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The soil is the farmer's capital-to make it pay other country, they will be found to consist generalis, him good prolits, his business. His means are iu- | 1. Of larger or smaller stones, sand or gravel. 2. Of vested in land, and from its generous bosom he must a more friable, lighter mass, crumbling to powder draw support for himself and family-house, food when squeezed between the fingers, aud rendering clothing, fuel, books, papers, education for his water muddy. 3. Of vegetable and animal remains children --all the necessaries of life, without which (organic matter.) man cannot live, and all those luxuries without which life is hardly worth the having. The Presi.
“On further examination of the several portions dent in the White House, our ministers at foreign obtained by means of washings, we find, courts, the American loungers in Paris or Rome, “1. That the sand, gravel, and fragments of stones the missionary on the burning sands of Africa, the vary according to the nature of the rocks from which merchant in his counting-room, and the mechanic at they are derived. Quartz-sand, in one case, will be his bench, all derive sustenance from American soil
, observed as the predominating constituent; in Truly do the Scriptures say, "The profit of the another, this portion of the soil consists principally earth is for all; the king himself is served by the of a calcareous sand; and, in a third, a simple in field.” This fact no political economist can deny, spection will enable us to recognize fragments of no sophism can conceal
. To keep his capital from granite, feldspar, mica, and other minerals. depreciation, and in such a condition that it able to honour his many and necessary drafts, so as
“ 2. In the impalpable powder, the chemist will to be in no danger of a panic, and that no suspen- readily distinguish principally fine clay, free silica, sion may become necessary, is the great business of free alumina, more or less oxyde of iron, lime, mag. the farmer. It is, then, of the greatest importance nesia, potash, soda, traces of oxyde of manganese, aud that we should know the character of the soil which phosphoric, sulphuric, and carbonic acids, with more a kind Providence has provided for our sustenance, or less organic matter. and the best method of securing this desirable "3. The watery solution of the soil, evaporated to result.
dryness, leaves behind an inconsiderable residue, We need not tell American farmers that our soil generally coloured brown by organic matters which differs in character, that we have clayey, loamy, and may be driven off by heat. In the combustible or sandy soils — nor that these different soils require a organic portion of this residue, the presence of amdifferent treatment, and are suited to different crops. monia, of humic, ulmic, crenic, and apocreuic acids And yet we often think those important matters are (substances known under the more familiar name of forgotten; for how few, who send us reports of their soluble humus), and frequently traces of nitric acid, crops, of their success, or their failures, give even a will be readily detected. In the incombustible porhint as to the nature of the soil in which the crops tion, potash, soda, lime magnesia, phosphoric, salwere grown, or the experiments tried! Then there phuric, and silicic acid, chlorine, and occasionally is much need of information as to the best manner oxyde of iron and manganese, are present.” of cropping and manuring the different varieties of soil. We know of land in this section, that ten or
All cultivated soils present a great similarity in fifteen years ago was considered so entirely un. composition, all containing the above chemical consuited to agricultural purposes that it was thought stituents; and yet, notwithstanding this similarity of no sane man would buy it for farming purposes. composition, we observe a great diversity in their Starvation or retreat was supposed to be the sure character. This is caused by the different proporfate of any one bold enough to try the experiment. tions in which the constituents are mixed together, These lands are now the most productive and valua- the state of combination in which they occur, and ble of any in this part of the State. This change the manner in which the different soils are formed. has been brought about by skilful culture and a All arable soils contain organic matter, varying from wise adaptation of crops to the soil.
half to twelve per cent. Good garden mould freEvery farmer should possess a general knowledge quently, contains from twenty to twenty four per of the formation, composition, character, and classi- cent. of its own weight, and in peaty pogs from fication of soil, and on these points we shall en
sixty to seventy per cent. is not uncommon. It was deavour to make the whole subject so plain that indicated by the proportion of organic matter it cou
once thought that the richness of a soil was plainly it will be understood and remembered by all.
tained; but careful analyses of seven specimens of
the best wheat soils of Scotland, and yielding about Soils are those portions of the earth's surface alike, being made, they were found to range from which contain a mixture of mineral, animal, and three to ten per cent. The poorest peaty bogs, also, vegetable substances in such proportions as to adapt contain the greatest amount of organic matter, while them to the support of vegetation. We quote from they are notoriously unproductive. a valuable article in Morton's Encyclopedia ;
The organic matter in the soil is due, for the “On examining the various soils in this or any greater part, to the vegetable remains of former crops.
