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who may have been, as they thought themselves to be, a vista of long duration stretches before us, for no such the primitive people of the land.|| But beyond the Kental changes of climate can be supposed to have occurred who occupied the sources of the Danube and the slopes of except as the effect of great physical changes, requiring the Pyrenees, and were known to Rome in later days, a lapse of many thousa::ds of years. And though we may there was present to the mind of the father of Grecian think such changes of climate not proved, and probably history a still more western race, the Cynetæ, who may careful weighing of evidence may justify our disbelief, perhaps be supposed the very earliest people of the ex. still, if the valleys in Picardy have been excavated since treme west of the continent of Europe. Were those the the deposit of the gravel of St. Acheul, ** and the whole people, the first poor pilgrims from the East, whose foot- face of the country has been altered about the caverns of steps we are slowly tracing in the valleys of Picardy and Torquay since they received remains of animals and traces the south of England, if not on the borders of the lakes of mantt-how can we admit these facts and yet refuse of Switzerland ? Are their kindred still to be found among the time required for their accomplishment? First, let us the Rhætic Alps and the Asturian cliffs, if not amid the be sure of the facts, and especially of that main fact upon wilds of Connemara, pressed into those mountainous re- which all the argument involving immensity of time really cesses by the legions of Rome, the spear of the Visigoth, turns, viz., the contemporaneous existence of man with and the sword of the Saxon? Or must we regard i hem the mammoth of the plains and the bear of the caverns. as races of an earlier type, who had ceased to chip flints The remains of men are certainly buried with those of before the arrival of Saxon, or Goth, or Kelt, or Cynetian: extinct quadrupeds; but did they live in the some days, These questions of romantic interest in the study of the or do we see relics of different periods gathered into one distribution and languages of the families of man are part locality by natural processes of a later date, or confused of a large circle of inquiry which finds sympathy in several by the operations of men ? of our sections, especially those deroted to Zoology, Phy- Before replying finally to these questions, further resiology, and Ethnology. Let us not expect or desire for searches of an exact kind are desirable, and the Associathem a very quick, or, at present, a very definite settle. tion has given its aid towards them, both in respect to the ment. Deep shadows have gathered over all the earlier old cavern of Kent's Hole, and the newly-opened fissure ages of mankind, which perhaps still longer periods of of Gibraltar, from which we expect great results, though time may not avail to remove. Yet let us not undervalue the best of our labourers has ceased from his honourable the progress of ethnological inquiry, nor fail to mark how, toil. II When these and many other researches are comwithin the period to which our recollections cling, the pleted, some future Lyell, if not our own great geologist, revelations of early Egypt have been followed by a chron- may add some fresh chapters to the “ Antiquity of Man.' ology of the ancient kingdoms on the Tigris and Euphrates, In judging of this antiquity, in counting the centuries through the same rigorous study of language. Thus has which may have elapsed since smoothed flints fitted with our Rawlinson add another page to the brilliant dis- handles of wood were used as chisels and axes by the coveries of Young and Champollion, Lepsius and Rosellini. earliest people of Scandinavia or Helvetia, and fiakes of Nor, though obtained in a different way, must we forget fint were employed to cleanse the skins of the reindeer in the new knowledge of a people nearer home, which the the caves of the Dordogne, or stronger tools broke up the philosophic mind of Keller has opened to us among his ice in the valley of the Somme, we must be careful native mountains. There, on the borders of the Alpine not to take what is the mark of low civilisation for lakes, before the great Roman general crossed the Rhone, the indication of very remote time. In every country, lived a people older than the Helvetians; whose rude among every race of men, such rude weapons are lives, passed in hunting and fishing, were nevertheless used now, or were used formerly. On the banks of marked by some of the inany inventions which everywhere, the Ohio, no less than on the English hills, mounds even in the most unfavourable situations, accompany the of earth, rude pottery, and stone weapons occur in least civilised of mankind. Implements of stone and abundance; and indicate similar wants, contrivances, pottery of the rudest sort belong to the earliest of these customs, ideas, in different races of men living in different people; while ornamented iron weapons of war, and in periods. Even when in the same country, as in Switzernumerable other fabrics in that metal, appear about the land, or England, or Denmark, successive deposits of inlater habitations, and correspond probably to the period struments of stone, bronze, or iron ; successive burials of of the true Helvetii, who quitted their home and con- pines, beeches, and oaks ; successively extinguished races tended with Cæsar for richer settlements in Gaul. The of elephants, elks, and reindeer, give us a real scale of people of whom these are the traces on almost every lake elapsed time, it is one of which the divisions are not yet in Switzerland are recognised as well in the ancient lake. valued in years or centuries of years. basins of Lombardy and among the Tyrolean Alps, and

