Obrazy na stronie


Oct. 6, 1885.

Royal Institution of Great Britain.



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May I be permitted to quote an additional instance? Introducing at the same time other elements into the comthe oil obtained from the seeds of the croton tiglium position of the compound. Let us endeavour to illustrate chemists have discovered a peculiar acid, crotonic acid, this point by examples; we could not, perhaps, quote a which has been lately observed also among the derivatives better case than that of benzol, the substance which is the of mustard.

starting-point of the manufacture of aniline, the source of This substance, consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and the beautiful colours so much in request at the present oxygen, is convertible by oxidation into another acid, time. Benzol consists of carbon and hydrogen. No one succinic acid, a beautiful crystalline body, which is more has as yet succeeded in uniting this substance with frequently obtained by submitting the familiar resin amber nitrogen alone. Nothing, on the other hand, is easier than to the action of oxidising agents.

to combine benzol simultaneously with nitrogen and Succinic acid, when combined with an additional atom hydrogen. The very transition of benzol into aniline of oxygen, gives rise to the formation of malic acid, a involves the assimilation by the benzol molecule of one crystalline acid largely present in the juice of apples and atom of nitrogen and one atom of hydrogen. Again, rhubarb--the substance, indeed, to which the acid reaction aniline is capable of fixing a second atom of nitrogen, but of these juices is chiefly due. On cutting an apple or a not without assimilating also a second atom of hydrogen. piece of rhubarb and pressing the cut surface against a The compound thus produced is a beautiful crystalline piece of blue litmus paper it is immediately reddened. body called phenylene-diamine, which is likely to receive

But malic acid also may be still further oxidised, the some interesting applications in the manufacture of brown product being one of the most familiar vegetal acids, tar- dyes. To this compound, again, additional atoms of taric acid. This acid is one of the compounds existing nitrogen and hydrogen may be joined, a fourth substance, largely in the juice of grapes. When a grape is squeezed as yet without application, picryl-triamine, being formed. on a piece of blue litmus paper, the latter is reddened The following diagram, in which, again, the simplest comwherever it comes in contact with the grape juice. pound (benzol) is placed at the top of the list, shows how

The molecules of all these acids contain the same number these several substances are related to each other :of carbon atoms and also the same number of hydrogen

Increment of Nitrogen. atoms, the difference in their composition consisting entirely Benzol in the number of oxygen atoms which are present, as


Aniline obvious by reference to the diagram.

CH3 + HN =CH-N Phenylene-diamine

CH. + 2HN = CHN Increment of Orygen.


CH. + HN = C6HN Crotonic acid CHO,

Let me give you another and even simpler series in Unknown

CH,02+. 0 =0.6.03 illustration of the same point. Hydride of ethyl, like Succinic acid

CH 0,+20 C,H,O, benzol, refuses to combine with nitrogen, but it also reMalic acid

CHO +10=CHO ceives into its molecule one atom of nitrogen and one atom Tartaric acid

CHO + O = CHAO of hydrogen, the well-known substance ethylamine, which În this diagram an unknown acid C.4.0, figures between This, by a repetition

of the same

transaction, is converted

has the greatest analogy with ammonia, being formed. crotonic and succinic acids. This substance has not yet into" ethylene-diamine, an oily base of great causticity: been obtained, but the experience of the gradual assimilation of oxygen in other series permits us to forecast the while a third repetition of the process produces a comexistence of this compound. Though not yet actually pound, vinyl-triamine, the existence of which is not yet prepared, I have not hesitated to introduce it into the list fully established. The analogy between the first and the of bodies derived from crotonic acid by simple oxidation.

second series is obvious by a comparison of the formulæ. The three examples which we have studied unmistak

Increment of Nitrogen. ably show us that oxygen is capable of combining with Hydride of ethyl

C,H other groups of elements so as to give rise to new com- Ethylamine

C2H + HN C,H,N pounds: that this combination takes place stepwise, atom Ethylene-diamine