CHARACTER AND FORMATION OF SOILS.
Tlic prairie soils are rich in organic matter derived | dissolves the carbonate of lime.
“On feldspar, from the annual decay of the grass for centuries. granite, and other minerals consisting of silicate of The soil of the forests is enriched by the fallen leaves. alumina and an alkaline silicate, carbonic acid and
The manner in which soils are formed cannot be water exercise a highly important action. Under doubted by any one who has observed the appear their influence these minerals are decomposed into ance of large rocky masses, the bare surface of their alkaline silicates, which in their turn give rise to smoother and harder parts, and the growth of mosses silica and carbonate of potash or soda, and into and small plants on the more softened portions. The silicate of alumina, or pure clay.” soil in valleys surrounded by rocky mountains The lower orders of plants and animals take a shows very evidently that they originated in the very active part in the formation of soil from solid disintegration and decomposition of the solid rocks rocks. The seeds of lichens and mosses floating in in their neighbourhood. One of the principal agen- the air attach themselves to the surfaces of rocks cies in effecting a gradual disintegration of solid which have become partially decomposed by the rocks is the oxygen of the atmosphere. "Oxygen action of the air and rain, as before described, and possesses a great affinity for many mineral substances, finding here sufficient food, grow, thus keeping the and has, consequently, a powerful tendency to surface of the rock moist for a longer time after rain, form new compounds. Those compounds, or oxydes, and giving the water a better opportunity to exerbeing always more voluminous, looser, and less com- cise its dissolving powers. Insects feed on the moss; pact, are primary cause of the bursting of many and both insects and plants die and decay. A thin rocks, particularly of those containing much iron. In layer of more fertile' soil is thus formed, which is the course of the formation of these oxydes, the com- soon taken possession of by a higher order of plants pact texture of the rock is broken up, and the whole and animals; which in their turn die, leaving a better mass of the rock gradually crumbles down.” estate to the succeeding generation.
Another and powerful agency in the formation of Mechanical causes, too, operate upon rocks. The soils is the carbonic acid of the atmosphere carried wind, thawing and freezing, and the principle of down by rain. Limestone is easily attacked by rain gravitation, effect them more or less. -Rural New water, as the carbonic acid which the water contains' Yorker.
WHAT BECOMES OF THE BONES: THEIR USE AND
COMMERCIAL VALU E.