Toward a right judgment of the length of this scale of farther on the north side of the mountains; and probably human occupation, two other lines of evidence may be fresh discoveries may connect them with the country of thought worthy of notice; one founded on the anatomical the Sarmatians and the Scythians.

study of the remains of early men, the cther on the laws Thus at length is fairly opened, for archæology and of language. If the varieties of physical strueture in man, palæontology to read, a new chapter of the world's history, and the deviations of language from an original type, be which begins in the pleistocene periods of geology, and natural effects of time and circumstance, the length of time rcaches to the prehistoric ages of man,

Did our ancestors may be in some degree estimated by the amount of the really contend, as the poets fancied, 1 with stones and diversities which are observed to have happened, compared lubs against the

lion and the rhinocerous, and thus expel with the variation which is now known to be happening; them from their native haunts, or have they been removed mankind to have had one local centre, and one original

This process becomes imaginary, unless we assume all by change of climate or local physical conditions ? Was the existence of the hyæna and the elephant only possible language. Its results must be erroneous, unless we take in Western Europe while a climate prevailed there such fully into account the superior fixity of languages which as now belongs to Africa or India ? and was this period

are represented in writing, and the greater tendency to of high temperature reduced in a later time for the elk, diversity of every kind which must have prevailed in early reindeer, and musk ox, which undoubtedly roamed over the hills of England an France ? If we think so, what Roy. Inst., Feb. 1864.

** Prestwich, Transactions of the Royal Society, 1800, and Proc. of 1 “Britannicæ pars interior ab iis incolitur, quos natos in insula

tt Pengelly, Reports of the British Association, 1861. ipsa memoria proditum dicunt."-(Cæsar, v. 12.)

11 The late Dr. Hugh Falconer, whose knowledge of the fossil

animals of caves was remarkably exact, took a great share in theso Lucretius, v. 964–1283.

examinations.

CHEMICAL NEWS,

Sept. 15, 1865.

1 28

British Association.

or

times, when geographical impediments were aggravated by admitted that plants and animals form many natural dissocial habits of life. It appears, however, certain that groups, the members of which have several common chasome differences of language, organisation, and habits have racters, and are parted from other groups by a real separated men of apparently unlike races during periods boundary line, or rather unoccupied space. Next, that longer than those which rest on historical facts.us

each of these groups has a limited distribution in space, Ever since the days of Aristotle, the analogy existing often restrained by high mountains or deep seas, among all parts of the animal kingdom, and in a general parallels of temperature, within which it has been brought sense we may say among all the forms of life has become into being. Thirdly, that each group has been submitted more and more the subject of special study. Related as all to, or is now undergoing the pressure of a general law, living beings are to the element in which they move and by which its duration is limited in geological time; the breathe, to the mechanical energies of nature which they same group never reappearing after being removed from employ or resist, and to the molecular forces which pene- the series. trate and transform them, some general conformity of How important, in the view of this and many other structure, some frequently recurring resemblance of func- questions, is that never-tiring spirit of geographical and tion, must be present, and cannot be overlooked. In the maritime discovery, to which through 400 years Europe several classes this analogy grows stronger, and in the sub- has sent her noblest sons and her most famous expeditions ; divisions of these classes real family affinity is recognised. sent them, alas ! too often to an early grave. Alas ! for In the smallest divisions which have this family relation Franklin, who carried the magnetic flag into the Icy Sea in the highest degree, there seems to be a line which cir- from which he had already brought trophies to science ! cumscribes each group, within which variations occur, Alas! for Speke, who came home with honour from the from food, exercise, climate, and transmitted peculiarities. head waters of the Nile! Forgotten they can never be, Often one specific group approaches another, or several whenever on occasions like this we mourn the absence of others, and a question arises whether, though now distinct, our bravest and our best; praise, never-ending praise be or rather distinguishable, they always have been so from their theirs, while men retain the generous impulse which beginning, or will be always so until their disappearance. prompts them to enterprises worthy of their country and