C,H. + 2HN COHN, by atom ; that the fundamental properties of the original Vinyltriamine. i CH + 3HN = COHN, compound remain more or less unaltered in the new com- We entirely refrain from examining into the particular pound of greater complexity, and that the amount of processes, varying to a very considerable extent, by which oxygen thus, -80 to say, assimilated, is in no way de- these transformations are accomplished, the only point, pendent on the greater or less complexity of composition which we have an interest in establishing here, being that of the original compound. In the first case we had the nitrogen, when it joins a compound, joins not alone, but simplest of all possible compounds, hydrochloric acid con- in company with hydrogen. In this respect, then, nitrogen sisting of one atom of hydrogen and one of chlorine; in essentially differs from oxygen, which we saw combining the second case we started with a compound containing with bodies, atom by atom, without involving the introtwo atoms of carbon and four of hydrogen, altogether six duction of other materials. atoms, while in the case of crotonic acid not less than

Can we explain this strange difference in the behaviour of four atoms of carbon, six of hydrogen, and two of oxygen, oxygen and nitrogen? Before endeavouring to answer this altogether twelve atoms, were involved.

question, let us examine in what manner carbon atoms are An endless variety of similar examples might be quoted received into the molecules of bodies, whether like oxygen for the purpose of illustrating the generality of the infer- atoms they are capable of joining directly, or like nitrogen ences we have drawn, but I will, with your permission, atoms they are accepted only when presenting themselves assume that I have established my point.

in company with other atoms. Investigation of a special We have, in the next place, to examine whether sub

case appears best fitted to supply the desired information, stances are capable of combining with nitrogen, exactly Among the endless number of carbon compounds, we as we have just seen them unite with oxygen. Remem- could not possibly select a simpler one than marsh-gas. bering as we do that, nitrogen is rather marked by the This transparent, colourless inflammable gas, as every one absence of salient combining powers, we are not surprised knows, escapes from the fissures of the great coal measures to learn that all attempts hitherto made with the view of and accumulates in the galleries of ill-ventilated coal. adding nitrogen directly to other bodies have entirely mines, frequently giving rise to the explosions so much failed. But even indirectly by availing ourselves of dreaded and deplored. It is also often developed from tour,dabout ways, by calling to our

aid the multitude of stagnant pools and swamps, in general from marshy lands, reactions which modern chemistry has brought to light, whence its name. Marsh-gas consists of carbon and nitrogen cannot be added to other substances without in. I hydrogen. Is this substance convertible into a compound

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Royal Institution of Great Britain.


Oct. 6, 1865.



Marsh gas

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which contains a larger amount of carbon By a series Again, we may take another compound as point of deof processes far too numerous and complicated to admit of parture. Formic acid is a body long since discovered to being discussed this evening, marsh-gas may be converted be secreted by the ant. By adding an atom of carbon into hydride of ethyl, a substance of very similar proper- and two of hydrogen to this acid we arrive at acetic acid, ties, and which the members of the Royal Institution have which we have already met with this evening as one of frequently seen prepared by a simpler method discovered the products of the oxidation of olefiant gas. By the sucby Dr. Frankland-viz., the action of zinc-ethyl upon cessive accumulation, within the molecule of this acid, of water. Hydride of ethyl contains one atom of carbon similar quantities of carbon and hydrogen, a long series more than marsh-gas; but with this carbon atom two of acids is formed, including some of the most interesting hydrogen atoms have been simultaneously conferred upon compounds with which the chemist has to deal ; butyric the marsh-gas molecule. On submitting hydride of ethyl acid, contained in butter ; valeric, the active constituent to a similar series of transformations, we convert it by the of the valerian root; caproic and caprylic, obtained from addition of another carbon atom into hydride of propyl, goat's fat; ænanthylic, from castor oil; pelargonic, the but not without fixing again two atoms of hydrogen. odoriferous principle of pelargonium roseum; rutic, the

