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But the price of these auxiliary manures is now so respectable manufacturers, sell by a guaranteed high in comparison with the value of farm produce, analysis; and we think that farmers would act that farmers are dubious about applying them as wisely in giving their corn manures a trial. freely as in bygone seasons.
A very considerable quantity of superphosphate The question as to the profitable application of of lime was used in Ayrshire last season as a topguano at its present price, as a top-dressing for the dressing for wheat and oats, and as far as we can cereal crops, does not admit of a general answer. learn the results have been satisfactory. It is rigbt It depends on the condition of the land, and other to remember, however, that the high temperature circumstances. On rich land the extra manure of the summer of 1857 was very much in favour of may cause the crop to fall down, if the season be superphosphate. The experience of a cold, moist wet; and the quality of the grain may be depre- season would be less favourable. ciated without the quantity being increased : but Mr. Richmond made some interesting experi in the case of land that is well cleansed and in a ments last year, on the farm of Burnton, near middling state of fertility, we believe that it may Dalrymple, for the purpose of testing the value of still be applied with a fair chance of profit. Four superphosphate as a corn manure, when combined additional bushels of wheat or eight of oats may with nitrogenous manures in various proportions, reasonably be expected from each cwt. of guano. The manures were carefully weighed and mixed, This quantity of grain, with the fodder, may be and sown each on a single ridge to a certain worth from twenty to twenty-five shillings; and as number of yards from the end. The crop dressed the top-dressing, including labour, does not cost with each manure could thus be easily compared more than fifteen shillings, the profit looks re- with the crop on the remainder of the same ridge spectable on paper. It seems high enough to which got no top-dressing whatever. An equal cover the climatic uncertainties, which the farmer money value was applied to each of the lots. The is taught by experience not to overlook in his cal. manures were harrowed in with the seed about the culations. And the additional quantities of grain end of February. In making the experiments, and fodder do not show the entire profit that re- Mr. Richmond merely intended to examine the sults from the use of the guano. In the upland crop carefully during its growth, and to form an districts, two cwt. of guano per acre will make the opinion from observation. If experiments are to oat crop eight or ten days earlier, and this may be followed to the barn floor, and brought to the lead to a better harvested, as well as a better filled final test of weight and measure, they are not and more productive crop. There is another marked worthy of much reliance unless they have been advantage in the more vigorous growth of ryegrass made on a pretty large scale, and the work, from and clover among wheat or oats which have been first to last, has been conducted with care and pre- f top-dressed. On heavy land a free-growing clover cision. But to the practised eye of the observant plant may soon get beyond the risk of serious farmer, a small experiment may be valuable if be injury by slugs, when a weakly plant would be have the opportunity of seeing the crop during its destroyed.
growth. There have been loud complaints against the Mr. Richmond's experiments seemed to point Peruvian government and their agents, because unmistakably to the propriety of putting a consithey have drawn up the price of guano to the derable proportion of phosphate into manures for highest rate at which they can command a sale. wheat. The crops at Burnton, as at Craigie, These complaints can be of no avail, and it is refuse to admit to the Rothamsted axiom—“Amfutile to indulge in them. The Peruvian govern- monia for corn, phosphorus for turnips." It is ment have virtually a monopoly; and in exacting plain enough that in Ayrshire both crops are benethe highest price which they can freely obtain, fited by both manures. they are merely doing what other people would do In the experiments at Burnton, equal weights of in similar circumstances. If the price of grain sulphate of ammonia and superphosphate gave a continue to have a downward tendency the price better crop than two parts sulphate and one part of guano must be lowered also, as the point may superphosphate, while both lots were decidedly soon be reached at which there can be little chance superior to sulphate alone or superphosphate alone. of profit to the farmer from using it. But it is Peruvian guano alone gave a good crop; but equal lost labour to assail the monopolists, as some weights of guano and superphosphate were about people do, by advising farmers to abstain from as good, and two parts guano and one part superpurchasing guano, as long as they expect to derive phosphate were superior to either. Again, equal profit from its use.