Mr. Green, one of the many engaged in the glue, Peter Cooper being the heaviest purchaser of business of calcining bones in New York, gives the this description of offal; and when they are done following information as to the use and value of with, they are sold to the bone dealers at two cents bones. Dir. Jones' boiling calcining establishment a pound." The hoofs are disposed of at the rate of is situated on the Jersey side of the Hudson, sixteen 40 dollars a ton, and are afterwards made into horn miles up, nearly opposite Yonkers. To collect the buttons and Prussian blue. Horse hoofs and sheep bones from the chisonniers he employs in this city hoofs and horns are sold at 15 dollars a ton. eight men, eight horses, and four carts. A labourer
On the arrival of the bones at the factory, the invariably goes with each driver. The largest col- thigh and jaw bones are sawn so as to admit of lections are made in the Eleventh, Seventeenth, the removal of the marrow. They are then thrown Eighteenth, Nineteenth, Twentieth and Twenty into a vast cauldron, and boiled until all the marrow first, Wards. They commence their rounds as early and fatty substances attached to them are thoroughly as 7 a. m., and by i p. m. the collections are deposit- extracted. The fat is then skimmed off and placed ed in the vessel that is to convey them from the in coolers, and the bones are deposited in heaps for city. The law requires all the carts engaged in this
assortment. business to be boxed or covered with canvas. The heap for the turners : "the jaws and other bones
The thigh bones are placed in one price paid for bones varies according to quality. suitable for buttons are placed in a second pile : the Thigh bones of bullocks rank first, as they are the bones suitable for “bone black” come No. 3, and only bones in an ox that are fit for turners' use; the remainder are ground up for phosphates and mathey are mostly manufactured into handles for tooth brushes, the natural curve of the bone giving the desired shape to that indispensable article for the
“Bone black” is used by sugar-refiners, and is toilet. They are worth from ten to twelve cents worth from 2 to 34 cents a pound. To judge of each. The jaw bones rank next, and are worth 18 the amount used in this city alone of this article, in dollars a thousand. The “short” bones, as they are
the eleven immense sugar refineries in operation termed, such as leave the family table, are worth here, it is only necessary to state that “Stuart's from 40 to 50 cents a basket. To give some idea and the “Grocers”, refineries pay annually in the of the amount of money paid for bones, when we neighbourhood of the city 40,000 dollars a year consider the number engaged in the business of each for “bone black.” bone-boiling, exclusive of the Barren Island business, Of classes Nos. 2 and 3 we were furnished with we will state that Mr. G. pays for bones in this city no reliable data. No. 2 is used in the manufactue alone an average of 100 dollars a day. The fore of phosphates. No. 3 is made into manure, and leg and hoof are usually bought by manufacturers of sold at prices ranging from 38 to 55 cents a bushel,
according to quality, but generally averaging about | 19,000. dollars of this amount 14,000 dollars 50 cents, delivered at the factory.
was paid by one house, and we were assured that Of the amount of soap-fat produced from bone- this was but a moiety of the amount the house boiling, we can only say that our informant showed annually purchased.- Hunt's American Mrchant's by his books that the sale of soap-fat from his fac- Magazine. tory from June, 1856, to June, 1857, amounted to
SALE OF MR. CARTWRIGHT'S HERD OF SHORT-HORNS, AT AYNHOE.
BY MR. STRAFFORD.
On Wednesday, May 5, the entire herd of short-horns, be- whose young calf was said to have been sold that moraing for longing to T. R. B. Cartwright, Esq., of Aynhoe, were sold 50 ge, also becomes Mr. Howard's at 105 gs. Her daughter, by auction, without reserve, at the Home Farm, Aynhoe, by Lady Spencer 4th, a proof of the high quality of the Usurper Mr. Strafford, the well-known stock auctioneer, of London. heisers, was, again, the subject of very fierce competition; but There were 46 head of very fine cattle, most of which the Master of the Heythrop Hunt was not to be choked off, and were purchased by gentlemen from a distance, at very high he got the last nod for 140 gr. Lady Spencer lst was not prices. This splendid herd has all been collected by Mr. so fortunate, although a very magnificent animal to look st; Cartwright within the last four years, and is now broken up, but owing to a geueral impression that she could be of no use we understand, preparatory to his disposing of the farm on which for breeding, Mr. Cartwright lost 70 ge, on the price which they have been reared. The cattle showed very plainly what he gave for her a short time since. Lady Franklin, one of the can be done by skill and judgment, coupled with untiring per- best cows in the