The same processes may be repeated again and again, product of oxidation of oil of rue ; palmitic, contained in hydride of propyl being converted in its turn into hydride palm oil and in spermaceti ; margaric and stearic, conof butyl, and hydride of butyl into hydride of amyl. stituents of the majority of animal fats; cerotic and We arrive in this manner at a series of bodies very similar melissic acids, lastly occurring in the several waxes. in their properties, each of them differing from the

Increment of Carbon. previous one by the accession of one carbon atom in

Acids. variably linked with two atoms of hydrogen. Many Formic acid. CH, members of this series are found amongst the products of Acetic

CHÚ0, + CH, C, H, O, the distillation of coal ; others, especially those richer in Propionic

CH2O2 + 2CH, Cg H 0 carbon, existing in the American oils, which are now being Butyric

CH,O, + 3CH, CH, 02 80 much used for lighting and other purposes.


CH,0, + 4CH, C H100 The composition of these several bodies may be exhibited Caproic

CH,0, + SCH, Co H202 in the following diagram :

(Enanthylic, CH,0, + 6CH CH Increment of Carbon.


CH,02 + 7CH, - C. HIS Hydro-carbons.


CH,0, + SCH, C, H1802 CH,


CH,02 + 9CH, Ci H2002 Hydride of ethyl

· CH + CH, C,H Hydride of propyl · CH + 2CH, CH,


CH,0, + 1CH, CH40 Hydride of butyl · CH + 3CH, H Cocinic

CH,02 + 12CH, CisH26 Hydride of amyl . CH, + 4CH,


CH,0, + 13CH, CH Hydride of caproyl CH, + SCH, CH Benic

CH,03 + 14CH, Hydride of ananthyl CH, + 6CH,


CH,O, + 15CH, CH32 Hydride of capryl CH+ 7CH,


CH,02 + 16CH, Ci But we may illustrate the law which regulates the in- Stearic

CH,O, + 17CH, = CHO crement of carbon by starting from another foundation. Instead of building on marsh-gas, we make use of the oxide


ch,0,'+ 26CH, – 0,450, of marsh-gas, methylic alcohol. This compound, by the successive addition of one atom of carbon and two of hydrogen,


ci,o,'+-29CH,'- C3H600 produces a series of alcohols which may be regarded

as The action of the acids just examined upon the groups the oxides of the corresponding marsh-gas analogues. The of alcohols previously studied gives rise, as is well known, first compound thus obtained is ethylic alcohol, ordinary to the class of bodies called compound ethers. On arranging spirits of wine; the second, profylic alcohol, generated in some of the numerous bodies belonging to this group into the fermentation of the grape-skin residue of the manufac- a series in which the carbon rises atom by atom, we find, ture of wine ; the third, butylic alcohol, formed by the in exact accordance with our former observations, that the fermentation of the molasses of beetroot sugar; the fourth, accession of one atom of carbon involves the simultaneous amylic alcohol, or potato oil, obtained as a residue in the introduction of two atoms of hydrogen :manufacture of spirit from the starch of potatoes. Caproic, ænanthylic, and caprylic alcohols are further terms of the

Increment of Carbon. series, which rises, not without considerable gaps, to

Compound Ethers. terms containing as many as eighteen, twenty-seven, and Formate of methyl . C,H,O, even thirty atoms of carbon, which are found respectively Formate of ethyl · CH 0,+ CH2=C,H, 0, in palmitic, cerotic, and melissic alcohols--the first, a pro- Acetate of ethyl CH 0, +2CH2=CH, 0, duct of the decomposition of spermaceti; the last two, Butyrate of methyl . CH 02+ 3CH2=C7H100, derived from ordinary bee's wax and Chinese wax.

Butyrate of ethyl C,H,0,+4CH, CH120, Increment of Carbon.

Acetate of amyl CH 0,+SCH, -C,H,O, Alcohols.