weights of muriate of ammonia and superphosphate One good result has followed the high price of were appreciably superior to two parts of muriate Peruvian guano. A stimulus has been given to and one part of superphosphate, and both were the manufacture of portable manures, and the at- very much superior to muriate alone or superphostention of many intelligent farmers has been di- phate alone. The lot dressed with equal weights rected to experimental investigations as to their of muriate aud superphosphate was the best of the value compared with guano. The manures that whole. Equal weights of sulphate and superphosare manufactured for top-dressing the cereal crops phate gave the second best, and two parts guano are mainly nitrogenous and phosphatic compounds. and one part superphosphate the third best crop. When these elements are awanting-as in the case When we made our inspection and took notes in of the Economical Manure, analyzed by Dr. Ander- August, these lots, at the termination of the topson-the compound is simply worthless. Mr. ressing, stood up like the step of a stair above the Townsend, Glasgow, Mr. Weir, Ayr, and other wheat that had not been top-dressed. The wheat
dressed with superphosphate alone had less straw STOCKBRIDGE ANNUAL SHEEP AND than any of the lots which were dressed with
CATTLE SHOW. ammoniacal manure, but it was obviously more growthy than the fwheat alongside, which got no
The premiums given this year were nearly double as comtop-dressing ; and it was firmer of the straw and pared with former years, and, as a natural consequence, the earlier than any of the lots. The experiments competition was more keen. The stock exhibited, particularly were made on a thin heavy soil, which might have of sheep, was of that usual good quality which distinguishes been thought favourable for ammoniacal manures.
the flocks and homesteads Hampshire and Wiltshire. The The turnip crop of the previous year was grown on
principal exhibitors were the Right Hon, the Earl of Portsfarm-yard manure and superphosphate of lime.
mouth; Mr. Moore, Littlecott; Mr. Bennett, Chilmark; Mr. These experiments show that an equal money
Edney, Whitchurch ; Mr. Olding, Amesbury, and others. Mr. value of sulphate or muriate of ammonia and Pain, of Houghton, exhibited a pen of teg rams as extra stock, superphosphate of lime, gave a better return last
which was highly commended by the judges; a pen of ram year than Peruvian guano, as top-dressing for lambs, eleven weeks old, shown by Mr. Moore, of Littlecott, wheat. They also indicate that muriate of ammo
were also much admired. nia was the cheapest source of ammonia to the
For the best Hampshire Down Ram, a silver cup, value 31. 88.
-Mr. Bennett, Chilınark. farmer. But it is perfectly possible that similar For the best Hampshire Down four-tooth Ram, a silver cup, experiments may give different results this season,
value 81, 85.-The Earl of Portsmouth. as the summer may not be so favourable as the For the best Hampshire Down Teg Ram, a silver cup, value
51. 58 -Mr. French, Longstock. last for superphosphate. Such experiments should
For the second best dilto, a prize of 11.--Mr. Edney, Whitbe more frequently made. When observation church. during the period of growth is afterwards either For the best Ram of any kind, breel, or age, the criterion of corrected or strengthened by weighing and mea
merit to be the possession of general qualities necessary to form
the most useful and profitable sheep, a prize of 2.--Mr. John suring in the barn, the experiments of course are Moore, Littlecott. more satisfactory; but a very considerable amount For the best Hampshire Down four-tooth Ram, a prize of 21.of labour is required to do this as it ought to be
Mr. Olding, Amesbury. done. An opportunity, however, of observing the
For the best Hampshire Down Teg Ram, a silver cup, value
51. 58.-Mr. F. Baily, Candover. crop during the season of growth may sometimes
For the second best ditto, a prize of ll.-Mr. Olding, Amesconvey useful lessons to the farmer; and a little bury. attention may enable anyone to make a few simple bitor, in the proportion of 2 to overy 100 Ewos kept and put to
For the best Hampshire Down Ewe Tegs, bred by the exhiexperiments for this purpose.-Ayr Advertiser.
tup in the preceding year, to be kept with the flock up to the day of exhibition, a silver cup, value 31. 35.-Mr. Bennett, Chilmark.
For the best Hampshire Down Bwes in milk, in the proportion of 2 to every 100 Ewes kept and put to tup in the preceding year, to be kept with the flock up to the day of exhibition, a
silver cup, value 31. 38.--Mr. Lywood, Houghton. THE NEGLECT OF AGRICULTURE THE
For the best Hampshire Down Ram Lambs, in the proportion of 1 Lamb to every 100 Ewes kept and put to tup in the preced
ing year, bred by the exhibitor, a silver cup, value 81. 88.-The FORERUNNER OF NATIONAL DECAY. Earl of Portsmouth.
