be absorbed by ferric oxide. The much embarrassed by the operation of our patent laws, dechlorinated, but still acid liquor is now pumped into a that few have hitherto cared to engage in the pursuit. special apparatus, in which it is completely saturated with However that may have been, we have noticed that a soda waste. A large amount of sulphuretted hydrogen is larger number of inquiries have been addressed to us for then evolved, and may be burned so as to produce either information on this subject than on any other, and we water and sulphur, or water and sulphurous acid. The may now content ourselves with recommending this book author gives another process for the utilisation of soda to the perusal of all who wish for practical information on waste. When the waste is exposed to the air, M. Kopp the subject of which it treats. has found that the oxy-sulphide of calcium (2Cas,Cao)
Our readers will understand from the above that it is changes into bisulphide of calcium and quicklime. By the practical part of the book alone which we commend. further oxidation the bisulphide is transformed into calcic The chemistry is, indeed, of a kind which had better been hyposulphite, which, on drying, becomes converted into omitted, and which if the book should reach a third calcic sulphite and free sulphur. The calcic sulphite is edition must undergo a thorough revision by a competent soon further oxidised to sulphate, while the free sulphur chemist. unites with a fresh quantity of sulphide to form soluble It is proper to add that the book is illustrated with bisulphides or even polysulphides. The sulphide of cal drawings of ovens, retorts, stills, and other necessary appacium always present in the waste undergoes similar ratus, which will be found extremely useful as guides to changes. When water falls on the heaps, a deep yellow those who think of embarking in the manufacture of coal or orange coloured solution is formed, which contains and shale oils. these polysulphides of calcium, with some hyposulphite of soda and lime. On leaving this liquor exposed to the air Annales de Physique et de Chimie. August, 1865. in thin layers during the summer months, oxidation takes In this number we find the completion of the article by place, and hyposulphites and free sulphur are obtained. Dr. Icery " On the Juice of the Sugar
Cane, and the Changes Or it may be treated with sulphurous acid with the same object; or, lastly, neutral solutions of chloride of man
it undergoes in the Manufacture of Sugar.” It is a most ganese or iron may be added, and thus a mixed precipitate history of sugar, and well deserves the attention of all
valuable contribution to our knowledge of the natural procured of sulphides and sulphur, which may be burned to furnish sulphuric acid. All this, we believe, has engaged in the manufacture. A fourth memoir by M. A. already been done by Messrs. Townsend and Walker.
Dupré, “ On the Mechanical Theory of Heat," and devoted Some discussion followed the reading of this paper,
to the study of latent heats, is the only other article which which M. Pelouze mentioned a process of M. Schaffner, has not already received notice in our pages. In this who decomposes the yellow solution obtained after the number the valuable review of foreign (that is, other than exposure of the waste with dilute hydrochloric acid or
French) memoirs of M. Wurtz is resumed ; but in this we chlorine residues, and thus recovers a portion of the sulphur. find nothing for notice.
M. Dumas afterwards pointed out the principal features of M. Kopp's processes.
Zeitschrift für Analytische Chemie. Part 1. Vol. IV. M. H. St. Claire Deville communicated a note from M; This journal opens with an article by Dr. Gerlach “ 0.1 Fongué, describing his visits to Stromboli, Vulcano, and Panaria, and giving analyses of gases from fumaroles on
Areometer Scales," which is accompanied by a very useful those volcanic islands. Around some of the fumaroles he table for the comparison of Twaddle's with Beaume's and found deposits of sulphide of arsenic, chloride of iron, sal other scales, and also with the specific gravity. The ammonia, sulphur, and boracic acid, and the gases were,
author has compiled it for liquids both heavier and lighter in a few instances, principally composed of sulphurous Volumetric Determination of Alumina and Phosphoric Acid.”
than watcr. The next is an article by E. Fleischer “ On the and chlorhydric acids. The Academy seems deluged with communications on
The author estimates the one with a standard solution of the subject of cholera. Many of these dwell on the potash alum, and the other with a standard solution of almost universal occurrence of premonitory diarrhea, and phosphate of soda. Our readers will see that these prothe importance of immediate treatment.