sale, did not realize her original price by a severance and industry; for, without exaggeration, we can great deal. She was by Captain Shaftoe, a Royal Shox pure safely say that Mr. Cartwright in his breeding of shorthorns bull at Northampton, who was sold twice over for upwards of has rivalled his compeers, even the oldest and most famous, 300 gs. Junia was much liked, and so was her magnificent It was matter of general remark by the very numerous party calf Juanita, by Second Duke of Cambridge; but the colour of present, that they never saw stock look so well—and al- Snowdrop, who was purchased by Lord Southampton, was though cattle have been sinking in price of late, the prices were not a little against her in the biddings. Generiere, larger than at any sale in the kingdom of this year, Some by the Second Dake of Cambridge, Fould of those sold are destined for Australia, Mr. Tyrell, agent improbably have followed suit to Wbitulebury, bot for Mrs. Keith Faulkner, of Torquay, buying several for that his lordship cut it rather too fine, and the last gnin purpose. The Prince of Prussia ball was bought for the Royal had fallen from the glass in favour of the Duke of VarlAgricultural College, at Cirencester. But we were rather borough's steward, before he renewed his bid. Grand as the astonished to observe that the breeders of this neighbourhood Second Duke of Cambridge's stock were, the Duke himself is allowed so much excellent blood to leave the district; for it is slightly leggy, and has hardly made up into quite the animal but geldom that such an opportunity occurs when they cau we originally expected; but still Mr. Phillips shoved good obtain really good stock at their own doors. No doubt the judgment in taking him at the price into Devon, along with Lady prices obtained were very bigh; but it ought always to be con- Spencer the First, His son John O'Gaunt was a very striking sidered that for such good old blood as that of “Venus” animal, with a rare back and quarters, and very rich hair; and (Lot 12), and “ Hero” (Lot 8), an extra price must be paid. Mr. Lawford, of Leighton Bozzard, one of the last competitor “Usurpation,” a first-rate cow, sold for £110 to a gentleman for the old bull, bought him. As at the Tubney and first from Lancashire. The Yearlings generally fetched high prices ; Quorn sales of horses, the highest prices were a bracket, in but “Genevieve 3rd,” “ Augusta,” and “Juanita” (who might this case, of 140 guineas, between Lady Spencer 4th and be considered as the gems of the sale), sold at extraordinary the Second Duke of Cambridge. prices for their age. The bulls, 11 in number, were admirable The company present numbered at least between 200 animals; but Lot 1, "Second Duke of Cambridge," although and 300, many of them from distant counties, and the rest he sold for £147, did not realize so much as he deserved, es- were the most enterprising breeders of cattle and agriculturists pecially when it is remembered, as stated by Mr. Strafford, of the neighbourhood. Such an assembly is seldom seen in in beginning the sale, that his sire, “Grand Duke," was sold this quarter, and shows the great interest now taken in shorte for no less than 1,000 guineas.
horued eattle. Amongst the noblemen and gentlemen were As a proof of the wide-spreading taste for shorthorns, -Lord Southampton, Sir Charles Knightley, Bart., H. W. it may be observed that the Essex men, who have hitherto Dashwood, Esq., W. Willes, Esq., H. L. Gaskell, Esq., Kid rather held aloof, were good buyers : another earnest that the dington Hall; Col. Bowles, J. L. Stratton, Esq., T. E, and seed which was sown by the Royal Agricultural Society in 1856 G. Drake, Esqrs., H. Hall, Esq., the Hon. H. Noel Hill, Shrophas not fallen on a barren soil. A new purchaser also arose shire; Mr. Denehfeld, agent to Sir Anthony Rothschild, in Mr. Howard of Biddenbam, a brother of the celebrated im Bucks; Mr. Mein, agent to the Duke of Marlborough ; Mr. plement maker, at Bedford, who carried off four of the choicest- Tyrell, agent to Mrs. Keith Faulkner, Torquay; Mr. Turvile, bred things, at long prices. One of these was Lady Spencer, agent to W. Bramstoo, Esq., M.P., Essex ; Mr. Willoughby a twelve-year-old, and consequently a rather ragged-looking Wood, Holly Bank, the well-known agriculturist; Mr. cow (whose dam was bought at Mason's sale at Chilton in Lowndes, Liverpool ; Mr. J. O. Adkins, Milcote, Warwick1829), bearing in ber veins the blood of Monarch, who was shii Mr. Topham, Warwick re; Mr. Do ell, Long Crensold for 220 gs. in very low-price times. One of her three don ; Mr. Bowley, Cirencester ; Mr. S. Bracher, Shaftesbury; daughters, Lady Spenrer 2nd, by the 400-guinea Usyrer, and 'Mr. W. Smyth, Wadhurst Castle, Sussex; Mr. Lawford
Leighton Buzzard; Mr. Yorke, Tbrapston; Mr. Beale, Rugby ; Lot 23.-Genevieve Ind, red and white, calved Jan, 21, 1850; Mr. Piggott, Esgex; Mr. Atherton, Lirerpool; Mr. J. Robin
got by Usurper; £75 12$ , by Mr. Pigeott, Essex.