Mr. Edney's Ram Lambs in this class highly commended. SIR,–We read of the neglect of agriculture being the For the best Ram of any age, the exhibitor not saving more downfall of the Roman Empire. When Julius Cæsar con- than 10 ram lambs, a silver cup (given by Thos. Baring, Esq.), quered all the then-known world, he made every country, as
value 31. 38.-Mr. Chamberlayne, Up-Somborne.
For the second best ditto, a prize (given by T. Baring, Esq.) he conquered it, pay a tribute in corn instead of gold and
of 21.-Mr. Ayies, Michaelmarsh. silver; which soon ruined the Roman farmers, by having their For the ten best Hampshire Down Ewe Tegs, bred by the exhimarkets glutted with corn the produce of other countries
bitor, to have been kept with the flock up to the day of exhibiinstead of their own.
tion, the exhibitor not saving more than ten ram lambs, a silver
cup (given by Mr. John Day), value 51, 5s.-Mr. Elderfield, It is plain, corn grown in England is doubly advantageous,
Houghton. because it is produced by English labour instead of foreign
For the ten best Hampshire Down Ewes, in milk, to ba kept
with the flock up to the day of exhibition, the exhibitor pot labour. The Mark-lane Express is doing wonders by opening saving more than ten ram lambs, a prize of 21.25.--Mr. French, the eyes of the foreign farmers, by showing them weekly the Longstock, wonderful improvements in our agricultural implements. Of Day), value 31. 8s.--Mr. Foster, Kingsomborne.
For the best Cow, in milk, a cream jug (gived by Mr. John course common sense says that a vast deal of our agricultura) For the second best ditto, a prize (given by Mr. Day) of 21.machinery will find its way into all parts of the globe to cul- Mr. W. Pothecary, Wallop.
For the best Heifer, in milk, not exceeding three years old, tivate their land with, which will cause our English markets
a prize of 21.--Mr. Flower, Longstock, to be glutted with foreign corn produced by foreign labour. For the best Bill, a prize of 21.-Mr. C. Pielder, Sparsholt. It is expedient to give the British farmer a tenant-right tor, a prize of 11.–Mr.o. Pielder. Sparsholt.
For the best fat Calf, under 12 weeks old, bred by the exhibi(alias equity or justice between landlord and tenant), or the For the best Boar, a prize of 21.-The Earl of Portsmouth, foreigners with our English-made implements in husbandry
For the second best ditto, a prize of 11.-The Earl of Portsmouth,
For the best Breeding Sow, a prize of 21.- The Earl of Portsupon their maiden lands—the foreigners, who pay light rents mouth. and taxes, in a few years will bring the English farmers to the For the second best ditto, a prize of 11.-The Earl of Ports.
mouth. same position as that in which the Roman farmers were. No
For the best Cart Stallion, prize of 21.--Mr. Ayles, Michaelcountry can be great that is poor in agriculture. Upon marsh. estimating the value of the stock and crops in England, it
For tbe best Cart Mare, in work, prize of 3!.--The Earl of Ux
bridge. will be found that ours is the richest country, per acre, on For the second best ditto, a prize of 11.-Mr. French, Longthe face of the earth,
stock. SAMUEL ARNSBY.
For the best Cart Colt or Filly, foaled since the year 1854, bred
by exhibitor, a prize (given by Thos, Baring, Esq.) of 21. 28.Mill Field, Peterborough, April 8.
Mr. T. Allwood, Stockbridge.
ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY
A Weekly COUNCIL was held on Wednesday, the between English and continental agriculture. I allude to 28th of April : present, Lord Berners, President, in the the subject here, in order briefly to remark upon the neces chair ; Marquis of Downshire, Lord Feversham, Hon.sity which I believe exists at the present time of a more A. Leslie Melville, Hon. Colonel A. Nelson Hood, Hon. extensive cultivation of the study of sciences on the part of William George Cavendish, Sir John V. B. Jolinstone, the rising generation of agriculturists. In no country is Bart., M.P., Mr. Dyke Acland, Mr. Astbury, Mr. Ray- this more desirable than in England. We require better mond Barker, Mr. Hodgson Barrow, M.P., Dr. John culture. The landlord may derive great advantage, I am cua
instruction among every class of men interested in agriBright, Mr. J. S. Budd, Mr. Caldwell, Colonel Chal vinced, if he have a knowledge of the rudiments of science
, fae loner, Mr. Corbet, Dr. Daubeny, Mr. Davey, M.P., it will enable him to distinguish at once bet seen the suggesMr. Druce, Mr. Joseph Druce, Mr. Fison, Mr, Brand. tions of the true man of science, and those which emanate reth Gibbs, Dr. Gilbert, Rev. L. Vernon Harcourt, Pro. from men that are neither practical nor scientific, which are sa fessor Henfrey, Mr. Fisher Hobbs, Mr. Wren Hoskyns, much calculated to throw discredit upon all scientific investi: Mr. Richard Jennings, Mr. Langston, M.P., Mr. Law- gations, and thus retard the application of science to agriculrence, Mr. Thomas Lee, Mr. John Lloyd, Mr. Majendie, ture. And the large tenant-farmer is brought into more Mr. Milward, Professor Nesbit, Mr. Pain, Mr. David direct contact with scientific matters, since many improve Pugh, M.P., Mr. Robinson, Mr. Thomas Scott, Mr. ments, which are only practical on large estates, are based on Slaney, M.P., Rev. William Smyth, Mr. W.C. Spooner, chemical principles. All farmers who manage farms of any Mr. Banks Stanhope, M.P., Colonel Towneley, Mr.
extent are compelled to use artificial manures: and here we Vyner, Mr. Burch Western, Mr. Wilshere, and Mr.
find that those wbo have not a clear appreciation of the cir.
cumstances which regulate the value of artificial manures, ee Joseph Yorke. Communications were received from Mr. Duckham, of substances that do not deserve the name of manures. This
entirely at the mercy of men who designedly seek to dispose on the desirableness of the Society's Country Meeting could not be possible if every tenant-farmer had a knowledge for 1862 being held at Hereford, and of that county of the first principles of chemical science. At the same time being represented in the Council on the nomination of it is quite true that everybody does not stand in the same members resident within it; and from Mr. W. G. Field, need of acquiring a knowledge of chemistry. It would be of Notting-bill, on the establishment of a permanent ridiculous, I think, to teach the agricultural labourer agricul. depôt, in the neighbourhood of London, for the exhibi- tural chemistry ; nor would it be desirable that the nell tion of live stock and implements.
tenant-farmer should occupy his time in acquiring chemical LECTURE.—Dr. Voelcker, consulting chemist to the knowledge. He requires to be eminently a practical map, and Society, then delivered before the members the follow to be satisfied with simple tastes, and he will realise little ing lecture, “On Agricultural Chemistry, in its Rela
benefit if he employ his time in the study of a knowledge tion to the Cultivation of Root Crops," Lord Berners, practical utility, since he finds no scope for the exercise of
which, in his position of life, will be of comparatively little President, in the Chair :
such superior knowledge. But the question is quite different MY LORD, AND GENTLEMEN,–If there ever was a time with the landed proprietor and the tenant-farmer who maiwhen a knowledge of science was more useful to the agri- ages even a moderately-sized farm. There have at all times culturist than at another, it is the present. If there be been excellent practical men who do not pretend, and Deter any country in which a knowledge of science is of more have pretended, to any knowledge of chemistry; and thoagi direct use than in another, it is England. There are there may be some who speak disparagingly of chemical various circumstances which conspire to account for this. science even at the present time, yet I believe the most intel. If we look to the agriculture of the Continent or of the ligent farmers have a sort of intuitive feeling that they might Colonies, we shall find that there is little scope lett to have spared themselves a great deal of labour in acquinis those farmers who are possessed of theoretical knowledge that practical knowledge which so eminently distinguishes of those sciences that apply more especially to agriculture. them at the present time, if they had possessed those facilities It is different in England. English agriculture, as we all which are now offered to the rising generation in acquiring know, is perhaps the first agriculture of the world. Cer- knowledge of science, more especially chemical science. They tainly, in no country is agriculture in such an advanced are, therefore, anxious to secure to their sons and those de state as in England; and it is easy to demonstrate, if it pendent upou them the means of not only acquiring rapidly were necessary, that, in countries in which agriculture has the experience which by a long process they have themselves reached a high state of perfection, resources are