Whether what we call species are so many original crea- beneficial to mankind ! tions or derivations from a few types or one type, is dis.

'Αεί σφών κλέος έσσεται κατ' αθαν. cussed at length in the elegant treatise of Darwin|||, himself a naturalist of eminent rank. It had been often discussed tions of the last thirty-three years is claimed for the

If it be asked wha: share in the discoveries and invenbefore. Nor will any one think lightly of such inquiries, British Association, let us answer fearlessly, We had a who remembers the essay of Linnæus, “ De Telluris orbis incremento,” or the investigations of Brown, Prichard, part in all. In some of them we took the foremost place Forbes, Agassiz, and Hooker regarding the local origin of by the frequency of our discussions, the urgency of our diff-rent species, genera, and families of plants and animals, the grant of our funds. For others we gave all our

recommendations, the employment of our influence, and both on the land and in the sea. posed to undervalue its importance, when he reflects on the strength, to support the Royal Society and other Institumany successive races of living forms more or less re

tions in their efforts to accomplish purposes which we sembling our existing quadrupeds, reptiles, fishes, and approve. In all instances our elastic system responds mollusca, which appear to have occupied definite and quickly to pressure, and returns the friendly impulse. If

we look back on the work of previous years, it is easy to different parts of the depths of ancient time; as now the mark the special action of the Association in fields which tiger and the jaguar, the cayman and the gavial, live on different parts of the terrestrial surface. Is the living

ele- | hardly could be entered by any other adventurers. phant of Ceylon the lineal descendant of that mammoth

Many of the most valuable labours of which we are which roamed over Siberia and Europe, and North now reaping the fruits, were undertaken in consequence America, or of one of those sub- Himalayan tribes which of the reports on special branches of science which appear Dr. Falconer has made known, or was it a species dwelling

in the early volumes of our Transactions-reports in which only in circumpolar regions? Can our domestic cattle, particular data were requested for confirming or correcthorses, and dogs, our beasts of chase and our beasts of ing known generalisations, or for establishing new ones. prey, be traced back to their source in older types, con

Thus a passage in Professor Airy's report on Physical temporaries of the urus, megaceros, and hyæna on the Astronomy* first turned the attention of Adams to the plains of Europe ? If so, what range of variation in struc- Tidest came before the experimental researches and re

mathematical vision of Neptune ; Lubbock's Report on ture does it indicate ? if not so, by what characters are the auctions which since 1834 have so often engaged the living races separated from those of earlier date?

Specific questions of this kind must be answered attention of Whewell and Airy and Haughton, with before the general proposition, that the forms of life results so valuable and so suggestive of further underare indefinitely variable with time and circumstance, takings. Among these results may be placed additional can be even examined by the light of adequate evi- knowledge of the probable depth of the channels of the dence. That such evidence will be gathered and

sea. For before the desire of telegraphic communication rightly interpreted, I for one neither doubt nor fear ;

with America had caused the bed of the North Atlantic nor will any be too hasty in adopting extreme opinions or

to be explored by soundings to a depth seldom exceeding too fearful of the final result, who remember how often

three miles, there was reason to conclude from the investhat which is true has been found very different from that tigations of Whewell on Cotidal Linest that a depth of which was plausible, and how often out of the nettles of nine miles was attained in the South

Atlantic, and from the danger we have plucked the flowers of safety. At the separate computations of Airy and Haughton that a somepresent moment the three propositions which were ever

what greater depth occurred in a part of the course of the present to the mind of Edward Forbes

may be successfully greater portion of the sea-bed is within reach of soundings

tide wave which washes the coast of Ireland.Ş The maintained, as agreeing with many observed phenomena ; and around them as a basis of classification may be gathered most of the facts and most of the speculations indeed observed that the planet Uranus and his satellites, lately