Loi 21.--Jilt, roan, calved March 18, 1856; got by Usurper; son, Clifton Pastures, Bucks; Mr. Christy, Essex ; Mr. How- £106, by Mr. H. Hall, Barton. ard, Bedford ; Mr. Longland, Northamptonshire; Mr. Phil
Lot 25.--Johanna, red, calved June 25, 1836; got by Usurper;
£?4, by Mr. J. Robinson, Bucks, lips, Broombury, Totnes, Devon ; Mr. H. Hewers, North
Lot 26.- Adelaide, red and white, calved Oet., 1858 ; got hy leach ; Mr. T. Worsey, Chapel House, Speke, Lancashire Usurper; £32 11s., by H. L. Gaskell, Esq., of Kiddington Hall.
Lot 27.-- Violet, red and white, calved Nov., 1876 ; got by Mr. T. Robinson, Castle Ashby, Northamptonshire, &c., &c,
Usurper; £73 10$ , by Sir Anthony Rothschild, Bucks. After the company had partaken of a substantial luncheon, Lot 28.- Princess Royal, roan, calved Feb., 1857; got by
Usurper; £18 1s., by H. L. Gaskell, Esq., Kiddington. they inspected the crops on the farm, which are now in a very Lot 29.-Jessica, red and white, calved Feb., 1857; got by forward state, the barley sown in December looking better Usurper; £59 178, by Mr. Howard, Bedford. than any ever seen in this quarter before ; the winter beads
Lot 30.- Proserpine, loan, calved March, 1857; got by Bril
liant; £63, by Mr. Piggott, Essex. are in flower; and the wheat, drilled three pecks to the acre, is Lot 81.-Snowdrop, white, calved March, 1857; got by Bril. a very promising crop. Mr. Strafford then took his place on
liant; £58 166., by Lord Southampton, Whittlebury.
Lot 32.-Genevieve 3rd, red and white, calved July, 1857; got the stand, and after reading the conditions of sale, went on to by Second Duke of Cambridge ; £110 63., by the Duke of Marlremark “that he was quite sure he need say nothing to recom
Lot 33.- Augusta, roan, calved Sept., 1857; gut by Second mend the stock to the notice of the company, for the large Duke of Cambridge; £84, by Lord Southampton. number of breeders and farmers he saw before him, from all Lot 34.- Juanita, red and white, calved Sept., 1857 ; got by
Second Duke of Cambridge; £85 18., by Mr. H. Starkey, Spy parts of the country, satisfied bim that when a man went the
Park, Wilts. right way to work, like Mr. Cartwright, his efforts would be Lot 35.--Dewdrop, roan, calved March, 1858; got by Second fully appreciated. Mr. Cartwrigbt had done wonders during
Duke of Cambridge; £34 183., by Mr. Starkey, Wilts. the short time he had been a breeder. The stock which he
BULLS. had to offer on that occasion was remarkably well bred, and Lot 1.--Second Duke of Cambridge, red, calved April, 1854; those who were desirous of commencing the breed of Short- got by Grand Duke; £147, by Mr. Phillips, Totness, Devon. horus had now an excellent opportunity of doing so. He be- Usurper; £28 7s., by Sir Anthony Rothschild, Bucks.
Lot 2.-Flamer, red and white, calved August, 1856; got by lieved that Shorthorns were destined to supersede every other Loi 8. -Potentate, red, calved Jan., 1857; got by Usurper; breed. In couclusion, he begged to say that the whole
£32 11s., by Mr. Beale, Rugby.
