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felt that I might accept the invitation and undertake the sk, God willing, without danger of breaking down. The amptations, indeed, were very great—the greatest of all being e opportunity of awakening, through a popular periodical unting its readers by hundreds of thousands, the interests of immense multitude of intelligent people, whom every writer

Indian subjects is painfully conscious of being unable to ich through the medium of bulky and high-priced books. Of the Lives, which I selected for illustration, the greater mber had never been written before, and of those, which I been written before, I had unpublished records which abled me to impart some little freshness to my memoirs.

sketches were published originally without any chronoical arrangement. They appeared, in uninterrupted sucsion, during the year 1865. The great difficulty with which ad to contend was the necessary limitation of space.

I was n compelled to curtail the memoirs after they were in print,

thereby to exclude much interesting illustrative matter. however, the republication of the Lives in a separate work been determined upon, I had less regret in effecting these lations. The excised passages are now restored, and new tions made to the memoirs, considerably exceeding in t the whole of the original sketches. I may say, indeed, The work has been almost entirely re-written, the chapters

of it. In 1850, I wrote to Lord Braybrooke, soliciting permission to consult the records of the Cornwallis family, and I received in reply a very courteous refusal_which, indeed, as I was wholly unknown in England at that time, I ought to have expected—accompanied with a statement that a prohibition had been laid upon the publication of these family papers. I was rejoiced to find afterwards that the prohibition had been removed, and that the editing of the correspondence had been placed in such good hands. I believe, however, that the student of Mr. Ross's book may find something new in my slender memoir ; and, at all events, for reasons stated at its commencement, there is a peculiar fitness in its insertion in this work, which the reader will be well disposed to recognise. The Lives of Sir John Malcolm and Sir Charles Metcalfe I had already written in detail, but I felt that two such names could not be excluded from my muster-roll. For a memoir of Mr. Elphinstone I had a considerable mass of original memorials, but no amount of correspondence in my possession would have rendered me wholly independent of the very able and interesting biography communicated by Sir Edward Colebrooke to the Journal of the Asiatic Society. The well-known volumes of Sargent and Wilberforce, illustrative of the life of Henry Martyn, have of course yielded the chief materials on which the brief memoir of that Christian hero is based; but from the correspondence of Charles Grant the elder, made over to me by his son, the late Lord Glenelg, I have been able to glean something to impart a little novelty to this the most familiar chapter of my work.

The memoirs in the second volume are all written from original materials supplied to me by relatives or friends. The journals and correspondence of Sir Alexander Burnes were given to me by his brother, the late Dr. James Burnes, and much supplementary information has been derived from other

The journals of Eldred Pottinger were obtained for me from his family, when I was writing the History of the War in Afghanistan, by the assistance of Captain William

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periodical having been little more than sketches of the
finished portraits which are now produced after fifteen
onal months of conscientious research.
the materials

, of which I have spoken, something more be said, the more especially, as in one or two instances to acknowledge the assistance that I have derived from writers. For much of the valuable information conin the memoir of Cornwallis I am indebted to Mr. very ably-executed work. It should be stated, howhat long before his book was announced I had coned the preparation of a Life of Lord Cornwallis

, and lassed a considerable stock of materials in illustration

sources.

Eastwick, now of the Indian Council, who was one of Sir Henry Pottinger's most cherished friends and associates; and the journals of Arthur Conolly came into my possession when I was writing the same work. From the families of both I have received very valuable assistance since I commenced the preparation of these volumes. With D'Arcy Todd and Henry Lawrence, officers of the Bengal Artillery, I had the privilege of being on terms of cherished friendship. For the memoir of the former abundant materials were supplied to me by his brother, Colonel Frederick Todd; and for that of the latter I have chiefly relied on my own private resources, knowing that Sir Herbert Edwardes is writing a life of his great and good friend, which will leave nothing unsaid that ought to be said about him. Following out the list in chronological sequence, I then come to the memoirs of those two great soldiers who died so nobly for their country just as Fame was dawning upon

them-Neill and Nicholson. From the widow of the one and from the mother of the other I received the memorials which have enabled me to write, very imperfectly, I fear, the lives of those heroic men ; but an opportunity may yet be allowed to me, in another work, of doing further justice to soldiers who have reflected so much glory on the great Army of the East India Company.

Although to some small extent, perhaps, accidental circumstances may have favoured my choice of these particular Indian worthies, from among so many, I think it will be considered that on the whole they represent the Indian Services as fairly and as completely as if the selection had been wholly the result of an elaborate design.* For it will be seen that I have drawn my examples from all the three great national divisions of the British Empire that Englishmen, Scotchmen, and Irishmen come equally to the front in these pages.

