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permit me to throw out a hint for all who take an interest manures, like guano or compound turnip manures, are to a in practical experiments, and that is, to test the natural great extent misapplied, because the farmer loses the immecapabilities of the soil by making two experiments with diate effect of the most expensive constituent of the manure. nothing. You will observe that in these experiments sul- But I am acquainted with other experiments in which guano phate of ammonia had no effect upon the root crop at all; is of very great utility, and produces a better effect thao purely if anything it diminished the produce. I was not a little mineral phosphatic manures. It remains to be seen what the surprised in obtaining this result, expecting as I did that exact circumstances are, under which we can dispense with the ammonia would force on the crop. We are in the habit ammoniacal manures, and also under what circumstances we of connecting the rapid starting of the crop with the presence can dispense with phosphatic manures for the cultivation of of ammonia in the soil on the manure: we call ammonia a root crops: for I think that there are instances in which even forcing element, but certainly in relation to the young superphosphate is misapplied-in which superphosphate and swede it cannot be so called; it does not force on the phosphatic manures as applied to root crops are of little pracseed, but rather retards the germination. In all these tical utility. I should be extremely gratified if any instances experiments I find that the least you do artificially by of practical failures with superphosphate were reported to me, using various salts or guano, or even super-phosphates, and portions of soil reserved for further examination, it such the more rapidly the seed germinates ; and hence it should be found necessary. The question whether we can disfollows likewise that it is desirable not to put the seed in pense with the artificial supply of phosphates is a very impordirect contact with the artificial manure, and, if possible, to tant one-next in importance to the one upon which I have apply farm-yard manure in the autumn ; at least, this should just now dwelt-which awaits its practical solution, and will be done in heavy land; the manure then has time to diffuse vo doubt find it when we continue to institute experiments itself throughout the soil, and you do not get those injurious with a distinct object in view, without reference to any immeeffects which are produced when you put the seed into a part diate result made with the view of explaining existing pracof the soil which is too highly manured, which it necessarily tices : it is only then that we can arrive at legitimate conclu. will be if the manure has not had time to diffuse itself through- sions. Experiments are frequently made very much in the out it. And even with the application of artificial manures I manner in which a student in chemist:y begins his researches cannot help thinking that in many instances it would be more in the laboratory. He tries certain bottles, and puts one fluid useful to apply them with the broad-cast distributor than with the other to see the result, and arrives at no practical drilling immediately with the seed. At least I have heard conclusion, because, in nine cases out of ten, he obtains, by many excellent practical farmers expressing themselves to this mixing four or five bottles together, a black dirty-looking effect. I merely throw this out as a matter of report made to liquid: so, by jumbling together all sorts of manuring matters, me, and not as advocating either the one or the other method and trying to obtain from them any really useful practical of applying artificial manure. Guano more especially retards results, you do not obtain any from which legitimate conclugermination of turnip seeds, and I have no doubt in my own sions can be drawn. Thus, for instance, we frequently hear mind that it is the large amount of ammonia in guano tbat of comparisons between guano and superphosphate; but we produces this undesirable effect; but I have not found in my are not told what description of guano or of superphosphate experiments that super-phosphates hasten the germination of is taken. You will see, by the diagram before me, that the the seed. When the young plant is up, then readily available composition of superphosphate varies greatly. One, for infood in the soil is of the greatest utility, and the turnip grows stance, contains only 5 per cent. of soluble phosphate, and 1 rapidly. Hence there is some truth in the observation that per cent. of insoluble; while in another we have 23 per cent. super-phosphate pushes on the turnip crop, bringing it out of of soluble, and 5} per cent. of insoluble. Now, if you make the reach of the turnip-fly; but it does not facilitate the rapid an experiment with super-phosphate and guano, and you find germination of the seed: it has rather a contrary effect. It the guino greatly beats the super-phosphate, you are not has been questioned by high authority whether the effect of entitled to say that phosphatic manures are of no utility in super-phosphate on root crops might not be due as much to the your particular case-that a mixture of ammonia and phosphate sulphuric acid as to the phosphoric acid ; but you have here a is much more valuable on your farm than phosphate alone; for direct experiment which proves better than any theoretical if you will look at the composition of guano, you will find that reasons the erroneousness of this view. With super-phosphate in reality you apply a much larger quantity of phosphate than alone, made from purely mineral phosphate, the natural pro- you apply even in a fair average sample of super-phosphate duce of the land, amounting to three tons on the average has This diagram, moreover, does not give the amount of phosphoric been nearly trebled. In all experiments, in short, where phos- acid which exists in alkaline salts, and which, in good Peruvian phate has been used, the crop has very much increased; guano, is equal to from 6 to 8 per cent. of soluble phosphate ; whereas when gypsum has been applied, no benefit has resulted so that, in reality, guano is super-phosphate plus ammonia. I from the application, I may add that last year I made another have no hesitation in saying, that in guano, very frequently, series of experiments in which the saune result has been brought more phosphates are incorporated with the laud, than with a out :