open to the accumulated, but to extend that experience ; and I believe cultivators of the soil, which in less favourable conditions there is no better mode of rapidly acquiring practical expe. are totally inapplicable. England certainly has the advan- rience and extending our knowledge of practical matters than tage of having the landed property in large estates, for the a study of the principles on which agriculture is founded, most part: it is blessed with intelligent proprietors, and more especially chemical principles. Science is emicently with large tenant-farmers, who, in the present state of calculated to get experience; for what is science after all, but agriculture, find it impossible to overlook altogether the the systematic arrangement of well-authenticated facts ? At resources which are offered to the agriculturist by science. an early stage of almost any practical occupation there is no But it is foreign to my object to dwell upon a comparison scope for the exercise of scientific applications ; the facts are limited, and they can be easily recollected. But when the on that immortal man Mr. Pusey to have foreseeo, with all number of facts accumulates to an extraordinary extent, none his practical tact and clear intelligence, the important advanbut those blessed with an exceedingly good memory can gaia tages which chemistry is capable of securing at one time or practical information. We want, then, some grand principles the other, and who was fortunate enough to secure the services which shall enable us to recollect facts. Neither chemistry of my predecessor in office. The services rendered by Pronor any other branch of science ought to be the direct guide fessor Way to this Society, and to agricultural society at to the agricultuurist. It should never put itself in the position large, are too well known to require comment from me on of telling a practical man what he has to do; but it ought to this occasion. His works will be read and appreciated by explain the experience of farmers and facilitate the under- successive generations; they have a permanent) value, and standing of practical matters to the rising generation ; for belong to the choicest contributions of your Journal. In there would be no progress whatever possible if each genera- alluding to your Journal, my Lord, excuse my making one tion had always to learn again the same practical matters, a remark, which may, perhaps, appear out of place. I was surknowledge of which their forefathers had gained. They prised the other day to hear that the Journal was in danger of require to have some grand principle, to lay hold at once of losing its standing as the first leading agricultural publication those numerous practical facts, and then they are in a position of the day; that the former volumes were much more practo extend previous experience. Hence, I believe, at the tical than those issued in later years. I was surprised to hear present time especially, science is eminently calculated to be these remarks, because I have heard remarks in the opposite of great utility to the rising generation. The most successful direction from many agriculturists with whom I have confarmers in all ages have always been men in advance of their versed. There will always be differences of opinion; but it is times. Our most excellent farmers of the present time have worthy of remark that the most talented, rising young farmers been distinguished in their manhood for something for which generally speak very favourably of the contributions to the they were ridiculed at one period of their life. When they later volumes of the Royal Agricultural Society's Journal; had to contend against popular prejudices, chemistry as a
whilst observations of an opposite tendency are chiefly made science was altogether unknown. In all probability if che- by men who were of full age, if I may use the expression, when mical science had been applied to agriculture as it has since chemistry, as a science, was altogether unknown. Be this as been, they would have been “ meddling" with it, as the it may, it is clear that a different mode of thought and exphrase goes ; but they "meddled ” with some new plough or pression pervades the productions emanating from the younger some new implement for which they were ridiculed, and at agricultural writers, wbich proves, I think, that the rising first it would seem properly, because they failed in their intelligent farmer is no longer satisfied with having simple attempts: but they were men of character, perseverance, and direction in practical matters—is not simply satisfied with intelligence; they did not abandon a new process because it being told “ You must do this or that,” unless he is told at was ridiculed, they did not cast aside a new instrument the same time the reason for this recommendation. And I because it did not at once work well; they put their shoulders believe that it is equally true that frequently no satisfactory to the work, applied their intelligence, brought out the new explanation cau be given of practical farming matters without implement, or, by making use of their previous experience, using scientific language, however simple it may be. And, introduced a new process, which was gradually accepted, since lastly, I would observe, with respect to this subject, that it was found to answer in a great many instances, and the cir- many of the most valuable contributions will remain a dead cumstances under which it would be useful to the farmer were letter to those who have not studied the rudiments of science. clearly recognised. Chemical science in its