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than £3,000, and who then received six months' notice to In those cases it sometimes happened that the landlord might quit, and to leave behind him all the hard earnings of his life say, when the farm was looking well, “I do not want to lose you, for the benefit of the landlord. This tenant, he believed he but then I must have more money;" and perhaps, by having a was right in saying, had on the farm, at the time of receiving notice to quit, this brought bim and his family into difficulties. notice to quit, some 700 tons of night-soil, collected from the If ever they passed by a farm (generally speaking) that different towns, and 300 tons of lime. Nor was this the only was badly cultivated, and made the inquiry of the tenant, case where a tenant had been ejected from his holding under “How is it you do not farm better ? the reply was, “I similar circumstances. There was a certain captain (his am only a yearly tenant, and I must do the best I can." name we withhold) who received six months' notice to quit, Many had told them tha the reason they could not do better after having improved the farm to a very great extent; but arose from the circumstance of their being only yearly there was this difference in the two cases-that the latter laid tevants. Although they advocated a lease upon a farm, very no blame to his landlord, but on the steward, and would not much depended upon the conditions of that lease whether a condescend to ask the reason why he was to be ejected; whilst man could put that farm into a good state or not. He (the the former inquired the cause, but obtained no reply. Now speaker) called a seven years' lease no lease at all, in fact hethey had no means of knowing why either of these tepants, would rather be a yearly tenant in such a case; but if a who had proved themselves good farmers, and had added tenant had a fourteen years' lease he could go to work, for his wealth to the county, but who were now obliged to leave all hands were not then so much tied. He did not think, behind them, should be thus served. It might have been some however, that a landlord was justified in letting for a long little petty affair. It might have been something respecting lease to a man who takes a farm and puts nothing on it, such those vermin, commonly known by the name of rabbits. an one was not entitled to a lease. There ought to be an unAnd were pot most of them subject to such annoyances, and derstanding between landlord and tenant that the lease should often without the means of knowing what was reported to be an open one until within the last one or two years of its landlords by gamekeepers against tenants? He (the speaker) expiration, so that there might be sufficient time allowed the thougbt if there was one reason more than another which latter for recovering himself. He did not like the idea of ought to urge tenants on to the necessity of having leases, it being compelled to adhere to certain rules, that wheat must be was the rabbit system generally adopted by landlords. (Hear, sown one year, and turnips another, and so on; for his own. hear). He should certainly like to see what it costs the part he was holding under an agreement to sow how he liked county in keeping up those feudal game-laws. Before he until within the last two years of the expiration of the lease. concluded, Mr. Reader begged to draw their attention to Mr. Saunders then repeated his argument, that if they saw a another point, and that was to the impoverished state of the farm badly managed, it generally turned out to be a yearly pasture land in this county. What, he would ask, was the

He then cited å case where a man had a farm in cause of it? It was simply this-it required a longer time Hampshire, which was much stocked with rabbits and hares. to get a return on grass land than on arable ; and this he The tenant gave notice that he should give it up at the exbelieved to be the only cause why the grass land had not at- piration of his lease. The farm was offered to others, but no tracted the attention of the tenants generally. He would also one appeared willing to take it, on account of its being so inask them this question: Supposing they were to manure a fested with rabbits, &c., and the consequence was the landlord piece of meadow land just after the bay-harvest (generally ad- was obliged to take it into his own hands. At length, howmitted to be the best time), and at Michaelmas receive six ever, some one came along and offered to take it, provided months' notice to quit, what benefit would they derive from these vermin were only got rid of; and the landlord having the manure ? None. This circumstance alone he thought cousented, a great number of rabbits were destroyed. He quite sufficient to call on landlords to grant leases for the be- (Mr. S.) would advise everyone to have the damage done by nefit of themselves, the tenants, and, above all, the labourer the rabbits taken into consideration in their agreement. If (applause).