great many samples of super-phosphate as they are found in With nothing the produce was .. 6 tons ll cwt. 2 qrs.

the market : for a super-phosphate is considered of good With gypsum

6 13 3

average quality if it contains from 25 to 30 per cent. of Wbereas super-phosphate without

phosphates, of which about one-half is rendered soluble; but ammonia produced

10 17 0

in guano there is in reality quite as much, if not more, In all these experiments neither sulphuric acid applied in the phosphate present. Then, again, experiments are frequently shape of gypsum nor ammonia has done any good. In an made on land which is in a very highly cultivated state, which experiment made on another part of the farm last year, I again is so full of manure that no amount of additional artificial found that ammonia was of no utility. Thus sulphate of am- fertilizers can produce any effect. I have before me an account monia applied to a field which naturally yielded 6 tons 11cwt., of some experiments which were published some time ago, produced 5 tons 6 cwt. 211bs.--to some extent diminishing in all of which about the same quantity of roots was produced. the produce. It is certain that in these cases ammoniacal There is a remark, however, which tbrows some light upon


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the experiments :-"The only objection to the field as a trial- On the motion of Lord FEVERSHAM, seconded by field for manure was its high condition. It was feared Mr. WREN HOSKYNS, the thanks of the meeting were that the lots might be too much alike, and this anticipation voted to Dr. Voelcker for the able lecture he had thea has proved correct. In the experiments as much as 7 cwt. of delivered. Peruvian guano and 14 cwt. of super-phosphate employed, and in all instances about the same quantity of

Special Council (after the lecture) : Lord Berbers, produce was obtained.” Then, very naïvely, the experimenter, President, in the chair. in remarking upon these results, says, “ It is to be regretted On the motion of Mr. BRANDRETH GIBBS, seconded that one or two lots were not left without any manure by the Hon. A. LESLIE MELVILLE, the Council decided whatever, although we have little doubt that such lots would that memorials and other documents received from OIhave yielded next to nothing.” Well, if they yielded ford in reference to the Country Meeting of next year next to nothing, the land could not be in a highly cultivated should be taken into consideration on the 5th of state. It is evident, I think, that the land was in a

May next, when memorials and other documents would state super-saturated with manure, and experiments made on

also be taken into consideration from Coventry, Readsuch land are not calculated to throw much light on the

ing, and Warwick. efficacy of manuring constituents. I have alluded specially to the question of the efficacy of phosphates and ammonia, in

Adjourned to May 5. illustrating the direct utility of a knowledge of chemistry to farmers, and I might also have illustrated the same thing by alluding to the various forms in which manuring substances A Monthly Council was held on Wednesday, the ought to be applied to the land in order to produce the maxi. 5th of May. Present: Lord Berners, President, in the mum effect. Thus, for instance, I might have alluded to the Chair; Earl of Powis, Lord Camoys, Lord Fevershan, question, In what state phosphate ought to be used in agri- Lord Walsingham, Hon. A. Leslie Melville, Hon. Col. culture ? It is plain that for a quick-growing crop, like the A. Nelson Hood, Hon. William George Cavendish, turnip crop, food ought to be present in a readily-soluble con

M.P.; Sir John Villiers Shelley, Bart., M.P. ; Sir dition ; but, at the same time, I think we cannot lay down a

Philip Egerton, Bart., M.P.; Sir Charles Morgan, general rule that, under all circumstances, phosphates, which