relation to agri. In short, a knowledge of the rudiments of science, more especulture had to pass through all the different stages which a cially of chemistry, is necessary to all who would successfully new-born babe or child has to pass through during the first compete with the future rising generation; and if they neglect years of existence. We have seen the joy with which the new the opportunities which are now afforded to them in acquiring light of chemistry in its relation to agriculture, as it has been chemical knowledge, and a general knowledge of the princalled, has been greeted. Those who have welcomed it with ciples of science, they must be content to forego the enjoy. the greatest joy have, it cannot be denied, too much petted, ments and benefits which are peculiar to a bighly-civilised 80 to say, those scientific men who applied themselves to the country like England, and must be content to try their investigation of chemical subjects in relation to agriculture : hands in clearing an habitable spot in the back-woods of and it has very soon appeared that, like petted children, Canada or North America, or to live, or rather vegetate, in many of the professors of chemical science over-estimated their one of our colonies. Agricultural chemistry in its application own powers, and instead of explaining the experience of to farming is altogether a new science; and hitherto it has practical men, they set themselves up as guides to the farmers; been, like every new knowledge, too vague and too general in in short, they over-estimated the powers of the new science, its doctrines as well as in its researches. What is required at and, in consequence, stumbled. It cannot be surprising that the present time is experiments made for a special purpose practical men should have laughed, at various times, at the
researches carried on in the field as well as in the laboratory. extravagant expectations which were held out by scientific men We have need of the joint labours of practical men and men themselves. It was very soon found out that, as yet, chemical of science. There are multitudes of subjects which can only be science had nothing but promises to offer. It was then that properly investigated if the man of science heartily joins with chemistry had to pass through many troubles ; it received a the practical man, working cheerfully together each in his own rough handling; and it is surprising that amidst the petting department. Nearer approach betweeu agriculture and science, on the one hand, and the rough handling on the other, it did in short, is what is required at the present time. A general not die a natural death. But it is fortunate that, at all times, knowledge of the principles of farming, however useful to the there are intelligent and liberal-minded men who, though practical farmer, never will help him to grow a large crop of they may regret the extravagances of the young, yet recog. turnips : he must have special training in practical matters in nise the talent that may be but a spark, but which requires order to be a successful farmer. So it is with chemical know. only to be directed in the proper chanı to become mighty ledge. Men may have excellent general chemical knowledge, means for practical and social good. It reflects great credit but if they have not special chemical knowledge in rela
tion to farming, their labours will be of little direct utility to ascertain, first, whether ammoniacal matters can be disto the agriculturist. We understand in England better pensed with in the cultivation of root crops, or not, and what than in any other country the division of labour, and this the conditions are under which we can dispense with ammonii, circumstance is highly favourable to the development of agri. a very expensive manuring constituent. The question of the cultural chemistry, for greater opportunities are offered than superiority of guano or super-phosphate mainly hinges upos in any other country to men trained in scientific matters this : "Can I dispense with the expensive ammonia, and yet to apply their scientific knowledge to special purposes. I grow a good crop of roots p" Now, I have no hesitation in might take up any subject to illustrate the intimate connec- saying that there are many instances in which roots may be tion of scientific labours with practical matters ; but I believe grown with great advantage without the direct application de there is uone better calculated to show more the direct bear. ammoniacal manures; and that in all these instances a great ing of chemistry upon agriculture than the cultivation of root deal of the most useful constituent of guano is, comparatirely crops. In cultivating root crops the farmer is directly thrown
speaking, lost, and that guano is therefore to a great extent in contact with chemistry, for few farmers at the present time misapplied. Now, before I allude to some experiments which can produce sufficient natural manure to satisfy their expecta- I made some years ago, and which I hope the Society will tions of growing large crops of roots, and hence they are com- enable me to carry on for years to come (for it is only by a suo pelled to employ artificial manures. From the first period
cession of experiments that truth is gradually established!, ! when the sced is put in the ground, or the soil itself is cul. would simply mention the practical experience of many farmers tivated, to the very last mon ent when the roots are consumed who have found that a mixture of super-phosphate and gues on the farm, the farmer meets with many matters in which a has answered much better than guano alone; and likewise the knowledge of chemistry is extremely useful to him. Take, for fact that inferior guanos, rich in phosphates, but, comparatively instance, the mechanical cultivation of the soil. He is at once