Reports of the British Association for 1832, p. 154. Laplace had which relate to the history of life. First, it may be discovered, give reason to suspect the existence of some planets not CHEMICAL News,

yet observed;" thereby encouraging the search for new discoveries $8 Max Muller on the Science of Language.

in our own system. (“Exp. du Syst. du Monde ") 1799, 4to. p. 350.) Will On the Origin of Species, 1859. TI See the remarkable ess:«y of E. Forbes on the distribution of

+ Reports of the British Association, 1832. the existing Fauna and Flora of the British Isles, in "Memoirs of

Trans. of Roy. Soc., 1833. Geol. Survey of Britain," vol. i., p. 336.

§ Trans. of Roy. Irish Acad., 1855.

Sept. 16, 1865.

British Association.

129

directed by the superior skill and greater perseverance of operate with our observers at Kew, Toronto, and St. modern scientific navigators; a depth of six miles is said Helena; and General Sabine, by combining all this united to have been reached in one small tract of the North labour, has the happiness of seeing results established of Atlantic; depths of nine or ten miles in the deepest, which no man dreamed-laws of harmonious variation channels of the sea are probable from considering the affecting the magnetic elements of the globe, in definite general proportion which is likely to obtain between sea relation to the earth's movement, the position of the sun depths and mountain-tops. Thus the data are gradually and moon, the distribution of temperature, and the situabeing collected for a complete survey of the bed of the tion in latitude and longitude. Il sea, including among other things information, at least, Our efforts have not been fruitless, whether with Mr. concerning the distribution of animal and vegetable life Mallet we make experiments on artificial earthshocks at beneath the waters.

Dalkey, or survey the devastations round Vesuvius, or Waves-their origin, the mechanism of their motion, tabulate the records of eartlıquakes since the beginning of their velocity, their elevation, the resistance they offer to history?! ; or establish the Kew Observatory as a scien. vessels of given form, these subjects have been firmly kept tific workshop where new instruments of research are in view by the Association, since first Professor Challis made and proved and set to work* ; or dredge the sea reported on the mathematical problems they suggest, and with Forbes, and Brady, and Jeffreyst; or catalogue the Sir J. Robinson and Mr. Scott Russell undertook to study stars with Bailyt; or investigate electricity with Harris, them experimentally. I Out of this inquiry has come a Ronalds, Thomson, and Jenking; or try the action of better knowledge of the forms which ought to be given long-continued heat with Harcourt|| : in these and a hunto the “lines of ships, followed by swifter passages dred other directions our attempts to gain knowledge hare across the sea, both by sailing vessels and steamers, of brought back new facts and new laws of phenomena, or larger size and greater lengths than were ever tried better instruments for attaining or better methods for interbefore. **

preting them. Even when we enter the domain of pracOne of the earliest subjects to acquire importance in our tical art, and apply scientific methods to test a great thoughts was the unexplored region of meteorology laid process of manufacture, we do not fail of success ; because open in Professor J. Forbes' Reports.ft Sereral of the we are able to join in united exertion the laborious cultipoints to which he called attention have been successfully vators of science and the scientific employers of labour. attained. The admirable instruments of Whewell, Osler, Am I asked to give an exam.ple? 'Let it be iron, the and Robinson have replaced the older and ruder anemo- one substance by the possession of which, by the true meters, and are everywhere in full operation, to record the knowledge and right use of which, more than by any momentary variations of pressure, or sum the varying other thing, our national greatness is supported. What velocities of the wind. No small thanks were due to are the ores of iron-what the peculiarities and improveMr. Marshall and Mr. Millerfi for their enterprise and ments of the emelting processes-what the quality of the perseverance in placing rain gauges and thermometers iron-its chemical composition—its strength in columns amidst the peaks of Cumberland and Westmoreland. and girders as cast-iron; in rails and boiler plate, in tubes These experiments are now renewed in both counties and and chains, as wrought iron-what are the best forms in in North Wales ; and I hope to hear of similar efforts which to employ it, the best methods of preserving it from among the mountains of the West of Ireland and the West decay ;-these and many other questions are answered by of Scotland. Our meteorological instruments of every many special reports in our volumes, bearing the names of kind have been improved ; our system of photographic Barlow, Mallet, Porter, Fairbairn, Bunsen, Playfair, Percy, registration has spread from Kew into other observatories ; Budd, Hodgkinson, Thomson ; and very numerous other and our corresponding member, Professor Dovè, has col communications from Lucas, Fairbairn, Cooper, Nicholson, lected into systematic maps and tables the lines and figures, Price, Crane, Hartley, Davy, Mushet, Hawkes, Penny, which represent annual and monthly climate over every Scoresby, Dawes, Calvert, Clark, Cox, Hodgkinson, May, land and sea.