Bart. ; Sir John V. B. Johnstone, Bart., M.P.; Sir we apply in the shape of artificial manures, should be always Archibald Macdonald, Bart. ; Sir Edward Kerrison, perfectly soluble. I make this remark, not because I think it is a question with which the theoretical man has much to do, Bart., M.P.; Mr. Dyke Acland, Mr. Raymond Barker, but it is a question which can be decided in a purely practical

Mr. Barnett, Mr. Hodgson Barrow, M.P., Mr. Branmanner. Supposing the farmer finds that his land is of such a ston, M.P., Mr. Barthropp, Mr. Brandreth, Mr. Caldporous character that bone-dust when used in a finely-divided well, Colonel Challoner, Mr. Druce, Mr. Foley, M.P., state becomes sufficiently available to yield him a good crop of

Mr. Brandreth Gibbs, Mr. Hamond, Mr. Fisher Hobbs, turnips, then he would be wrong to go to the expense of buying Mr. Holland, M.P., Mr. Wren Hoskyns, Mr. James super-phosphate. What we can use in a raw, unprepared state Howard, Mr. Hudson (of Castleacre), Mr. Humberston must evidently be cheaper than what has undergone the manu

(Mayor of Chester), Mr. Huskinson, Mr. Jonas, Mr. facturing process. There are some soils in which the most eco

Kinder, Mr. Langston, M.P., Mr. Laves, Mr. LaF. nomical way of using phosphatic manures is simply by bone

rence, Mr. Miles, M.P., Mr. Milward, Mr. Pain, Mr. dust, to ferment it with the farm-yard manure, and, when the

Shuttleworth, Mr. Slaney, M.P., Mr. Thompson, Mr. heap is set up in the field, to put the bone-dust between the Torr, Mr. Turner (of Boston), Professor Voelcker, Mr. layers, as it is carted. By this mode of fermentation the phos-Burch Western, and Mr. Jonas Webb. phates become sufficiently soluble in the soil to answer all the practical purposes for which the manure is used. There is no ne. His Grace the Duke of Marlborough, of Blenheim cessity of using phosphates in any other shape in very light sandy Park, Oxfordshire, was elected a Governor of the Society. soils. But, under other circumstances, if the farmer, for instance, has to deal with heavy land in which the decomposition of phos- | Bradburne, John Hanbury, Pipe-place, Lichfield, Staffs.

The following new Members were elected :phales proceeds very slowly, it is of the utmost importance to

Brogden, Jchn, Priory-gate, Sale, Cheshire. use phosphate of lime in a soluble form. What I would ad

Cawton, William, Somersa!l Hall, Chesterfield, Derbyshire. vise is the purchase of a super-phosphate, in which the farmer Clay, Charles, Walton Grange, Wakefield, Yorkshire. gets just what he cannot readily make himself, i. e, soluble Corbet, Dryder, Sundorne Castle, Shrewsbury phosphate of lime. If he wants insoluble phosphate, let him

Crane, Edward, Foston, Montford, Shrewsbury. use it in the shape of bone-dust. Then he may be sure is what

Forsbaw, Thomas, Latus Hall, Goosnargh, Lancasbire.

Garne, Robert, Northleacb, Gloucestershire form he gets it, and does not run the risk of getting an insolu- Gaskell, Henry Lomax, Kiddington Hall, Woodstock, ble phosphate in the shape of coprolite powder, in which con- Hill, L. Broadbent, Back Hall, Chester. dition it is of no utility whatever. But, in most instances, Holland, Charles, Keele, Newcastle, Staffordshire. the advantages of applying phosphates in a soluble condition Howard, Robert, Broughton Hall, Wrexham.

Howell, John, Ewen, Cirencester. have been clearly established. The very term “ super-phos- Laing, Samuel, Hordle Manor, Lymiugton, Hampshire phate" shows the practical use to which chemistry is applied Logan, Joho, Maindree House, Newport, Monmouthshire. at the present time. There are, indeed, in the common daily Matthews, Henry, Montford, Shrewsbury. experience of the farmer, terms used at the present time which

Mein, William, Home Farm, Blenheim, Oxfordshire

Millard, James, Rugeley, Staffordshire. would greatly astonish our ancestors. Chemistry will more

Perry, Samuel, Shipley, Bridgenorth, Shropshire. and more become the common property of the agricultural Sisson, Robert James, Talardy, St. Asaph. community, and the more carefully the principles of this new Sugden, David, Huddersfield, Yorkshire. science are studied by the rising generation, the greater will Thomas, James, Lidlington, Ampthill

, Bedfordshire be the practical advantages that will flow from the possession | Woods, Edmund Freeman, Stowmarket, Suffolk.