the landlord paid for it, it would be all very well. He should Mr. RANDALL perfectly agreed with Mr. Reader in his ob- be sorry, however, to place any restriction upon the landlord, servations as to the advantage of leases. Although they were and he hoped that he should always be able to see his owu quite satisfied that a great many tenants-at-will had gone ou have a good day's sport. As for rabbits, he called them no for a number of years, and that there had been a good feeling sport: they were aotbing but vermin. In conclusion, he obexisting between them and their landlords, still he did not served that if a mau did not manage his farm well during the think there was any real security to a tenant, unless he were first lease, a second ought not to be granted him. No doubt holding under a lease. It often happened that a tenant-at- there were a great many good landlords in this county to will entered upon a farm, which might be in a very bad state yearly tenants, but he thought a tenant of that description of cultivation; he might lay out his capital in improvements, was not justified in farming "up to the mark," as if he held subject to quitting at six months' notice; after expending under a lease. If a man had a lease for 12 or 14 years the much of bis capital, there might be such a thing as the farm landlord ought to do many things towards improving the falling into other hands--there might be fresh stewards, and farm, and the tenant should be expected to do a great many such like; therefore, unless there were security of some sort, more. He again urged the necessity of long leases. he did not think any man justified in laying out his capital After a few observations from Mr. Clarke, Mr. Reader, and upon it.

others, Mr. SAUNDERS (the Vice-President) said, as allusion had Mr. JACKSON said it so happened that he had rented one been made to him by Mr. Reader, he begged to make one or farm as a yearly tenant, and one he had held under a lease. two observations. He had told them that he (Mr. Saunders) The first he took was as a yearly tenant, and the farm was had improved his land because he was holding it under a lease, very much out of condition, for it tad been very badly managed. otherwise he could never have brought his farm to the state of However, he set to work to improve it; and after some few cultivation he had; but he must inform them this had not years he bad the satisfaction of seeing it produce good crops; been done but at a very great expense. He did not approve but he soon after had the misfortune of feeling the ill effects of what was termed the “cut-and-go" system, where a man of the system alluded to by Mr. Reader. He found that had a return for his money each succeeding year, they ought although he was trying to produce good crops, he had those to work for their landlords as well as themselves. He had vermin (rabbits) come and eat them up. It was true, he had been spending a very considerable sum in manures, &c., dur- one of the best landlords he could possibly wish, but he had ing the last thirty years ; therefore he thought that a man the misfortune of having some one to go between and make holding under a long lease was of public good, because he was mischief; circumstances being misrepresented as regarded the employing a great deal of labour in the neighbourhood in damage done by the rabbits. Mr. Jackson then went on to which he resided, and he was also expending a considerable say that he obtained leave to kill what rabbits and hares he sum in mavures, &c.; therefore he way, in fact, a national thought proper, and an improvement soon took place. At good. He (Mr. 8.) considered the tenant-at-will system a length, however, he desired to leave the farm, but did uot like very bad one, because a man must make bis reut during the leaving behind what he bad put upon it. He therefore asked year he holds it, not knowing whether some one else might permission to choose a tenant to take the same off his hands ; not soon have possession of it. No tenant of a yearly holding was but the consequence was the rent was to be raised, on acrount justified in putting himself to a great expense, because his present of the improvements which had been made. The result of this landlord might die, and he knew not who might then have it was that he could not demand so much of the in-coming tenant