Lot 4.- Forester, red and white, calved June, 1897; got by of the stock would be sold without reserve." The biddings Second Duke of Cambridge; £43 Is., by Mr. H. Clarke. commenced, and went on very spiritedly to the end, Lord
Lot 5.-Firebrand, red and white, calved June, 1857 ; got by
Second Duke of Cambridge; £33 178., by Mr. Yorke, Thrapston. Southampton and Mr. Meio, agent to the Duke of Marlborough, Lot 6 - Preehooter, red, «alved August, 1857; got by Second bidding against each other very obstinately at times. We Duke of Cambridge; £32 11s., by Mr. Painter, Worton.
Lot 7.-Jolin o'Gaunt, red, calved August, 1857; got by Sesubjoin the lots and the prices obtained :
cond Duke of Cambridge; £110 5s, by Mr. Lawford, Leighton
Lot 8.-Don Juan, red, calved August, 1857 ; got by Secon!
Duke of Cambridge; £85 18, by Mr. W. Smyth, Wadhur:t Lot 1.- Jacinth, roan, calveJ in March, 1846 ; got by Pawsley; Castle, Sussex. bought for £38 19., by Mr. W. Hadlan!, of Clattercote.
Lot 9.-Jester, red and white, calved Sept., 1857; got by Se. Lot 2.- Flasli, red and white, calved in Sept., 1816; got by cond Duke of Cambridge; £49 78, by Mr. Stephen Bracher, Mowbray ; £25 4s., by Mr. E. Parsons, of Walton Grounds. Shaftesbury
Lot 3.- Larly Spencer, roan, calred in Dec., 1846; got by Lot 10.- Lord Althorp 3rd, red, calved Dec., 1857 ; got by Shamrock; £68 53., by Mr. Phillips, Broombury, Torness, Devon. Second Duke of Cambridge; £6 158., by Mrs. Keith Faulkner.
Lot 4.-Jenny Lind, red, calved March, 1847; got by Duke of Lot 11.- Prince of Prussia, red roan, calved Jan., 1858; git Richmond ; £47 6s, by Mr. Robinson, Castle Ashby, Northamp- by Secon il Duke of Cambridge; £37 10s., by Mr. Bowly, Ciren tonshire.
Lot 5.-Joan, red, calved August, 1847; got by Lycurgus; £12, by Mr. Worsey, Chapel House, Speke, Lancashire
The total realized by the cows and beifers was £2,290 18. Lot 6.-Garland, red, calved November, 1817; got by Brung
giving an average of £65 8s. 7d. The bulls fetched £641 ls., wick; £38 175., by Mr. Bowley, Sidding on House, Cirencester. Lot 7.- Pearl 2nd, roan, calved April, 1848; got by Senator,
and an average of £58 6s. 53d. The grand total proceeds of £44 28., by Mr. H. Hewer, Northleach.
the sa'e was £2,931 2s., which gives an average of £63 14s. Lot 8.--Hero, roan, calved May, 1E 48 ; got by Son of the Ba.
73d. ronet; £!8 78., by Mr. W. Caless, Bodicote House.
Lot 9.-- Day's Eye, roan, calved May, 1849; got by Young After Mr. Cartwright's sale had been concluded, six short-
horns, bred by P. 8. Puonett, Esq., Chart Sutton, were sold
Lot 1.-Young Mary, red and white, calved in 1850; got by dict; £48 6s., by Mr. Howard, Bedford.
Man of Kent; £35 148., by Mr. Chamberlin, of Adderbury. Lot 12.-Venus, red and white, calved June, 1852 ; got by
Lot 2.-Roan Crummy, rich roan, calved in 1851; got by Mau Grand Duke; £105, by Mr. H. Hall, Barton
of Kent; £3. 11s., by Mr. Bowley, Cirencester. Lot !3.-Lady Franklin, red, calved July, 1852; got by Captain
Lot 3.-Youn: Spectator, roan, calved in 1852; got by MurShaftoe; £70 73., by Mr. W. ('aless, Bodicote House.
ton; £34 135., by Mr. Caless, Bodicote Lot 11.-- Accession, roan, calved June, 1853; got by Filbert;
Lot 4.-Torrington, roan, calved in 1852; get by Man of Kent; £'l 10s., by Mrs. Keith Faulkner, Torquay.