Woods, James, Stowmarket, Suffolk. of such knowledge.

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FINANCES.-Mr. Raymond Barker, Chairman of the Mr. Harcourt, M.P.
Finance Committee, presented the monthly report on

Colonel North, M.P.

Mr. Repton, M.P. the accounts of the Society, showing a current cash- Mr. Mark Pbillips. balance of £1,298 in the hands of the bankers; and laid Sir T. G. Skipwith, Bart. upon the table, for the information of members, the

Sir Paul Hunter, Bart.

Mr. Pigott, M.P. usual quarterly statements of income and expenditure,

Aldermen Moore, Spiers, and Ward. and of assets and liabilities.

President, Vice-President, and Secretary of the Oxford TRIAL OF IMPLEMENTS.- The President having

Farmers' Club, and Deputations from the Rogby, called the attention of the Council to the completion

and Dunchurch Association, and the Council of the

Birmingham Cattle Show. this year of the triennial arrangements for the trial of

COUNTRY-MEETING QUERIES.-On the motion of Implements at the Country Meetings of the Society, Mr. Raymond Barker, seconded by Mr. Brandreth and to a consideration of the propriety of its renewal Gibbs, a committee was appointed to revise the printed or discontinuance for the future, it was carried, on the queries (in use since the year 1841), and adapt them to motion of Mr. Fisher Hobbs, seconded by Colonel

the present requirements of the Society, consisting of Challoner, that a committee, consisting of the Members

Mr. Raymond Barker, Mr. Brandreth Gibbs, Hon. W. of the Implement Committee, and of Mr. Howard, Mr.

G. Cavendish, M.P., Mr. Brandreth, Mr. Barnett, Mr. Shuttleworth, Mr. Caldwell, Mr. Huskisson, and Mr.

Fisher Hobbs, and Mr. Milward. Amos, be appointed, with power to confer with a depu

EDITORSHIP OF JOURNAL.-Mr. Jonas having tation from the body of the Implement Makers, and to re- moved the consideration of the best course to pursue for port to the Council at their next monthly meeting in June.

the future Editorship of the Journal, Mr. Thompson, EASTERN COUNTIES' Railway.-On the motion of Mr. Dyke Acland, and Mr. Wren Hoskyns favoured the Mr. Fisher Hobbs, the President undertook to address

Council by an expression of their willingness to continue a letter to the Chairman of the Eastern Counties Rail- their Joint-Editorship provisionally until some other way Company, on the subject of the charges, made only arrangement should be made. On the motion of Mr. by that company, for live stock sent for exhibition at

Raymond Barker, seconded by Sir John Shelley, Bart., the Country Meetings of the Society.

M.P., it was carried, that the Joint-Editors be authorized COUNTRY MEETING DINNER.-On the motion of to expend a sum not exceeding £300 per annum, for Mr. Torr, seconded by Mr. Thompson, the Council such aid as they might require. decided unanimously: "That in future, if any dinner LECTURES.-Mr. Thompson reported from the be held at the Country Meetings under the patronage of Journal Committee their recommendation that Prothe Society, the entire management shall be vested in fessor Hepfrey should be requested to deliver a Lecture the local committee; but the Council shall have the before the members at the Weekly Council on Wedoption and power of reserving and taking such a number nesday, the 26th of May, at half.past 12 o'clock, on of tickets as it shall think fit; and this Society sball some subject connected with Vegetable Physiology. nominate the Chairman, and supply the list of toasts, The Mayor of Chester's communication of an offer but shall have no other liability connected with it." from Mr. Moffat to deliver a lecture at the Chester

Country Meeting or 1859.—The report of the Meeting, on Atmospheric Influence in connection with Inspection Committee having been read, and deputations the Potato Disease, was referred to the Journal Comreceived from Coventry, Reading, Warwick, and Oxford, mittee. the Council decided that the country meeting should be

DISTRIBUTION OF JOURNAL.-On the motion of Mr. held at Warwick, next year, on condition that the Milward, seconded by Mr. Jonas Webb, the Council Mayor of that city entered into the usual agreement decided that the rule by which no governor or member with the Secretary of the Society by the next Monthly in arrear of subscription had a claim to receive the Council on the second of June. These depuations con- Journal should be strictly enforced. sisted of sixty-four members, among whom we remarked SPURIOUS GUANO.—Sir John V. B. Johnstone, Bart., the following :

M.P., read the following report from the Chemical
His Grace the Duke of Marlborough.