as he should wish. He then thought he was entitled to receive Mr. Fowler said there was one part of the subject he some compensation from the landlord for his outlay, and he should like to notice, and that was with regard to the vast kindly handed bim a cheque on that account. If they could amount of waste land in certain parts which might be bronght secure such landlords as that, they would not require long into a state of cultivation. It had occurred to him that if they leases ; but if he had died, what would have become of his had the advantage of a long lease, trouble might be taken to farm ? for here he had buried, as it were, his property in the make it productive. Let them look at the heath-lands, for soil. When he took the next farm he began to be a little instance; but if they had not length of time given them, it wiser, and had it upon a lease. He took it upon the following was impossible to do anything with it. With regard to the terms—either for seven or fourteen years, to be at his option inexhaustible improvements npon their farms, he did think to leave at the end of seven if he felt inclined. After some that it would be of great advantage, both to the landfurther remarks, the speaker proceeded to say that he was very lord and tenant, if compensation were allowed. He concluded glad to find Mr. Reader had brought forward something on by seconding the proposition of Mr. Damen. the rabbit system. He thought the farmers of England were Mr. READER, in returning thanks, referred to what had very remiss in not coming forward in a body against it-he fallen from Mr. Fowler respecting the cultivation of waste did not mean against the landlords. He had the honour of lands, and observed that if, as he had shown them, such a introdacing the subject at an agricultural meeting some little thing could be done in Scotland under long leases, snrely it time since, Sir E. B. Lytton occupying the chair; and he was might be done in this country-for what would apply to Scot. gratified to hear the tables ring, and the hands clap, when he laud, would in some degree apply to Englaud. He thought spoke against the game laws. If

, however, Mr. A. was run- there was a great deal of waste land in this country that could ping with the stream, and Mr. B. was rowing against it, one be made to produce good crops, provided the system of long had better be out of the way altogether (Hear, and laughter). leases was adopted. He hoped he should live to see a different He did not say this for the purpose of setting the landlord and system in the holdings of land in this country than at the tenant at variance, for he wished them to go on hand in hand; present time. He then moved the following resolution: but depend upon it as long as the gamekeeper stood between That this club would strongly recommend to the notice of them, they would never get on (loud applause.)

the landholders and tepants the necessity there exists for imAfter a few observations from Mr. READER, and others, proving the cultivation of the land, so as to develope its re

The CHAIRMAN having expressed himself in favour of the sources to its full extent, which cannot be carried out under long lease system, offered a few remarks on the rabbit system, the present tenure, more especially grass land. They would remarking that it was a subject between landlord and tenant; recommend leases of 21 years, determinable at the end of 14 the matter ought to be laid before the landlord, who must be years, by either party giving two years' notice; and at the told that the rabbits are a nuisance. It was quite impossible expiration of the term a fair and equitable sum to be paid for to farm well when they had a lot of these about them. He unexhausted improvements.” then proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Reader, for the able The resolution having been carried unanimously, the promanner in which he had brought forward his subject.

ceedings terminated.


The monthly meeting of this Club was held in the George | known only to yourself? Do so, and keep your secret. I Ind, Haddington, on Friday, Jan. 8, Mr. Samuel Sheriff, Salt- would compare the man who would do 80“ to the servant who conts, in the cbair. There was a large attendance of members; hid his talent in the earth.” Cultivators of the soil have a apd, after dinner and the usual loyal toasts, the subject before heavy responsibility; besides having their own interests to the meeting was, "Reports by Members of Experiments with look after, what countless thousands odepend on them for the Artificial Manures."