£29 8s., by Mr. Willifer, King's Sutton. Lot 15.-Pearl Powder, red and white, calved October, 1853;
4 t 5.--Young Humpsey, roan, calved in December, 1853 ; got hy Buccaneer; £36 158, by Mr. Longland, Northampton
got by Murton ; £19 88., by H. L. Gaskell, Esq., Kiddington. shire
Lot 6.- Locket, white, calved in April, 1855; got by Highland Lot 16.-Fashion, roan, calved November, 1853; got by Day
Laddie ; £26 55., by Mr. W. Smytlı, Sussex. break; £52 108., by Mr. Avery. Lot 17.-Lads Spencer 2nd roan, calved November, 1854; got
The total amounted to £187 198.; and the average, £31 by Usurer: £110 58., by Mr. Howard, Bedford.
6s, 60, Lot 18.--Genevieve lst, red and white, calved December, 1854; got by Usurper; £55 13s., by dr. Christy, Essex.
Lot 19.-Jocose, red and white, calved March, 1855; got by Usurper; £73 10s., by Mrs. Keith Paulkner, Torquay.
EXPERIMENTAL FARMS IN AUSTRALIA.-It is Lot 20.--Junia, red, calved April, 1855; got by Duke of Glos'er; £95 11s, hy Mr. J. Robinson, Clifton Pastures, Bucks.
with great pleasure that we take coguizance of the appointLot 21.--Usurpation, roan, calved October, 1855; got by ment of Mr. Skilling to the office of Director of the ExperiUsurper; £110 53., by Mr. Athertou, Liverpool. Lot 22.- Lady Spencer 4th, roan, calved December, 1855; got
mental Farm, to which a portion of the Government grant in by Usurper; £147, by Mr. H. Hall, Barton,
aid of agriculture has been devoted. We feel convinced that
this accord to the wishes of our farming community will be days before they died. With these I tried erery recedy I gratefully received, as it tends to prove that those in authority could think of, or that was suggested to me; and, unterare rea’ly anxious for the success of the scheme propounded. tunately, I had cases enough to try everybody's remedy. Bat Mr. Skilling has, for some time, been the industrious and all were alike unavailing, and the disease was stopped at laut efficient secretary of the Port Philip Farmers' Society, and by by weaning, and at the same time spoiling those that wee coustant contact with our leading agriculturists has become left. I find, on reference to notes made at the time, that from so thoroughly acquainted with their views, and their pursuits, the beginning to the 23rd of April (the time of weaning) I had that he is singularly qualified for the post he is now called upon lost 80 out of 300 launbs. The stomacbs of several of the to fill. Had the original idea of Importing (!) a director from lambs were examined by two veterinary surgeons without aay England been carried out, however good a practical or theore- satisfactory result. I should state, perhaps, that during these tical husbandman he might be, it would have been years be- three weeks of mortality, in hopes of checking the disease, the fore he could have proved himself thoroughly a master of the flock was moved from old or early sown swe les to younger peculiarities of our soil and climate as to become useful to the
opes that had been pulled up and put in rows across the field, colony at large. In place of teaching, he would bave to learn
and the ground ploughed between; so that it was impoésible from the very farm servants who might already be acclimated,
they should have picked up any weed to occasion the disaster. and, however anxious to do his duty, must have nece ssarily
Next they were put on young turnip greeds, and after that a found himself a temporary stumbling-block, instead of assist.