Schafhaeutl, Johnston, Clay, and Boutigny. Beyond a In the same manner, by no sudden impulse or acci- question, a reader of such of these valuable documents as dental circumstance, rose to its high importance that great relate to the strength of iron, in its various forms, would system of magnetic observations, on which for more than be far better informed of the right course to be followed a quarter of a century the British Association and the in experiments on armour-plated ships and forts to resist Royal Society, acting in concert, have been intent. First, assault, and in the construction of ordnance to attack we had reports on the mathematical theory and experi- them, than he is likely to be from merely witnessing a mental researches of magnetism by Christie, 1833, thousand trials of the cannon against the target. Any one Whewell, 1835, and Sabine, 1835; afterwards, a magnetic who remembers what the iron furnace was forty years ago, survey of the British islands ; f) then the establishment and knows its present power of work, or who contrasts of a complete observatory at Dublin, with newly-arranged the rolling mills and hammers of other days with the instruments, by Dr. Lloyd, in 1838. On all this gathered beautiful machines which now, with the gentlest motion, experience we founded a memorial to Her Majesty's but irresistible force, compel the strong metal to take up Government, made a grant of 400l. from our funds for the most delicately moulded form, will acknowledge that preliminary expenses, and presented to the meeting of this within the period since the British Association began to Association in Birmingham in 1839 a report of progress, set itself to the task of reconciling the separated powers signed by Herschel and Lloyd. From that time how great of theory and experience there has been a total change in the labour, how inestimable the fruits ! Ross sails to the the aspect of each, to the great advantage of both. magnetic pole of the South ; America and Russia co

Un Trang. of the Royal Society for many years ; Reports of the | Reports of the British Association, 1833, 1836.

British Association, 1840 and following years; Rede Lecture, 1862. I Ibid. 1837 and following years.

19 British Association Reports; Experiments at Dalkey, 1853;

Report on Earthquakes, 1840-1858. See also the excellent communi. ** Ibid., 1840-1843.

cations of M. Perrey to the Memoirs of the Academy of Dijon. ft Reports of the British Association, 1832—1840.

# The Kew Observatory became a part of the system of the Associa11 Mr Marshall's Observations were made in Patterdale, Mr. Miller's

tion in 1842. ab ut Wastriale Head. (British Association Reports for 1846, and

+ See Reports of the Dredging Committees from 1842 to 1864; Nat. Royal Society's Transactions, 1850.)

Hist. Trans. of Northumberland and Durlam; Jeffreys' British

Conchology. $$ The survey was begun in Ireland in 1835, by Lloyd, Sabine, and British Association Catalogue of Stars, 1845. Ross; and completed in England, Wales, and Scotland in 1837, by the Š The latest result of these researches is an instrumental star dard same magneticians, assisted by Fox and Phillips. It was repeated in of electrical resistance. (Reports of the British Association, 1863. 1857 and following years by Sabine, Lloyd, Welsh, Haughton, Galo 1854.) braith, and Stoney.

11 Roports of the British Association, 1846-1860.

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CHEMICAL News, 130 British Association Academy of Sciences.

Sept. 15, 1865. Our undertakings have not been fruitless.