All these substances present more or less general interest. Methylic alcohol CH,0

The powerful, and in some cases almost repulsive odours Ethylic

CH0 + CH, C, H, O which the compound ethers possess may be tamed down Propylic

CH0 + 2CH, H, O by dilution, so as to render these substances useful, and, Butylic


C, HO indeed, extensively applied, substitutes for natural Amylic

CH0 +
Cg H20

Formate of methyl, the simplest of all comCaproylic

CHO + SCH, Co H140 pound ethers, like the next term, formate of ethyl, has Enanthylic ,,

CHO + 6CH, C, H 60 received some applications in the flavouring of inferior Caprylic

CHO + (CH, Cg 1280 varieties of rum. Acetate of ethyl, familiar to every one Palmitic

as acetic ether, is used for "improving" certain wines ; CH,0 + 15CH, C6H30 the butyrate of methyl and ethyl, substances which un. Cerotic

diluted possess an almost overwhelming, and by no means CH,0 + 26CH, C2H360 attractive, odour, exhale, when dissolved in an appropriate

amount of spirits of wine, the finest perfume of the pineMelissic

: 08,0 + 29CH, = C3H/20 apple ; acetate of amyl, lastly, the final term of our series,

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Oct. B, 1865.
Academy of SciencesNotices of Books.

169 exhibits the peculiar aroma of the jargonelle pear in so Under the influence of this agent, the granules seem to high a degree that it is now extensively manufactured to contract, separate as flocculi, and fall to the bottom of the flavour the well-known pear drops of our confectioners. vessel. A curious fact pointed out by the author is, that,

I must not, however, dilate too much on the odoriferous on crystallising a solution of iodide of potassium containqualities of the compound ethers; here, indeed, we are ing a slight excess of iodine, the whole of the latter is concerned with these substances only in so far as they taken out by the crystals, the mother-liquor containing afford additional evidence in favour of our speculations respecting the growth of carbon in a series of carbon com- M, Gal presented a note entitled “ Researches on the pounds.

Cyanic Ethers." By passing a current of dry hydrochloric One more illustration, and we shall have done with this acid into perfectly dry cyanic ether (Wurtz's), the author part of our inquiry. In a lecture delivered some time ago obtained a simple combination of the two bodies. It is a in this theatre, I had the honour of submitting to the colourless liquid at ordinary temperatures, has a piquant members of the Royal Institution a brief account of Mauve smell, fumes slightly in contact with moist air, and slowly and Magenta, the remarkable coal - derived colouring becomes a white crystalline mass. On adding a few matters which have sprung from the happy union of in- drops of water to the liquid, the temperature soon begins dustry and science in our times. May I be permitted once to rise, and carbonic acid is evolved. If only a very small more to call your attention for a moment to the group of quantity of water is added, and the tube is cooled, the tinctorial ammonias ! Aniline red, or rosaniline, as it is mixture becomes solid. Treated with more water the called by chemists, is convertible by certain processes solid mass dissolves, and the solution gives a yellow preinto beautiful violet, and even blue colouring matters. cipitate with bichloride of platinum. Analysis shows

This conversion invariably involves addition of carbon that this precipitate is a double chloride of platinum and to the molecule of rosaniline. By its conversion into ethylammonium. The above mentioned solid compound certain varieties of violet, the red fixes six atoms of is therefore chloride of ethylammonium, C,H,N,HCI. carbon ; by its transition into certain bluish shades, not Hydrobromic acid gives a corresponding compound. Both less than fifteen atoms of carbon ore assimilated. In what this and the hydrochloric compound with cyanic ether manner does this increment of carbon affect the amount decompose when heated in sealed tubes ; hydrochloric and uf hydrogen? Inspection of the diagram teaches us that hydrobromic acids escape when the tubes are broken, and aniline violet contains 12 = 2 6 atoms of hydrogen more a crystalline body remains behind, which is cyanuric ether. than aniline red, and that the transition of red into blue The author next studied the action of the hydracids on is attended by an accession of as many as 30 = 2 15 the cyanic ether obtained by M. Cloez by the reaction atoms of hydrogen.