ryegrass, until, on the 23rd, they were taken from their neance, to our already rapid advancement. We are not aware
thers and kept on dry food for a few days, weaped, and if the Port Philip Farmers' Society will immediately lose the
spoiled; but the disease) was stayed. From this I felt eteservices of their able secretary, though we should imagine 89;
vinced that the injury was derived from the eve, and that it but, much as the removal will be regretted by those to whom
was she who reqnired medicine; and, having seen in “ Clater's he has been so faithful a colleague, we are sure that the ex- Cattle Doctor” that two ources of Glouber's salts, with a tended means of usefulness thus opened to him will be hailed
quarter of an ounce of carrapays, mixed with thin gruel, ru with gratification, as a reward due to merit, and also as a
a good aperient dose for a sheep. I resolved to give it a trial, handsome compliment to the socie:y itself. When the ques- which I had an opportunity of doing the following year; and, tion of the grant was first mooted, Mr. Skilling penned an as I believe, prevented a repetition of the previous year's loa, able memorial to Captain Clarke, setting forth the advantages
as the same symptoms, attended with the same fatal resalt, to be gained by a model farm, and in a full, but concise man. had shown in one of the best lambs (which I tbiok is oftes ner, explained the objects to be desired, and the most feasible
the case): upon which I procured a quantity of salts and elmethod of carrying them out. The plan of a museum he also
raways, and drenched all the exes in the flock, excepting broached, and particularly impressed on the government the
which had not lambed at the time ; and the only lamb I lost mutual economy and benefit to be acquired by a reformatory in a similar way afterwards was from one of these sis eset. school attached to the institution, an idea which it were well to embrace. The almost unexpected recognition of his valu.
The way in which I prepare the dose is this : I first boil the able advice, and in so highly complimentary a form, will,
carraways in order tbat the extract may be equally adaitiswe doubt not, be s spur to Mr. Skilling's future exertions, tered, which it would be more difficult to do with the seeds. and we shortly hope to see him prove as able in practice as
When the carraways are sufficiently boiled, add cold water precept.-Bell's Life in Victoria.
enough to wake as many ball-piots ss there are sheep to be drenched; then add the salts (two ources to each ball-pici), which, when dissolved, I give to the ewes from half-piot bottles, which a boy or girl will fill as fast as five or six wea
will get them emptied by dreuching the ewes. THE REARING AND DISEASES OF
I am afraid, Sir, that my communication has extended to LAMBS.
too great a length; but I have endeavoured to be as cotas as possible, and have only said as much as I tbought was re
cessary in order to be understood, and I must trast to you SIX,—On reading your report of the discussion on the resr.
advocacy of the agricultural interest to plead my apology. ing and diseases of lambs at the Farmers' Club, I find that
I remaio, Sir, your obedient servant, several gentlemen have sustained great losses amongst their Burghclere, May 14th, 1858. ROBERT CHURCH. lambs, but none have been able to supply a remedy. I have therefore been induced to send you the result of my own experience, in order that others may benefit from it, if they choose to use the remedy, which is both simple and inexpensive, and
THE DISEASES OF LAMBS. in my own case effectual.
SIR, I have read the discussion at the Central Farmers' In the beginning of April, 1852, my lambs were affected
Club published in your paper this week, and find that some much in the same way as the Chairman describes bis to have
farmers have lost a number of lambs in a shoit time. Harice been. The first symptoms (where they were observed) were,
had some practice in this matter, and knowing the cause of a wandering listless gait, with the head down, and the mouth
death and the cure, I will tell it you for the benefit of my in motion as if eating; when, suddenly, they would make a
brother-farmers. It is caused by a severisb milk from the eve. start, stagger a few steps, then fall down and struggle violently
The cure is 1 cz. of salts to each ewe, and good keeping. Its for a short time, foaming at the mouth and goashing the teeth single death happens after this, apotber ounce per ere must be as if in great pain. These paroxysms with some of them lasted given. I have proved it. To keep well, without cooling the but a short time-death eased their pain ; and, almost inva
blood of the ewe, is certain death to an increased number of riably, with death came what was termed the scour. In others larobs.
I am, Sir, your obedient servant, it appeared with less violence, and some I had lingered for Woolston, Blelchley Station, May 11/h. W. SMITI.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE MARK LANE EXPRE88.