We at

our applause, and, if need be, our help. Welcoming and tempted what we had well considered, and had the power joining in the labour of all, we shall keep our place among to accomplish ; and we had the more than willing help of those who clear the roads and remove the obstacles from competent persons of our own body, the friendly aid of the paths of science; and whatever be our own success in other Institutions, and the sanction of the Government, the rich fields which lie before us, however little we may convinced of the sincerity of our purpose and the wisdom now know, we shall prove that in this our day we knew of our recommendations.

at least the value of knowledge, and joined hearts and The same work is ever before us; the same prudence is hands in the endeavour to promote it. always necessary; the same aid is always ready, Great, indeed, should be our happiness in reflecting on the many occasions when the Royal Society in particular, and other Institutions older than our own, have readily placed them

ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. selves by our side, to share our responsibility and diminish

September 4. our difficulties. But for this, our wishes might not always have prevailed ; and the horizon of science would M. BÉCHAMP presented a memoir “On the Ageing of not have been so clear as now it is. Of late years, indeed, Wines.” In his lectures on the vinous fermentation the societies formed on our model have taken up special parts author has said that all the acids, alcohols, ethers, and of our work; and thus to some extent have relieved us of even extractive matters in wine may react on each other the pressure of communications relating to the practice of in the course of time, and produce the alterations of colour, particular professions and the progress of some public flavour, and bouquet which, when achieved, constitute questions. Not that scientific agriculture, social statistics, the peculiarities of old wines. Recent writers, and or physiology are neglected in our meetings, but that these M. Pasteur in particular, contest the truth of this stateand other practical subjects are found to have more than ment, and their writings, M. Béchamp thinks, tend to put one aspect, and to require more than one mode of treat- wine producers on a wrong path. The author's object in this

With us, facts well ascertained, conclusions memoir appears to be to advise wine makers to continue rightly drawn, will ever be welcome, from what. in the old way, to allow wine to ripen for a time in the ever quarter of the horizon of science they make wood, and then to bottle. In opposition to M. Pasteur, their appearance.

Whatever societies cultivate these he asserts that the cause of the improvement of wine by objects, they are our allies, and we will help them, if we age is a fermentation provoked by organisms developed may. With pleasure we receive proofs of the good work after the alcoholic ferment properly so called ; and he done in limited districts by the many admirable field states that wine is improved by an influence analogous to clubs formed by our countrymen ; whether, like those of that which spoils it. The whole secret of improving wine, Tyne-side and the Cotswolds, and in this immediate he says, is to favour the production of the benevolent vicinity those of Warwickshire, Worcestershire, and organisms. What these are he does not tell us : all the Dudley, they explore the minutest recesses of our hills author states is that they are very small and very mobile. and glens; or, like the rangers of the Alps, bring us new Wine, he tells us, is improved by a heat which does not facts regarding glaciers, ancient climate, and altered levels destroy these animals, but exaggerates their functions. of land and sea.

M. Jeannel gave an account of some “Researches on By these agreeable gatherings natural history is most Supersaturated Saline Solutions." The author states, in favourably commended ; and in the activity and enlarged opposition to MM. Gerenz and Viollette, that the crystallviews of the officers who conduct them, the British Asso- isation of supersaturated solutions is not determined by ciation recognises the qualities, by which the vitality of saline particles floating in the air. He states that in vessels scientific research is maintained, and its benefits diffused with narrow mouths, crystallisation is completely preamong the provincial institutions of the Empire.

vented, although access of air is allowed ; and a solution Such, Gentlemen, are some of the thoughts which fill of tartrate of soda will crystallise in a sealed vessel. The the minds of those who, like our Brewster, and Harcourt, solid walls of the vessels have an important influence on and Forbes, and Murchison, and Daubeny, stood, anxious the crystallisation. When the extent of these predominate but hopeful, by the cradle of this British Association; and over the solution crystallisation never takes place. A hot who now meet to judge of its strength and measure its supersaturated solution of sulphate of soda placed in progress. When, more than thirty years ago, this Parlia- drops on a glass plate cools without crystallising ; under ment of Science came into being, its first child-language the same circumstances, a supersaturated solution of alum was employed to ask questions of Nature ; now, in riper | dries up. years, it founds on the answers received further and more definite inquiries directed to the same prolific source of