chloride of cyanogen on ethylate of soda. This body, Increment of Carbon..

although isomeric with the ether employed in the above

experiments, differs from it in all other respects. With Colouring Matters. Aniline red C2H2N20

dry hydrochloric acid it furnishes chloride of ethyl and Aniline violet C2H2N 0+ 6CH, = C2H32,0

cyanuric acid, and with hydrobromic acid undergoes a Aniline blue C2H2N,0 + 15CH, = C3H. Ngo

corresponding splitting up.

The author regards this latter as pure cyanic ether, and (To be continued.)

writes its formula

CH} 0

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The properties of the former (obtained by the reaction of September 25.

sulphovinate and cyanate of potash) seem to show that it M. BOUSSINGAULT presented a memoir “On the Functions is a derivative of ammonia, and its composition may be of Leaves.", Having shown before that pure carbonic represented by the formulaoxide is not decomposed by leaves, now details experiments which prove that the same gas is never decomposed when diluted by some inert gas as hydrogen. This inertness of carbonic oxide with regard to the green parts of

NOTICES OF BOOKS. leaves the author takes as a corroboration of the opinion which supposes that leaves simultaneously decompose water and carbonic acid, the latter being transformed into Journal für Praktische Chemie. No. 13. 1865. carbonic oxide: CO2,HÓ=CO,H,O,,CU, H expressing the It is sufficient to say of this number that it contains no relation in which carbon is associated with the elements communication of interest of which some account has not of water in cellulose, starch, and sugar--that is, in the already been given in the CHEMICAL News. principles elaborated by leaves, and whose composition is represented by carbon and water. Further, the author

Chemisches Central Blatt. No. 43. 1865. states that the decomposition of water by leaves is no longer an hypothesis. "He has established the fact by the The numbers of this periodical of late have been destitute analysis of plants grown in an utterly sterile soil under of novelties of interest; but in this number we notice a the influence of carbonic acid and water alone. He then communication by Professor Städeler, entitled “ A Contria proceeds to show that there is a limit to the decomposition bulion to the Knowledge of Aniline Colours," in which he of carbonic acid by leaves. A square centimetre of leaves shows that it is possible to produce true aniline dyes ; that exposed to sunlight for nine hours decomposes 1'14 cc. of is, dyes from aniline without intervention of toluidine. We carbonic acid. A perfectly dry leaf loses its power of shall shortly give an account of the author's experiments. decomposing carbonic acid, and that power can never be restored. The vegetable cell, therefore, offers a striking contrast to the animal cell, since dried infusoria are Death of Professor Beaumert.-We regret to restored to vitality by moisture. The leaf once dried, its announce the recent decease of the above eminent chemist, vitality is destroyed for ever. There is nothing like latent whose name will be remembered in connection with the existence.

early history of ozone. The experiments by which he M. Payen made another communication “ On Jodide of attempted to prove that ozone was an oxide of hydrogen Potassium," in which he showed that the starch granules higher than the binoxide, although not generally accepted, swollen under the influence of the neutral iodide are showed great ingenuity, combined with much philosophical coloured an intense violet by a slight excess of iodine. I acumen.


Miscellaneous -- Answers to Correspondents.