cesses can have but a very limited application. W. Casselman, in a paper “ On a Remarkable Formation of a Basic Salt of Cupric Acid," describes a salt having the general
formula 2(4 CuO + Acid)7H0, which is made by boiling the To Blacken Zinc Statues, &c.—Make a solution solution of a copper salt with a salt of formic, acetic, proof six parts chloride of antimony in one part of alcohol pionic, or valerianic acid. Dr. Piccard describes a rather and four parts hydrochloric acid, and apply it to the injurious “Way of Hastening Filtrations." He fits the object with a brush. Wipe the figure over with a wet funnel with a filter into one neck of a two-necked Wolff's cloth. and then apply the solution à second time. Now bottle. From the other he carries a tube which he condry the object as quickly as possible in a warm place. nects with a water aspirator. Some atmospheric pressure When it is perfectly dry rub it all over with oil.-Deutch. is thereby maintained on the fluid in the filter, and the Illust. Gewerbztg, 1864.
filtration consequently accelerated. Some remarks by
Oct. 13, 1865.
Notices of Books-Notices of Patents.
Fausto Sestini " On the Preparation of Pure Lime for Use munication from E. A. Pond, M. S. Richardson, and in the Elementary Analysis of Organic Substances," do not E. A. Morse, Rutland, Vermont, U.S.A. call for much notice. The author impregnates the purest 2439. A. V. Newton, Chancery Lane, “ Improved statuary marble with a thick syrup, and then burns it apparatus for generating illuminating gas." A communiWhen the lime is causticised, he makes thin milk of lime, cation from J. Irwin, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. in which any carbonaceous matter deposits. He then col- 2443. M. Schaffner, Aussig, Bohemia, “ Improvements lects the lime on a filter, and washes well to remove any in treating soda waste to obtain sulphur therefrom.”sulphide of calcium which may have been formed from Sept. 23, 1865. sulphate in the marble. He then dissolves the lime in 2451. E. Brooke, the younger, Huddersfield, “An imnitric acid, precipitates with carbonate of ammonia, and proved arrangement of apparatus and materials to be again burns the carbonate into quick lime. He thus employed for effecting the deodorising of the noxious obtains lime quite free from chlorine and sulphuric acid, gases arising from sewers and drains, and for the more and so adapted for use in the analysis of organic bodies effectual ventilation and inspection of such sewers and containing chlorine.
drains."--Sept. 25, 1865. Among the communications from Fresenius's laboratory 2469. G. T. Bousfield, Loughborough Park, Brixton, we notice a paper by F. Gauhe “ On the Methods of Esti. “ Improvements in machinery for tempering and preparmating Cobalt and Nickel ;” another by A. Souchay, “ On ing peat for fuel.” A communication from N. F. Poiter, the Estimation of Lead as Sulphide ;” and one by the same Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A.–Sept. 26, 1865. author “ On the Determination of Chromium as Hydrated
NOTICES TO PROCEED. Oride, and Weighing as Oxide.' In the last paper the author points out a common error in the solution of the 1352. W. Wright, Mostyn, Flintshire, "Improvements glass in which the precipitation and washing is effected, in the treatment of the waste liquors obtained after treat. and recommends the use of a porcelain or platinum dish. ing burnt ores of copper, such improvements having for
The next is an article by Fresenius “ On the Analysis of their object the production or extraction of cobalt and Rar Iron," to which we shall return.
nickel." In another short paper Fresenius gives a small hint for 1461. G. Walton, Weardale Villa, Clapton, “Improvethe laboratory. Everyone knows that the iron-wire menis in apparatus used in distilling hydrocarbuns."gauze on which we heat beakers over a gas flame burns May 16, 1865: out in the middle, and soon becomes useless. Fresenius 1385. T. Richardson, Newcastle-upon-Tynie, and M. D. suggests taking a thin, square plate of iron for the beaker Rücker, Leadenhall Street, London, “Improvements in to rest upon, and fastening it to the gauze by the corners. obtaining certain compounds of nitrogen and of sulphur." This, he says, will form a very safe rest for the beaker, - May 19, 1865 and will hold a long time.