* There is one omission, however, so than that he is entitled to a book to observable, that something should be himself, and that I hope soon to be able said respecting it. It will occasion sur to discharge what is both a trust conprise to many that the name of Sir fided to me by the departed hero, and a James Outram does not appear in the promise made to the loving ones whom ist. There is no other reason for this he has left behind.

PREPACE.

PREFACE.

xi

Eastwick, now of the Indian Council, who was one of Sir Henry Pottinger's most cherished friends and associates ; and the ournals of Arthur Conolly came into my possession when I as writing the same work. From the families of both I have pceived very valuable assistance since I commenced the prepration of these volumes. With D'Arcy Todd and Henry awrence, officers of the Bengal Artillery, I had the privilege

being on terms of cherished friendship. For the memoir of 6 former abundant materials were supplied to me by his bropr, Colonel Frederick Todd; and for that of the latter I have fefly relied on my own private resources, knowing that Sir erbert Edwardes is writing a life of his great and good end, which will leave nothing unsaid that ought to be said put him. Following out the list in chronological sequence, hen come to the memoirs of those two great soldiers who I so nobly for their country just as Fame was dawning

Cornwallis, Metcalfe, Martyn, and Todd were Englishmenpure and simple. Malcolm, Elphinstone, Burnes, and Neill were Scotchmen. Pottinger and Nicholson were Irishmen. Ireland claims also Henry Lawrence as her own, and Arthur Conolly had Irish blood in his veins. It will be seen, too, that I have drawn my examples from all the three great presidential divisions of India. Metcalfe, Martyn, Conolly, Todd, Lawrence, and Nicholson were Bengal officers, and served chiefly in that Presidency; Malcolm and Neill came from the Madras Presidency ; Burnes and Pottinger belonged to Bombay ; whilst Elphinstone, though nominally attached to the Bengal Civil Service, spent the greater part of his official life in Western India. It will be also seen that nearly every branch of the Service is illustrated in these biographies,* and, in the military division, every arm is fairly represented. Todd, Lawrence, and Pottinger were Artillery officers. Arthur Conolly. was of the Cavalry. Neill was attached to the European Infantry, and Burnes and Nicholson to the native branch of the same service in which also Malcolm commenced his career. From all of which it may be gathered that it little mattered whence a youth came, or whither he went, or to what service he was attached; if he had the right stuff in him, he was sure to make his way to the front.

The memoirs being now published in chronological sequence, I am not without a hope that the collection may be regarded in some sort as a Biographical History of India from the days of Cornwallis to the days of Canning. All the great wars which, during those momentous three-quarters of a century, have developed so remarkably the military and political genius of the “ Services," are illustrated, more or less, in these pages. The two great wars with Tippoo, the earlier and later Mahrattah wars, the war in Afghanistan, the Punjab wars, and the Sepoy

n them-Neill and Nicholson. From the widow of the one

from the mother of the other I received the memorials h have enabled me to write, very imperfectly, I fear, the

of those heroic men; but an opportunity may yet be fed to me, in another work, of doing further justice to þrs who have reflected so much glory on the great Army

East India Company, hough to some small extent, perhaps, accidental circums may have favoured my choice of these particular Indian es, from among so many, I think it will be considered

the whole they represent the Indian Services as fairly

completely as if the selection had been wholly the of an elaborate design. For it will be seen that I

rawn my examples from all the three great national ps of the British Empirom-that Englishmen, Scotchkid Irishmen come equally to the front in these pages.

* I must express my regret that the are exercised so unstintingly in the volumes contain no example drawn cause of our suffering humanity, and from the Medical Service of the East for those heroic qualities which are exIndia Company-a service which was emplified by deeds of gallantry in the never wanting in men equally eminent field, and by lives of daring adventure. for those professional attainments which

is one omission, however, so than that he is entitled to a book to

that something should be himself, and that I hope soon to be able Ling it. It will occasion sur to discharge what is both a trust conJany that the name of Sir tided to me by the departed hero, and a ram does not appear in the promise made to the loving ones whom

is no other reason for this he has left behind.

uses.

war, afford the chief incidents of the book. But the Historical is everywhere subordinated to the Biographical. I have not attempted, indeed, to write History; it has grown up spontaneously out of the lives of the great men who make History. But if it should not be of any value as a History of India, I may still hope that it will be accepted as a not uninteresting contribution to a History of the great Indian Services--the Military and Civil Services of the East India Company. Those Services are now extinct. I have striven to show what they were in their best days; and unless the ability of the execution has fallen far short of the sincerity of the design, I have done something in these pages to do honour to a race of public servants unsurpassed in the history of the world.