Ondoad Nawi,

Oct. 8, 1865.


containing more sulphocyanogen, seems capable of furnish

ing a larger quantity of mellon, and is the one used in the GRANTS OF PROVISIONAL PROTECTION FOR French serpents. A solution of pernitrate of mercury is

readily precipitated by sulphocyanide of ammonium, and SIX MONTHS.

the mercuric sulphocyanide may be easily so prepared. It Communicated by Mr. Vaughan, PATENT AGENT, 54, Chancery is best to use the mercurial solution as strong as possible,

Lane, W.C. 1884. G. Nimmo, Jersey, New Jersey, U.S.A., “Im- and to keep it in excess throughout the precipitation. provements in the manufacture of pots and crucibles pitated as the pernitrate, probably owing to the solubility

Solution of perchloride of mercury is not so easily preciwherein metals and other materials may be heated or melted.”—Petition recorded July 19, 1865.

of the mercuric sulphocyanide in the chlorides. Perhaps 2008. J.W.Perkins, Norfolk Street, Strand, “Improve- I may be excused for adding that sulphocyanide of aminoments in the treatment of hydrocarbon or paraffine oils." nium, suitable for the above purpose, may be very easily

and economically prepared as follows:-One volume of -August 3, 1865.

W. Unwin, Sheffield, " Improvements in the and four volumes of methylated spirit are put into a large 2307

bisulphide of carbon, four volumes of liq. ammon. fort., manufacture of iron."-September 9, 1865. INVENTION PROTECTED BY THE DEPOSIT OF A COMPLETE of one or two hours, the sulphide of carbon will have

bottle, and the mixture frequently shaken. In the course SPECIFICATION,

entirely dissolved in the ammoniacal liquid, forming a -2436. T. V. Lee, Macclesfield, Cheshire, "Improve deep red solution. When this result is attained, the liquid ments in preparing turf for fire-lights and fuel, and for is boiled until the red colour disappears, and is replaced machinery to be employed therein."--Recorded September by light yellow. The solution is then evaporated at a very 23, 1865.

gentle heat (about 80° or 90° F.) until it crystallises, or NOTICES TO PROCEED.

just to dryness. The product is sulphocyanide of ammo1349. H. A. Bonneville, Rue du Mont Thabor, Paris, nium, sufficiently pure for the above purpose. One re“ Improvements in hydrometers for ascertaining the crystallisation from alcohol will render it quite white. strength of spirits and the specific gravity of fluids.”-A One ounce of bisulphide of carbon yields by this process communication from C. A. Valsou, Rue de Ponthieu, Paris. exactly one ounce of sulphocyanide of ammonium.". -Petition recorded May 15, 1865.

Industries of Birmingham and its Neighbour.

hood.- Following the example set at Newcastle, some MISCELLANEOUS

Birmingham gentlemen are about to publish a series of

reports on their local industries. The volume, it is said, Money Grants of tho British Association. The will include reports prepared by gentlemen whose abilities following are the only grants made by the British Asso- and experience in their various departments will give the ciation for chemical investigations :--Mr. Fairley, poly- work an official and authoritative value as a récord of the cyanides of organic radicles, 20l.; Dr. Matthiessen, cast history and progress of the multifarious trades of Biriron (renewed), sol. Those made for geological observa- mingham and the district. The manufacture of brasstions (which involve, we imagine, agreeable trips on the foundry, buttons, boilers, bedsteads (iron and brass), part of the observers) amount to 415l., and those for cables, chandeliers, coins, medals, and dies ; electro-plate, zoology, botany, and physiology amount to 3401. The gas fittings, glass (crown, flint, and stained), guns and amount granted for Kew Observatory is only 6ool., a pistols, hinges, japan waré, jewellery, nails (cut and miserable sum when the work done there is taken into wrought), needles, nuts and bolts, optical instruments, account. Some of the grants, we think, might reasonably paper, papier maché, pins and needles, railway carriages, have been withheld, and the money better applied in rules, saddlery, saws, steel pens, surgical instruments, tin improving the salaries of the Kew officials.