1435. J. Gyers, Middlesborough, Improvements in The remaining articles call for no notice.
ovens or kilns for the manufacture of coke.”—May 25, 1865.
1545. C. H. Wansbrough, Shrewton, Wiltshire, ImJournal de Pharmacie et de Chemie. September, 1865.
provements in the treatment of condensing pans employed
in the condensation of milk."--A communication from Made up for the most part of communications to the S. Percy, New York, U.S.A.-June 5, 1865. Academy of Sciences, and many of these of distant date,
1553. J. Howarth, M.D., Andover, Essex, Mass, U.S.A., there is nothing in this number which requires notice. “ An improved method and apparatus for distilling coal,
shale, and other carbonaceous substances."-A communi.
cation from J. Howarth, Salem, U.S.A.- June 7, 1865. NOTICES OF PATENTS.
2289. T. Nicholson, Gateshead,
“ An improved process
of and apparatus for making caustic liquor or caustic GRANTS OF PROVISIONAL PROTECTION FOR lees.”- September 6, 1865. SIX MONTHS.
1420. J. Dale and A. Paraf, Manchester, “ImproveCommunicated by Mr. Vaughax, PATENT AGENT, 54, Chancery
ments in calico and linen printing.”-May 24, 1865. Lane, W.C.
1448. R. Canham, Clerkenwell, Middlesex, “ Improve2296. J. Dawson, Greenock, Renfrewshire, N.B., “Im-ments in cupola and other blast furnaces." provements in supplying charcoal to sugar decolourising 1450. C. B. Spaeth, Philpot Lane, London, “A new vessels, and in apparatus therefor." – September 7, 1865. preparation for subduing and extinguishing fire." A
2327; J. Lightfoot, Accrington, Lancashire, "Improve communication from G. Zeisler, Leipsig, Saxony.—May ments in dyeing and printing fabrics and yarns and animal 26, 1865. or mixed animal and vegetable substances.”--September 1453. S. Sequelin, Devonshire Street, Bloomsbury, II, 1865.
“ Improvements in purifying animal and regetable oils or 2385. J. Fletcher, Betts Street, St. George's-in-the- fatty matters to be used for lubricating and other purEast, Middlesex, " Improvements in the machinery or poses." - May 27, 1865; apparatus and in the processes for the treatment and 1489. T. Spencer, Euston Square, Middlesex, “ Imimanufacture of sugar."
provements in the composition and manufacture of paints 2390. J. S. McDougall, Manchester, “ Improvements applicable to iron and other ships' bottoms, and for other in the manufacture of insoluble oils and greases.”—Sep- general purposes."'- May 31, 1865. tember 19, 1865.
2153. G. G. Dennis, Boston, Mass., U.S.A., “Improre2409. W. Clark, Chancery Lane, “ Improvements in ments in friction matches, lucifer matches, and matches the manufacture of materials for decolourising sugars and for re-lighting called taper matches." --August 21, 1865. other saccharine and liquid matters." A cominunication from C. J. Gaade, Boulevart St. Martin, Paris.
MISCELLANEOUS. 2415. A. Bird, Birmingham, “Improvements in purifying water."-September 21, 1865;
24.27. P. Spence, Newton Heath, Manchester, “Im- Ozone. At the meeting of the British Association, provements in the manufacture of white lead."-Sep- Dr. B. W. Richardson read a paper on certain physiological tember 22, 1865.
experiments with ozone. The following are the reliable 2435. J. H. Johnson, Lincoln's Inn Fields, Middlesex, facis known up to this time respecting ozone :“ Improvements in generating illuminating gis, and in the 1. Ozone in a natural state is always present in the air machinery or apparatus employed therein.” A com- ' in minute proportions-viz., one part in ten thousand.