And I hope that, as a record of those services, this book, however imperfect the execution of it, may not be without its

I have striven to show how youths, from the middleclass families of our British islands, have gone forth into the great Eastern world, and by their own unaided exertions carved their way to fame and fortune. The Patronage-system of the East India Company, long condemned as a crying abuse, and at last, as such, utterly abolished, opened the gates of India to a hardy, robust race of men, who looked forward to a long and honourable career, and looked back only to think of the joy with which their success would be traced by loving friends in their old homesteads. But it is not now said for the first time that the system could not have been very bad which produced a succession of such public servants as those who are associated with the history of the growth of our great Indian Empire, and as many others who in a less degree have contributed to the sum of that greatness. For the heroes of whom I have written are only representative men; and, rightly considered, it is the real glory of the Indian Services, not that they have sent forth a few great, but that they diffused over the country so many good, public officers, eager to do their duty, though not in the front rank. Self-reliance, self-help, made them what they were. The “nepotism of the

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var, afford the chief incidents of the book. But the Historical s everywhere subordinated to the Biographical. I have not ttempted, indeed, to write History; it has grown up sponineously out of the lives of the great men who make History. But if it should not be of any value as a History of India, I ny still hope that it will be accepted as a not uninteresting intribution to a History of the great Indian Services--the Alitary and Civil Services of the East India Company. Those rvices are now extinct. I have striven to show what they re in their best days; and unless the ability of the execuin has fallen far short of the sincerity of the design, I have ne something in these pages to do honour to a race of public Frants unsurpassed in the history of the world. And I hope that, as a record of those services, this book, wever imperfect the execution of it, may not be without its ps. I have striven to show how youths, from the middleis families of our British islands, have gone forth into the at Eastern world, and by their own unaided exertions Med their way to fame and fortune. The Patronage-system the East India Company, long condemned as a crying He, and at last, as such, utterly abolished, opened the gates

Court of Directors" did not pass beyond the portico of the India House. In India every man had a fair start and an open

The son of the Chairman had no better chance than the son of the Scotch farmer or the Irish squire. . The Duke of Wellington, speaking of the high station to which Sir John Malcolm had ascended after a long career of good work accomplished and duty done, said that such a fact“ operated throughout the whole Indian service, and the youngest cadet saw in it an example he might imitatea success he might attain." And this, indeed, as it was the distinguishing mark, so was it the distinguishing merit of the Company's services ; and there grew up in a distant land what has been rightly called a great

Monarchy of the Middle Classes," which, it is hoped for the glory of the nation, will never be suffered to die.

I wish that the youth of England should see in these volumes what men, merely by the force of their own personal characters, can do for their country in India, and what they can do for themselves.

I feel that on laying down the book some readers may say that the discouragements are at least as great as the encouragements, for that to a large proportion of those of whom I have written Death came early, and in many instances with sudden violence. But I know too well the temper of the men from whom our armies are recruited to believe that the record of such heroic deaths as those of Todd and Lawrence, Neill and Nicholson, will make any man less eager to face the risks of Indian life.

“Whoe'er has reached the highest pinnacle
Of fame by glorious toil or daring skill,

. . let him possess his soul in quietness
And bear his honours meekly ; at the last,
E'en gloomy death will have for such a one
Some gleams of brightness, for he will bequeath
To the dear offspring of his heart and race

odia to a hardy, robust race of men, who looked forward
long and honourable career, and looked back only to think
e joy with which their success would be traced by loving
Is in their old homesteads. But it is not now said for the
ime that the system could not have been very bad which
ced a succession of such public servants as those who are
ated with the history of the growth of our great

Indian
"e, and as many others who in a less degree have con-
od to the sum of that greatness. For the heroes of
I have written are only representative men; and,
considered, it is the real glory of the Indian Services,
at they have sent forth a few great, but that they

over the country so many good, public officers, cager
cir duty, though not in the front rank. Self-reliance,
made them what they were. The "nepotism of the

Their best inheritance--an honoured name.

The deterring circumstances which threaten to impair the

* TREMENHERE's PINDAR-a book in simple, manly English, well adapted to which the noble and inspiring thoughts such a theme as the exploits of Heroes. of the old Greek poet are rendered in

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