speaking, poor in ammonia, have answered better, practicals, shown the reason why it is of the utmost importance to work than the best Peruvian guano. I might also appeal to the the land properly, to subdivide it, to cultivate it deep. By
experience of many farmers who apply nothing else is the this mechanical means he liberates mineral food for the use of cultivation of their roots but super-phosphates prepared from root crops, which are specially benefited by readily available bone-ash alone. Moreover, it is the tendency of the present time mineral food; for, like all quick-growing plants, roots require
to produce super-phosphates comparatively poor in nitroga. their food to be prepared before-hand. Hence, if on stiff lands It is not likely that an intelligent class of men like the artificial you neglect the mechanical preparation of the soil, you have
manure makers would shorter the supply of ammonia ia artinot a sufficient amount of available food to satisfy the imme
ficial manures if they did not find that it answered their perdiate wants of the growing root crop. Then again, in putting
pose. If they could satisfy their customers without going to the seed into the ground, the intelligent agricu turist is re
the expense of using much ammonia in the composition of artimiuded of various purely chemical matters ; and the question ficial manure, they were evidently the gainers. I would not occurs to him, "Can I hasten the germination of my seed by however, have you to understand that I think that ammonia the application of certain salts, or by soaking it in certain
can be dispensed with even in the cultivation of root crops. dilute acids ? or can I use any other chemical preparation to I know that it cannot be. There are many soils on which the make the seed germinate, and bring up the young plant more
very cheapest manure that you can possibly use is goano. rapidly ?" But in no time in the cultivation of root crops is a
There are many soils in which ammoniacal matters are knowledge of chemistry of greater utility than when the far
beneficial to the root crops; but the instances are far bare mer has to decide what manuring substances he ought to apply
numerous in which phosphates are more beneficial. With in order to obtain a good crop of mangolds, swedes, or tur.
a view of throwing some light on the action of ammonia oe nips. Perhaps he is told he ought to use super-phosphate, or
root crops, more especially on turnips, I some years ago guano, or a mixture of the two, or a special turnip manure :
instituted some experiments which were purposely made how is be to decide what super-phosphate he is to select, if he
on extremely poor land-very thin and exhausted land does not understand the character of the ingredients that they were not made with a view of ascertaining how larre enter into the composition of super-phosphates or guano ? and
a crop of turnips I could obtain by the application of ertain how can he understand the chemical composition of super- mixed manures, but more especially for the purpose of phosphates if he does not understand chemical terms ? 11 ascertaining whether on our soils and the soils in our neigt he look at an analysis like that before me, he may glance over
bourhood we could dispense with the use of ammonia e it; but if he does not understand what the meauing of the
not, and what manuring constituents were likely to be of term “soluble phosphate," for instance, is, he runs the risk
the greatest benefit to the root crops. I used for this for of selecting an inefficient manure, which he buys simply be
pose several simple salts—like sulphate of ammonia, sulphate cause un analysis has been offered him. It never enters his
of potash, sulphate of soda, sulphate of lime-besides phosmind that a man who has to sell a very inferior article would phate in a soluble and most available condition, alone, an have it analyzed, and to issue the analysis with all the im
inixed with ammonia. That the soil on which the experi purities which the manure contains ; hence, he is satisfied
ment was carried on was extremely poor is shown by the with simply seeing the analysis. It is, therefore, of result embodied in the diagram to which I direct you? great utility to understand the chemical terms for the sub
attention. The natural produce of the land in one part was stances that enter into the composition of those manures
about 3 tons, and in another part 2 tons 11 cwts. 19 lbs. which are most frequently used for agricultural purposes. That is the difference between the middle of the field and But, in the first place, it is of great importance to be able to the outside; it is too small to be taken into account. A select those manures which are best adapted to the cultivation allow me to observe that I think that all differences in prac of roots. Let us take, for example, the cultivation of stedes.
tical experiments amounting to no more than balí a tan We hear constant discussions as to whether guano is better ought to be dismissed altogether as accounted for by natural than super-phosphate, or whether a mixture of guano and
variations in the soil, or by accident. You should not super-phosphate should be used; and these discussions are
dwell upon these minute differences, and draw nice distinc neper bronght tɔ a successful issue, simply because we require tions as to the action of different manuring matters. And