substantial necessaries of life! The more you can make the The CHAIRMAN said : Gentlemen, we are met this after- soil produce the better for the grower, and the greater the boon to hear " Reports of Experiments with Artificial Ma- supply the better for the consumer. The only antidote to Qures, by Members of this Club." You will recollect bow, last low-priced grain is to grow more of it, if possible ; or by making spring, we came to discuss what were the “Best Substitutes an acre of turnips feed two cattle instead of one, you can af. for Guano.” The continued rise in the price of guano com- ford to take a cheaper price per stone. Some years ago, when pelled us to do this. The results of a few experiments made grain was considerably cheaper than at present, this doctrine for this object I have now the pleasure to lay before you. But, was both preached and practised successfully. But the means gentlemen, will you bear with me while I introduce the subject at command were very different. We could procure the finest by a few observations upon the marked change which has Peruvian guano at £9 per ton, nitrate of soda at £15, rapedust taken place within the last few years, both in the desire by agri- about £4 108. Contrast the present prices of these articles. ealtorists to give all the information in their power, also in Why, in guano alone, the farmer using 30 tons, finds an extra the means of their doing so ? Is it not a startling fact, gentle charge of £180. Why are these things 80 ? We have it in men, when we think of it now, but a few years ago and we our power to resist extortion, simply by refusing for a time to had no agricultural newspaper ? All agricultural information use the article. Why have we frequently to take much less of Fis conveyed, and but spariugly, through the medium of the a Friday for our grain ? Just because the buyers refuse to "Agricultural Journal of the Highland Society.” Now, through give more. Look at the heavy fall which has taken place of the N. B. Agriculturist, we have a weekly record of the agri- late in the price of almost every marketable commodity-skins cultural practice of Great Britain. What'stimulus this gives and hides especially. All this falls upon the farmer; and are to practical husbandry! One great feature of the age we live they going to be so inconsiderate as to give the present high in is the desire for information; and this again is met by as demand for guano? But this brings me to the subject now at great a desire to impart it. Some years ago, I remember issue. Before laying the results of the experiments before (shortly after this Club was formed), we had a serious discus- you, let me ask why you try experiments ? Of course, you sion whether our discussions and reports were to be given to anticipate the answer, viz., for a two-fold reason-first, to asthe public. Were such a motion to be made now, what would certain what is really the most profitable stimulant to apply to become of it? It is by this system, and this system alone, vegetation; and secondly, to detect the weaknesses of the that the proper cultivation of the soil is to be continued and many fertilizers now offered to farmers. There is not a season increased, in order to keep pace with the rapid strides of ad- without something new, and the best ever heard of has not fance made in every other science. Some very cautious men been offered to us. We are asked by some one or other to try Fould argue, it does not do to tell too much. An invention his patent improved quintessence of something or other ; you in machinery is patented, and an immediate reward accrues are prevailed upon to try it, find yourself minus £8 93. to the inventor. * Can you grow 14 bolls of wheat or 40 without any benefit-sometimes a loss, because some safer and tons of turnips per acre, by following some system known stimulant wou d have secured a good crop.



TABLE No. 1.

your attention particularly to the fact of this new guano; EXPERIMENTS WITH SWEDISH TURNIPS.

Indian guano, at £8 per ton, having grown a larger crop Farmyard manure applied on the stubble, 30 loads to the acre than superphosphate. I would refer you to an experiment

Scots. Artificial manures applied in the drill at the rate of made in Roxburghshire, where, when mixed with Peruvian, 5 cwt. per acre.

it gives a greater return than Peruvian alone. This is a Cost per acre.

Yield. fact well worthy of potice. I was rather surprised with tons. cwt.

the result of the experiments with purple-top turnips. The No. 1. Mixture 2} cwt. guano and 24

mixture of guano and dissolved bones brairded sooner, and cwt. B. manure, at Is. 6d.

£2 17 6 22 14 were ready for singling some days before the other; but No, 2. 5 cwt. Dall's manure, at 9s. 2 5 0 19 10 | during autumn the contrast was most marked-the leaves No. 3. 5 cwt. Peruvian guano, at 14s.

of the rape and drill bones' experiment continued green 60......

3 12 6 23 6 long after the other had withered: but the earlier turnips No. 4. 5 cwt. B. manure, at 88. 60... 2 2 6 21 5 this season were by far the best crop, and in eight seasons No. 5. same application as No. 1, but

out of ten we will find this to be the case. But I fear I trespass different seed, at lls. 6d....... 2 17 6 15 13

too long, when I consider the other reports to be brought Comparative Results of the above.

before you, while, I cannot close without expressing a hope Guano, No. 3, gives 12 cwt. of swedes more thau No. 1, price asked for guano. This is a season of

that we may really, and in earnest, try to resist the high

great commercial but at a cost of 15s.

depression. it is felt by all. May the cloud which now No. 3 gives 2 tons 1 cwt. more than No. 4, but at a cost of

hangs over us soon disappear. I am sure all who deal in the £1 10s.

artificial manures most in vogue must kuow that the greater No. 3 gives 3 tons 16 cwt. more than No. 2, at a cost of the quantity sold, even at a small profit, is best for themselves. £1 7s. 60.