M. Carret has a note “ On the New Epidemic in Saroy," useful knowledge. Of researches in science completed, in which he reasserts the cause of this disease to be the in progress, or in beginning, each of our annual volumes carbonic oxide produced by the cast-iron stoves. His contains some three hundred or more passing notices, or nephew, M. Jules Carret, has proved the presence of the full and permanent records. This digest and monument gas in a room heated by a cast-iron stove. of our labours is indeed in some respects incomplete, since M. Fougué communicated, through M. St. Claire it does not always contain the narrative or the result of Deville, several analyses of " Gases evolved from Springs undertakings which we started, or fostered, or sustained ; around Mount Etna." In some of these marsh gas preand I own to having experienced on this account once or dominated, in others carbonic acid, and in a few nearly twice a feeling of regret. But the regret was soon lost in pure nitrogen was collected. the gratification of knowing that other and equally beneficial channels of publication had been found; and that by which may prove of great value. He calls it a “ Ready

M. Maurand submitted to the Academy an instrument these examples it was proved how truly the Association kept to the real purpose of its foundation, “ the Advance with ease and accuracy the weights and measures of all

Reckoner (prompt calculateur), and it is intended to reduce ment of Science," and how heartily it rejoiced in this nations to the French metric equivalents, and vice versa. advancement without looking too closely to its own share in the triumph. Here, indeed, is the stronghold of the

The cholera still occupies many of the correspondents British Association. Wherever and by whatever means

of the Academy. M. Espagne writes from Montpellier sound learning and useful knowledge are advanced, there that mild mercurialisation is a certain preservative from to us are friends. Whoever is privileged to step beyond the disease ; and M. J. F. Saunders sends a prescription his fellows on the road of scientific discovery will receive which was very useful in 1849.

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NOTICES TO PROCEED.
NOTICES OF BOOKS.

1141. W. E. Gedge, Wellington Street, Strand, “ An

improved pessary.”-A communication from L. A. Rigaux, Annales de Chemie et de Physique. July, 1865. Paris.-Petition recorded April 24, 1865. This journal, although dated July, has but just reached 1153. J. N. Brown, Handsworth, and T. D. Clare, Bir

It contains an article by M. Berthelot" On a New mingham, “Improvements in the manufacture of iron and Class of IsomersKenomers.” We gave a short notice of in preparing fuel to be used in the manufacture and meltthis paper some time ago on its appearance in the Comptes ing of iron.”-August 25, 1865. Rendus, but its interest may justify a fuller abstract on a 1193. R. Ferrie, J. Murray, and A. Wilson, Paisley, future occasion. The next paper is by M. Brassier, “ On "Improvements in dyeing yarns." the Changes which Checse Undergoes with Age." The 1198. T. White, Camden Town, "Improvements in author shows that in cheese, both salted and unsalted, a apparatus employed in the reburning of animal charcoal." considerable amount of leucine and other bodies soluble - April 29, 1865. in alcohol are formed at the expense of the caseine,

1286. J. H. Johnson, Lincoln's Inn Fields, " Improvefatty matters, and lactine originally present. A translation ments in the manufacture of paraffine candles.”—A coinof a memoir by Bischof “ On the Stassfurth Salt Mines” munication from A. E. Pearson, Paris.- May 9, 1865. follows. These mines, our readers will remember, contain 1386. W. Davey, Hackney Wick, “ Improvements in a deposit of chloride of potassium, and have had an im- apparatus for washing or purifying coal gas, and for proportant influence on the production of potash compounds. ducing ammoniacal water therefrom.”—May 19, 1865. The geological part of Bischof's paper is of great interest. The last article is the commencement of a paper of much value by Dr. Icery, of Mauritius, “ Researches on the Juice

CORRESPONDENCE. of the Sugar-Cane, and the Changes it Undergoes duriny the Manufacture of Sugar.When this paper is concluded

Continental Science. we shall give an abstract.