plate goods, wire, wire working, wood screws, and many Pharaoh's Serpents. The following account of the more of the infinitely varied trades will be fully described, curious experiment mentioned by our Paris correspondent The South Staffordshire district will be reported on by a last week is contributed to the Pharmaceutical Journal by local committee appointed for the purpose, and the report Mr. C. H. Wood :-"A very curious toy is now being sold will include an account of the coalfield, and its probable in Paris, under the name of Pharoah's Serpent. As this extent and duration, by Mr. J. Beete Jukes, the statistics toy really constitutes an interesting chemical experiment, of the iron and coal trades, and a history and description perhaps an account of it may prove interesting to your of the manufactures of the principal towns of the “ Black readers. It consists of a little cone of tinfoil, containing a Country;" forming a complete and detailed account of the white powder, about an inch in height, and resembling a vast resources and varied products of the Midland hardpastille. This cone is to be lighted at its apex, when there ware towns. Some account of the North Staffordshire immediately begins issuing from it a thick, serpent-like iron trade, of the products of Stourbridge, Kidderminster, coil, which continues twisting and increasing in length to Redditch, and Coventry, will also be included in the work, an almost incredible extent. The quantity of matter thus which will show the enormous extent, varieties, and excel. produced is truly marvellous, especially as the coil which lence of the products of the district described. so exudes is solid, and may be handled, although, of course, it is extremely light and somewhat fragile. Having ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. a little of the white powder, with which the cones are filled, placed at my disposal by a friend, I submitted it to B. M. W.-We have no faith in our correspondent's disinfectant. analysis, and found it to consist of sulphocyanide of mer- His chemistry is decidedly at fault.

Books Received.--"Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science;" cury. This salt, when heated to a temperature below

"Ophthalmic Review;" "Scientific Review;" “ Dictionary of Cheredness, undergoes decomposition, swelling or growing in mistry," Part XXXI. Phonol--Phenylamines. size in a most remarkable manner, and producing a mix

Received.--"Thallium;" T. Fairley : 99. ture of mellon (a compound of carbon and nitrogen), with

Errata.- Page 148, second column, for a little sulphide of mercury. The resulting mass often

(NaCl - 68-82) + 100

15496 assumes a most fantastic shape, and is sufficiently coherent

(Naci — 68•82) X 100 to retain its form ; it presents a yellow colour on the

15'96 exterior, but is black within. The 'serpent' shape, of

Also for

(84•78 - NaCl) + 100 course, results from the salt being burnt in a cone of tin.

15'96 foil. Both the mercurous and mercuric sulphocyanides

(84 78 - NaCl) x ico decompose in the same manner ; but the mercuric salt,





Oct. 13, 1865.

Note on Zirconium.




ganese and ammonia








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presented 2206 casks, was specially examined for rare

earths, but without success. By operating on 5000 CHEMISTRY,

grains I obtained traces of phosphate of alumina, phos

phate of lime, strontia, and a minute trace of arsenic. Note on Zirconium, by Dr. T. L. PHIPSON. No trace could be found of nitric acid, boracic acid comAfter having found that magnesium heated to fusion bined with a base, nickel, cobalt, zinc, uranium, selenium, in close vessels with the acids silicic, boracic, and carbonic,

or lithia. liberated the radicals of these acids, I thought that zir

The peculiar odour of crude boracic acid appears to conium might be prepared in the same manner; for many This body is probably

connected with the gaseous hydro

me to be due to the organic matter soluble in alcohol. facts show a great analogy between this body and silicium. In 1863. I had not enough of pure zirconia to carbon mentioned as found in the vapours of the Suffioni make the experiments in a conclusive manner. Since

in Watts's “ Dictionary of Chemistry,” fol. 636.
then I have prepared a certain quantity with the zir-
conian syenite of Norway. I obtain thus a zirconia con-

1859 1860

1863 taining about 2 per cent. of yttria. On repeating the crystallised boracic acid 83305 83'54 83-10 8415 816752 82'590 experiment I found that oxide of zirconium is reduced Double sulphate of magas easily as silicic acid or boracic acid, under the influence Double sulphate of man

6.479 581 5:58 4.86 7.596 6696 of magnesium. The reduction takes place at the moment

901 the magnesium begins to melt, and zirconium is obtained Double sulphate of soda in form of a velvety black powder. Dilute hydrochloric Ammonia alum . acid dissolves the whole of the magnesia formed.