I would close my observations with one remark on the diffiNo. 5, Different seed, 7 tons 13 cwt.

culty of arriving at correct conclusions, unless experiments are TABLE No. 2.

repeated. This county stands pre-eminent for its agriculture.

Let it not be bebind others in its endeavours to impart ad-
No manure to stubble.

ditional information. I may mention that the measurements,

tons. ont. weighing, &c., of my experiments were conducted under the No. 1. 8 cwt. per acre superphosphate,

eye of Mr. Patrick Sheriff, whose qualifications for this are at 8s.

£3 4 0 90 known to you all. No. 2. 8 cwt. guano, Peruvian, at 128.

Mr. Hope, Fenton Barns, said: He had listened with much 6d.

5 0 0 12 12 interest to the excellent paper which the Chairman had just No. 3. 8 cwt. B. manure, at 8s. 6d... 3

10 read. The experiments appeared to have been carefully conNo. 4. 8 cwt, Indian guano, at 8s...

3 0 10 16 ducted, and the results accurately ascertained. There was, No. 5. Mixture, 5 cwt. bones and 3

however, something very singular attending the turnip crop cwt, guano, at 103, 6d.

4 4 0 12 0 this year. Some fields were remarkably fine, and others very Comparative Results of the above.

inferior. A difference in a single day in the sowing made a No. 2, Guano, gives 3 tons 12 cwt. more than No. 1, at a

difference of tons per acre in the crop, while an over-luxuriance cost of 21 168.

in leaves in many cases diminished the size of the bulbs. No. 2, Guano, gives 2 tons 8 cwt, more than No.3, at a cost

Guano had not this year with him maintained its wonted of £l 12s.

superiority; perbaps they had been applying it too liberally No. 2, Guano, gives 1 ton 16 cwt, more than No. 4, at a

for some time past, and manures richer in phosphates might cost of £1 16s.

be found more profitable. He had tried Cant's manure, No. 2, Guano, gives 12 cwt. per acre more than No. 5, at a

which had been supplied to him by Mr. Peacock, of Edin

burgh, in growing swedes. The land was well manured with cost of 168. TABLE No, 3.

farm-yard dung on the stubble in autumn. He gave 71 cwt.

of Cant's manure, and 8 bushels bone-dust in the drills. EXPERIMENTS WITH PURPLE TOP,

Adjoining, he gave 5 cwts. Peruvian guano and 8 bushels

tong. cwt. No. 1. Mixture, 10 cwt. drill bones

bone-dust, all per Scotch acre. The guano had much the and 5 cwt, rape, at 6s. 3d. per cwt. £4 13 9 14

strongest leaves throughout the season, and, when he went to No. 2. Mixture, 3 cwt. guano, Peru

weigh the crop, he thought the difference in favour of the vian, and 5 cwt. superphosphate, at

guano would be 2 or 3 tons per acre; but it turned out only

12 cwt. and some lbs. He had also sown a ton of manure 10s. 6d. per cwt..

4 4 0 16

which he got from Mr. Dall, North Berwick. He applied 8 Comparative Results.

cwt. per Scotch acre, along with about 20 carts dung in the No. 2, gives 1 ton 16 cwt. more than No. 1, costing 9s. 9d. drills, as against 5 cwt. guano and 8 bushels bones. The less.

crop was purple-top yellow, and Mr. Dall's manure produced Well, gentlemen, the results of the experiments which I

the heaviest crop by 10 cwt., though neither was so heavy as now lay before you, go to prove that guano is the greatest he was resolved to use less guano and more of bones and

he expected. From these results, and the high price of guano, fertilizer we possess; but when you come to count the cost, it is not the most profitable at its present price-at least,

other manures containing a greater proportion of phosphates. from an analysis of my experiments. You will observe