PARIS, September 12. Journal de Pharmacie et de Chemie. August, 1865.

I see in Les Mondes a short description of an ice-making This journal contains a long report by Guibourt. On machine now in operation here. The inventor, M. Menard, Pepsine." It really contains nothing of importance, but employs amylic ether, which is compressed to the extent of as it gives the process of M. Boudault introduced into the from five to seven atmospheres. From the reservoir the Codex, we shall make a short abstract. In a note « On liquid is allowed to escape into a worm circulating round Detonating Antimony,M. Nicklés, in opposition to

square vessels of water which becomes frozen by vaporiMr. Gore, states his belief that the explosiveness depends sation of the ether in the worm. There is, to say the truth,

some confusion in the account given, and the details canupon the presence of a chloride of antimony--analogous to chloride of nitrogen. M. Schaeuffèle publishes a note, in

not be trusted. The machine will produce, it is said, 50 which he states that he has found sulphate of indigo in

kilos. of ice per hour.

I read, also, that all difficulties in the way of producing loaf sugar. The sugar bakers have borrowed an idea from the washerwoman. M. Dénian gives some “ New Formula

a constant light by induction machines have now been for the Internal Administration of Silver.He makes a

overcome by the Alliance Company, and the two lightmixture of nitrate of silver, bromide of potassium, white houses at Havre will now be definitely illuminated by the

Company. The machines will be driven by a six-horseof egg, syrup, and peppermint water, which probably no one will ever think of administering. The other papers whistles or trumpets to be used as fog signals.

power locomotive engine, which will also compress air for in this number we have already noticed.

An important experiment has been made by M.

Duchemin during a holiday at the sea side. He made a NOTICES OF PATENTS.

small cork buoy, and fixed it a disk of charcoal containing a small plate of zinc. He then threw the buoy

into the sea, and connected it with copper wires to an GRANTS OF PROVISIONAL PROTECTION FOR electric alarum on the shore. The alarum instantly began SIX MONTHS.

to ring, and has gone on ringing ever since, and it is added Communicated by Mr. Vaughax, PATENT AGENT, 54, Chancery that sparks may be drawn between the two ends of the Lane, W.C.

wires. Thus the ocean seems to be a powerful and inex1947. P.A.F.Bobæuf, Paris, "Improvements in the pre- haustable source of electricity, and the small experiment paration and application of certain colouring matters.". of M. Duchemin may lead to most important results. Petition recorded July 27, 1865.

It is said on the authority of a Dr. Brandini, that lemon1040. A. Millochan, New York, U.S.A., “An improve-juice, or a solution of citric acid, relieves the pain of ment'in stills for the distillation of petroleum and other cancer when applied to the sore as a lotion. The discovery oily substances.”—August 5, 1865:

was made accidentally, and the value of the application 2070. L. Schad, Warrington, Lancashire, “Improve- was confirmed by repeated experiments. ments in the production of violet colours from magenta for dyeing, and printing."-August 9, 1865.

MISCELLANEOUS. 2071. M. H. Blanchard, Blackfriars Road, “Improve. ments in the manufacture of terra cotta or vitreous stone." -August 10, 1865.

British Association. - As we go to press the 2096. R. A. W. Westley, Camden Road, Camden successful meeting at Birmingham is closing, and the Town, “ A combination of improved method, apparatus, members are scattered about on the various excursions. and receptacles for storing, preserving, transferring, and In our next we shall commence our reports of the papers discharging certain fluids for sanitary and protective pur- read in the chemical sections, and others in which composes.

A communication from H. Pinkers, Boulogne. munications of interest to our readers have been made. 2100. J. T. Lockey, Sutton, Lancashire, “Improve. As was to be expected, the manufacturers of Birmingham ments in and connected with the manufacture of copper." have been very liberal in opening their establishments to - August 14, 1865.

the inspection of the members-a privilege of which they 2118. W. West, St. Blazey, Cornwall, “Improvements have not been slow to avail themselves, and for which in preparing lubricating compounds."'-August 16, 1865. I the manufacturers deserve our best thanks. The follow

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