The Lord Bishop of Oxford.

Professor Voelcker has submitted analyses of Cotton-cake,
The Rev. James Clutterbuck, M.A.

containing a larger proportion of oil and flesh-forming The High Sheriffs of the counties of Berks., Oxford,

matter than Linseed-cake; and also various specimens of and Warwick.

factitious guanos perfectly resembling genuine Peruvian Right Hon. Edward Ellice, M.P.

guano in colour and smell, containing only from oneRight Hon. Edward Cardwell, M.P.

fourth to one-third of genuine Peruvian guano. He has The Sheriff of Oxford.

also exhibited to the Committee specimens of guano from The Mayors and Town-Clerks of Coventry, Oxford,

Kooria Mooria and the Falkland Islands, as well as from Reading, and Warwick.

Ichaboc; all inferior to the extent of from one fourth to Sir Joseph Paxton, M.P.

one-half of the best Peruvian guano. At the suggestion Earl of Macclesfield.

of the Committee Prof. Voelcker has undertaken to preViscount Dillon.

pare a short report on these specimens, to be submitted Mr. Palmer, M.P.

to the members of the Society at the next Weekly Council. Mr. Greaves, M.P.

CHESTER MEETING.-Mr. Fisher Hobbs reported Earl of Warwick.

from the Chester Committee the favourable progress of Lord Willoughby de Broke. Lord Guernsey.

the arrangements for the ensuing Country Meeting, to Lord Leigh.

be held in that city in the third week of July next.

STEAM-CULTIVATORS.-Sir Archibald Macdonald, kind of cake is superior in nutritive properties to any Bart., as Senior Steward of Implements for the Chester sample of Cotton-cake which I previously examined. It Meeting, having represented the importance of an effi.

will be observed that both are extremely rich in desbcient trial of Steam-Cultivators at the Chester Meeting,

forming principles, as well as in oil and fatty matters. the following resolution on the motion of Mr. Thompson,

Indeed both specimens of Cotton-cake contained a great

deal more of these valuable constituents than the best seconded by Mr. Miles, M.P., was carried unani

Linseed-cake, and ought to be, according to the analyses mously : :-"That a committee be appointed consisting

more valuable as a feeding stuff than Linseed-cake. I of the Implement Committee, with the addition of Mr.

would observe, however, that the analytical results obCaldwell and Mr. Huskinson, to consider the memorial

tained in the examination of feeding stuffs like cilcke presented by four owners of steam ploughs, and to en- are insufficient in themselves to determine their relatire deavour to secure an efficient trial of steam ploughs or practical feeding value. Various circumstances, two cultivating implements at the Chester Meeting.”

numerous to be detailed in this place, affect the practica! STEWARD OF POULTRY.-On the motion of Sir value of articles of food. Thas the oil in Cotton-cake rchibald Macdonald, Bart., seconded by Mr. Fisher may not be so readily assimilated as the fatty matters in Hobbs, Mr. Harcourt Powell, of Drinkstone Park, Linseed-cake, or it may not agree with the constitution Suffolk, was unanimously appointed Steward of Poultry

of animals, or the cake may be disliked by beasts and for the Chester Meeting.

sheep, or contain something or the other, not usually as VICE-PRESIDENT.- On the motion of Mr. Jonas,

certained by analysis, which may affect its practial seconded by Mr. Torr, his Grace the Duke of Rutland

utility. Indeed nothing short of actual feeding experi

ments will suffice to ascertain in a satisfactory manner was unanimously elected one of the Vice-Presidents of

the comparative value of this Cotton-cake and Linseed. the Society, in the place of the late Lord Braybrooke.