Mr. David Sheriff, Muirton, gave the following report of the that the extra quantity of turnips raised from guano cost

experiments made by him at Muirton for crop 1857:the owner too much. The striking feature in the experi- EXPERIMENTS MADE UPON Muirton Farm-CROP 1857. ment No. 5 of Table 1, shows how important it is to secure This season I made a trial of six different lots of white tur. the best variety of seed. Why, here is an actual difference nips, of three drills each, sown about the 15th of May, 1857 ; of 7 tons 13 cwt. where the same manures were applied. manured at the expense of £5 12s. per Scotch acre. The But this is a subject for another discussion. I would detain result was as follows: you too long were I to enlarge on this theme. I now refer

tons. cwts. you to Table No. 2. The small crop will startle you all. Guano

16 This I attribute entirely to accident. The first braird was Dissolved bones ...

26 completely burnt up by the hot sun we had for some days

B. manure

29 during the latter part of June and beginning of July. I

Rape dust

30 had to re-sow the field, with the exception of a small Blood manure

29 portion, where I had the experiment between rape and drill Manniog's patent

29 0 bones against guano and snperphosphate. They suffered I made another trial also this season, with guano against also from the hot sun. The soil is almost pure sand. Maoning's patent manure. The land was dunged in winter at Gentlemen, 1 hesitated whether or not to tell of this small the rate of 28 carts of home dung per Scotch acre, and at soxcrop. Are we not too proud often to speak of our large ing 210lbs. of guano against 5cwt. of Manning's patent crops, and keep the small ones to ourselves ? I would call menure. The turnips were sown on the 4th of June, 1857,


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SIR,-"Let nothing be lost,” was the command of of illustrating how necessary it is for every farmer to our divine Lord and Master to his disciples many cen- bestow the greatest attention upon the care and manage. turies ago ; and although, since these ages have ment of his manures, let me now turn more particularly elapsed, laws have altered and customs changed, the to the object of my letter; and first reflect upon force of the axiom still remains'unimpaired, and whe-that custom so prevalent in all parts of the ther with reference to the warnings we may receive, the country of burning couch-grass and all vegeopportunities afforded us, or the advantages placed table rubbish collected upon the farm, a practice within our reach, it forms the basis of all success and which I consider most wasteful and impolitic. By prosperity in every undertaking : “Let nothing be lost." analysis we learn that throughout the vegetable kingdom In applying this maxim to the collecting of manure, there exists a great similarity in the constitution of might not be out of place to bear in mind the Scotch plants, their components being almost the same, but adage, “A stone is the only mote in a muck-heap"; existing in different proportions in different kinds of but a more extended knowledge of things has taught us plants ; surely, then, it is reasonable to conclude that that what have long been considered stones are even to there must be contained in all vegetable matter much be made valuable as a manure. Almost every thing, that is valuable as the food of plants, and requiring therefore, is worthy of our attention in this respect, and only to be brought into such a condition as to be assimiis in some way or other to be rendered available in lated by them. No doubt combustion is a sure means aiding fertilization.

of destroying the vitality of all seeds and weeds of every In days when agriculture was much more imperfectly description ; but it is an equally certain mode of dissipaunderstood than at present, great carelessness was ex- ting mucilaginous, gelatinous, saccharine, oily, and extrachibited with regard to manure. Much valuable material tive fluids, which along with solution of carbonic acid and was burnt, liquid manure allowed to run waste, and water are substances, which in their unchanged state even the excrements of the stock with the straw lay contain almost all the principles necessary for the life of exposed to evaporation, under a burning sun, and to plants. The substances, therefore, which principally Faste by fermentation. I would be glad it in our day, compose vegetable matter are dissipated by the action of and under the authority of an enlightened state of fire; and thus, by the loss of those very ingredients agriculture, no such abuses existed. But alas ! I am which constitute their chief value as a manure, they besorry to be forced to acknowledge that men with their come reduced to a mere fraction of their original bulk. eyes open should still be equally neglectful of these Upon retentive soils, burnt earth or calcined clay may important elements of successful agriculture, annually have a very good effect; but in this case their action spending large sums upon artificial manures (many of (particularly the latter) is almost entirely mechanical, which are altogether useless), and neglecting to take by disintegrating the soil—their value as a manure conadvantage of those valuable fertilizers produced upon sisting chiefly in the amount of carbon, and its power of their own farms, which require only care, attention, absorbing ammonia from the atmosphere. Paring and and a small outlay, to be rendered available.