Sulphate of ammonia


2815 In this manner one can easily obtain large quantities Sulphate of lime

Chloride of ammonium

"796 of amorphous zirconium. I have also reduced titanic acid. Sulphate of potash


396 But whilst silicium and titanium (in some of my experi- Persulphate of iron and

256 ments) can form gases on combining with hydrogen, Silica and alumina


958 boron and zirconium do not. The five bodies carbon, Peroxide of iron boron, zirconium, silicium, and titanium, form evidently Free sulphuric acid a group of very similar elements.-- Cosmos.

Organic matter soluble in


Organic matter insolublo What are the Source, Annual Yield, and Characteristics Moisture

: of the so-called Volcanic Ammonia ? * by Mr. W. D. HOWARD.

The only characteristic of the ammonia derived from THERE is no difficulty in giving the requested informa- this source that I am aware of is its perfect purity and tion as to the source and characteristics of the ammonia; | freedom from all those minute traces of evil-smelling the annual yield is not so easily arrived at. However, compounds with which both that made from gas liquor whatever information I can give is very much at the and from bones is so liable to be tainted. service of the Pharmaceutical Conference.

The annual yield of the lagoons is, as I previously To begin, then, with the source. Almost any chemical stated, an almost impossible problem. Doubtless the handbook will show that the proprietor of those mar- amount of ammonia arriving in this country in the vellous geological riddles, the boracic acid lagoons of boracic acid is a very small amount in comparison with Tuscany, does not succeed in preparing from the waters that which is yearly run away in the mother liquors. of the lagoons his acid in a state of purity. In com- Nor do I think that there would be a profit on collectmerce it always appears containing from 13 to 20 per ing it, as the price it would fetch in this market would cent. of impurities, besides adherent moisture. Con- hardly do more than cover the expenses of transit. spicuous among these stand various double salts of ammonia, notably the double sulphate of magnesia and ammonia, and from these the ammonia is derived by a On the Action of Light upon Sulphide of Lead, and its very simple process-viz., the double decomposition bearing upon the Preservation of Paintings in Picture which ensues when the sodu ash is added to the rough Galleries, by Dr. D. S. PRICE. boracic acid in the manufacture of borax. The carbonate The author's attention was directed to this subject by of ammonia escapes with the carbonic acid and steam, observing that in the cases in the South Kensington and is easily condensed by a suitable apparatus. After Museum, which are painted with white lead, that suba second purification it takes the form which is tolerably stances which emitted sulphurous vapours did not cause familiar to the members of the Conference.

a darkening of the surface of the case, excepting where To illustrate the subject, I give analyses made of an it was protected from the direct influence of light. A average of the greater part of the boracic acid imported number of experiments was then tried as to the action in each of the years 1858 to 1863 inclusive, representing of light upon sulphide of lead produced by the action of 9307 casks. As every one of the casks was sampled, sulphuretted hydrogen upon lead paint. A board painted and special pains were taken that the annual average white with white lead was exposed for several hours to should not belie its name, the analyses may be fairly the action of sulphuretted hydrogen, until the surface considered to represent the actual yield of the lagoons had acquired a uniform brown colour. Plates of glass in those years. Further to ensure accuracy, larger of different colours were then placed upon the painted quantities than customary were used in the analyses, as surface, one portion being at the same time covered with much as 500 grains being generally employed, and some an opaque medium, and another left entirely exposed. of the more minute constituents being determined on The board was then placed facing the light. The glasses twice that quantity. The average of 1862, which re-employed were red, blue, yellow (silver), violet, and * Read at the meeting of the Pharmaceutical Conference.

| Read at the meeting of the British Association. VoL .XII. No. 306.-OCTOBER 13, 1865.

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