cake. But as Cotton-cake, much inferior in compositio MEMBER OF COUNCIL.-On the motion of Mr. Torr,

to the samples analyzed by me lately, has been used fit seconded by the Hon. A. Leslie Melville, Mr. Hutton,

feeding purposes with considerable advantage, it is of Gate Burton, Lincolnshire, was elected one of the highly probable that the experience of practical feeders General Members of Council, in the place of the late will prove that decorticated Cotton-cake is an economical Mr. Stephen Mills.

substitute for the much more expensive Linseed-cake. GUTTA PERCHA. - A communication from the So. ciety of Arts on the supply of Gutta Percha, and its Composition of two samples of decorticated Cotton-sti employment in the manufacture of agricultural tubiog,


No. I. No. II was referred to the Implement Committee.


8.27 Oil and fatters matters

19.19 THRASHING Machines.-Suggestions for the trial

Mucilage, gum, and sugar

12.25 of thrashing machines were received from Mr. Algernon * Protein compounds (flesh-forming Clarke, and also referred to the Implement Committee.


42.62 Adjourned to May 12.

Pure cellular fibre (woody fibre).. 10.22
Inorganic matters (ash)....

7.45 A WEEKLY COUNCIL was held on Wednesday, the

100.00 100 12th of May, present: Lord Berners, President, in the Containing nitrogen

6.82 Chair, Duke of Rutland, Lord Camoys, Lord Walsingham, Hon. A. Leslie Melville, Hon. Colonel Hood,

II.-SPURIOUS GUANO. Hon. William George Cavendish, M.P., Mr. Raymond Notwithstanding the facility of detecting admiriares e Barker, Mr. Brandreth, Mr. Davey, M.P., Mr.

genuine Peruvian Guano by simple chemical peut Brandreth Gibbs, Mr. Glegg, Mr. James Howard,

fraudulent adulterations of this most important of Mr. Fisher Hobbs, Mr. Hutton, Mr. Pinder Simp

artificial manures appear to continue unabated in so son, Mr. Slaney, M.P., Mr. Tanner, Colonel

quarters. During the last two months, inore the ti

samples of factitions and of adulterated gaanos were ser Towneley, Mr. Wilson (of Stowlangtoft), and Mr.

to me for examination, which circumstance indeos George Wood.

to direct again the attention of the members of the Societ Professor Voelcker, the Consulting-Chemist of to the subject of adulteration of guano. I have the 's the Society, transmitted the following reports of his sure of presenting for inspection several samples of a recent investigations on the subject of cotton-seed cake guanos, and have selected specimens which best illastrs for feeding cattle, and on the fabrication of spurious the peculiar character of the adulterating materials. 1 guanos, so completely similar in external characters to analysis of each specimen is attached to the bottie es the genuine articles as to have deceived the most taining it. A comparison of the composition of the experienced dealers, and to have their inferior value adulterated manures with that of genuine Peruvian G detected only by means of chemical analysis.

of which a specimen is also exhibited, will sbor i

much money a purchaser loses in buying such bad g53 I.-COTTON-SEED CAKE.

even if sold 21. or 41. less than Peruvian guano can be I have the pleasure of submitting to the inspection of the tained from Messrs. Gibbs and Co. At the samne tice:

members of the Society copies of analyses of two samples will be evident to any one who examines by the unas of a new kind of Cotton-seed cake. Both samples, under senses the various specimens on the table, how ate the name of decorticated Cotton cakes, were lately offered impossible it is for any one to distinguish several of for sale at London and Liverpool respectively. An in- adulterated guapos from the genuine Peruvian. Tbe i spection of the subjoined analyses will show that this new is, the guano-mixers have acquired such skill in the

as the preceding ones, but still they are bad enough, and
contain only about one-third of Peruvian guano, and two-
thirds of foreign admixtures. In No. III. the chief adul-
terating materials are chalk and sand ; in No. IV. there is
less chalk and much gypsum, as well as yellow loam and fine
coprolite powder. Both guanos sre worth about £5 per
ton. The following table exhibits the composition of these
two adulterated guanos, in contrast with that of genuine
Peruvian guano :-
Composition of a genuine and adulterated Peruvian guano.