burning, although perhaps judicious in reclaiming certain The soil is to be considered as the great store-house, lands in which all kinds of troublesome seeds, roots, grubs, to contain the food of plants, and the medium operated and larvæ of insects abound, still in very many instances upon by air, water, and heat, which, by their various in which it is adopted it must be pronounced a wasteful actions upon the soil and the manure which it contains, practice; but whilst benefit may result from the applicatransforms certain of their constituents into such a tion of fire in the instances above-mentioned, we know of soluble and gaseous state as to be absorbed by the no pretext whatever, beyond that of custom, for the burnspongioles of the roots, and enter into the organization ing of couch-grass and other vegetable refuse. Experiof the plant; so that it is by the application of the ments have proved that the ashes of burnt straw are an proper manures to the proper crop, and in such quan excellent manure, but who would think of contities as to meet the requirements of the soil, that the suming his straw by fire! And yet as regards manure, result in the crop, in ordinary cases, is to be attributed this would be more excusable than the combustion of to the different descriptions of soil affecting this more vegetable matter, inasmuch as the constituents of straw particularly by their tendency to retain moisture or the have become more solidified, and require more powerful contrary, their liability to become over-saturated, their means to effect decomposition than succulent vegetable power of attracting heat, or their readiness to become matter, and also far less valuable, much of its quality impregnated with those gases assimilated by the plants ; being lost in ripening the grain. In ploughing in succu. so that the value of soils is not entirely dependent upon lent vegetables for manure, of course decomposition the amount of the food of plants which they naturally immediately takes place without any preparation, and, contain, but by the manner in which they (according to with almost every description, a very slight incipient fertheir nature) allow the food supplied in the manure to mentation is only necessary to commence decay of the be assimilated by the plants, and eld to them the woody fibre; in fact, to allow any manure to ferment greatest benefit of wbich it is capable.

to a great degree is highly prejudicial to the interests of Having thus briefly adverted to the action of manure the farmer. Sir H. Davy even doubts whether straw in the soil and its assimilation by plants, with the view I would not be more beneficial as a manure if chopped up and applied in a dry state, rather than lose much of its sprinkled over it once a week, to prevent the escape of value by fermentation ; but we are now too well ac- the ammonia. But without further remark, I will quainted with the value of straw as an absorbent, &c., to briefly describe a method of applying fowls' dung and be enabled to apply it in such a manner. To destroy ashes, which I have seen practised for many years with the vitality of couch-grass or such-like weeds, the appli- eminent success. The ashes throughout the year are cation of quick-lime, salt, or vitriol with a degree of collected in a heap, and with them a quantity of rich fermentation is necessary. But where fermentation is mould mixed ; this is saturated with liquid manure from going on in a dunghill, it is of great advantage to cover the tank as often as it requires. A week or two before it with burnt earth to absorb the disengaged gases ; or, turnip-sowing, the manure from the fowl's house is if burnt earth cannot be had, then common salt with brought, also a small quantity of ground bones. These gypsum will have a good effect.