farious practices, that neither by the touch, smell, nor the eye, the adulterating materials can be detected. It is now a common practice to sift off the harder lumps in Peruvian guano, to mix the fine dust most intimately with extremely finely powdered chalk, gypsum, yellow loam, sand, or whatever the adulterating material may be, and to add afterwards the lumps of genuine guano, so as to give adulterated guano the outward characters of the best Peruvian. The expense to which fraudulent dealers go, in preparing in a sufficiently fine state the admixtures in order to obtain a perfectly uniform powder with the fine guano-dust, is very great; but if it be considered that often guano worth only 41. per ton is sold at the full price of the best Peruvian, it will easily be conceived that a good margin for profit is left, notwithstanding the expense. The specimen marked No. I. is a guiano which does not contain, I believe, a particle of Peruvian guano, and is altogether a clumsy imitation. It is surprising that such stuff can find purchasers. This so-called guano consists entirely of fine yellow loam, sand, gypsum, chalk, a little salt, and organic matters poor in nitrogen, since this so-called guano furnishes, on decomposition, little more than 1} per cent. of ammonia. At the utmost, this manure is worth only 31. 38. per ton.

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No. I.--Composition of a sample of guano warranted Peru

100.00 100.00 100.00

*Containing nitrogen .. 15.74 5 65 vian, but altogether artificially made up, value only £3 38.

5.09 Equal to ammonia


6.86 6.18 per ton. Moisture


AUG. VOELCKER. * Organic matter and ammoniacal salts

14.56 Phosphates of lime and magnesia (bone earth)

I have also the pleasure of placing on the table specimens

17.55 Oxides of iron and alumina


of guano from the Falkland Islands, Kooria Mooria, inferior Sulphate of lime (gypsum)

18.49 Ichaboe, and African guano. By far the most valuable of Carbonate of lime (chalk)

10.11 these is the Falkland Island guano, which, however, Alkaline salts (commou salt chiefly)


is not near so valuable as the best Peruvian guano, since it Insoluble silicious matter (sand)


contains much less ammonia. The Kooria Mooria guano is

100.00 rich in phosphates, but, like the sample of inferior Ichaboe AUG. VOELCKER. guano and the African guano submitted to inspection, poor

in ammonia. In comparison with the price of the best Pe*Containing nitrogen


ruvian guano, inferior guanos from other places are geneEqual to ammonia


rally sold also high. In conclusion I beg to observe that in

buying Peruvian guano a farmer requires no other guaranNo. II. ig a guano, which has all the appearance of an ex- tee than a letter in wbich the dealer engages to supply cellent sample of Peruvian, but which contains in reality

“Peruvian guano, best quality." No expensive analysis is only about one-fourth its weight of genuine Peruvian

required to test the honesty of the dealer, since a perfectly guano, and no less than three-fourths its weight of yellow

trustworthy opinion can be given whether the guano is loam and chalk. Instead of 16 per cent. of ammonia, this

genuine or adulterated, and the ground of an examination, guano contains not quite 7 per cent. of ammonia, and

which the members of this Society have the privilege of obscarcely is worth £4 48. per ton :

taining at the trifling sum of 58. No. II. Composition of adulterated guano sold at Liverpool

Mr. Fisher Hobbs expressed the great satisfaction at £12 per ton.

it gave to himself, as it would doubtless also give to Moisture

5.35 *Organic matter and ammoniacal salts


the other members of the Society, to find their ConsultPhosphates of lime and magnesia

8.48 ing Chemist thus furnishing to the Council, for immeOxides of iron and alumina


diate announcement to the agricultural community, the Carbonate of lime

15.89 Magnesia


practical result of his researches. He was glad to find Alkaline salts (common salt chiefly).

3.10 that at the small expense of 5s. each member bad the Insoluble silicious matter (sand)

44.32 privilege of obtaining a certificate of the true value of 100.000

any substance offered to him for purchase as genuine AUG. VOELCKER. guano. At Mr. Hobbs's suggestion the thanks of the

Council were ordered to be transmitted to Prof. Voelcker * Containing nitrogen

314 Equal to ammonia ::

for the communications he had then made to them, 3.82

along with a hope on their part that he would continue, This guano contains only one-fourth of its weight of Peru. from time to time, as they occurred, to furnish such revian guano and three-fourths of yellow loam and chalk. sults of investigations carried on in his laboratory as he The specimens marked No. III. and IV. are not quite so bad might think of immediate practical importance.



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