are all mixed together, and twice turned over, and inAnd now, sir, will you allow me to say a word to cipient fermentation allowed to commence. It is then brother farmers upon liquid manure: I mean that pro- taken to the field ; shallow ridges are formed, in the duced in the farm-yard. Much has already been said bottom of which the manure is planted in small handfuls and written upon the subject. I will not, therefore, be from 9 to 12 inches apart, at the rate of 11 to 2 tons an tedious, nor stop to notice all the different plans that acre, according to the richness of the compost. This is have been tried and recommended for its use. Still, I performed by women with baskets. The seed is then see numerous instances of its being neglected. Why sown with a machine along the ridges, after the manure should this be? It is the very essence of your manure. has been lightly covered with a plough. So eminently is Try to prevent its being over-diluted with water by this adapted for turnips, that I never recollect seeing it troughing your buildings, &c., although a little water fail-always producing a crop superior to any other plan, mixed with it is advantageous when applied in a liquid and even showing good effects upon the succeeding crop state ; but get your muck-heaps to absorb as much of barley. of it as you can. Apply it also in abundance to the I am afraid, Mr. Editor, I have trespassed too far upon earth you have carted for bottoms to your muck-heaps, your valuable space; I hope, however, the importance and, if well saturated, they will be valuable, although of the subject (however imperfectly treated) will be a not mixed with muck at all. Convert it into solid as sufficient apology for my intrusion. For although many much as possible : by this means you prolong its action farmers are very careful to turn everything to advantage, in the soil. But, when you do apply it in a liquid there are numerous others who-although readily admitstate, it has a good effect upon grass-land of every de ting the necessity and propriety of so doing—are neverscription; and, from the amount of its ammoniacal theless very careless and indifferent in the performance qualities, I have found it very beneficial to corn-crops of it. And if from a deficiency of chemical knowledge whenever applied upon the land before ploughed up for I have committed mistakes in the course of my remarks, sowing. Urine contains the essential elements of vege. still I think the accuracy of the principles I have tables in a state of solution, and consequently in a state attempted to lay down cannot be doubted-viz., that of the utmost possible preparedness, and is eminently plenty of manure is a most essential element in good suited to all crops which require speedy and large ail. farming; that the care and management of manures menting with such saline and organic principles as it produced upon the farm are much neglected ; that the contains ; but in a liquid state its operation is quick, burning of vegetable matter is wasteful; that by allowbut not durable.

ing fermentation to go too far much loss is sustained I will now conclude with a few remarks upon that liquid manure is of great value; and that fowls' other two descriptions of manure within reach of dung and ashes deserve special attention : in short, that the farmer, and which well deserve attention, viz., almost everything quite valueless in other respects is of the manure from the fowls' house and ashes from value as muck; and that it behoves every farmer to turn the fires. These are too valuable to be mixed to the greatest advantage the supply of manure produced with the farm-yard manure, the can be applied upon his own farm before purchasing at the expensive by themselves with much greater advantage. It has been and deceptive mart of the manufacturer and importer. computed that fowls' dung, weight for weight, is half And no watchword will prove a surer guide to the as valuable as Peruvian guano, and that no description accomplishment of this object than that with which we of manure is more deteriorated by decomposition ; to introduced this subject>" Let nothing be lost.” prevent which, it ought to remain untouched until re

WM. ARNOTT, quired for use, and gypsum or powdered charcoal Melton, Woodbridge, Suffolk, Jan. 13.


The operations for this purpose are as follows:

from the inside, so as to form a grater. Or, if a more exIst, Washing the tubers.

pensive and durable machine is required, the cylinder is 2nd, Reducing them to a pulp, by rasping.

furnished with iron cutters, set in wood. This is placed 3rd, Pressing the pulp.

under a hopper similar to that of a corn-mill. The cutting 4th, Washing the rough starch.

cylinder is made to turn rapidly-say, from 600 to 900 5th, Draining and drying the produce.

times per minute ; but the quicker this is done, the 6th, Bolting and storing.

more effectual will be the separation of the starch, &c., in Ist. The washing of the tubers requires particular atten- the tubers. The cylinder should be about 16 inches long, tion, any dirt left on them being injurious to the purity of and 20 inches in diameter; and such a one, revolving by the starch. The water itself ought to be perfectly pure reduce 50 bushels of potatoes per hour to a perfect pulp.

means of multiplying wheels 800 times per minute, will and clear. An open cylinder, working in a trough, into which a stream of water can be constantly pouring, is the It may be worked either by water, steam, horse, or handbest method of effecting it.

power. 2nd. The rasping is accomplished by cylinders made of 3rd. The pulping being effected, it is passed through a sheet-iron, roughed by having holes thickly punched in it wire sieve; and the cellular tissues, which constitute the

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