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£11 to £15. There was a large quantity of pigs penned,
HOP MARKET. and lower prices than of late had to be submitted to, to effect sales.
BOROUGH, MONDAY, April 26.-Our market maintains TENBURY FAIR was well supplied with stock. There
the same steady character as of late, most descriptions being
in moderate request, at the following quotations, was a good attendance of butchers and dealers, and rather better prices were realized than at recent fairs. Beef averaged
Mid ond East Keuta.... 70s. to 90s., choice 112..
Weald of Kent....... fully 6d. per lb. Barren cows were dear, and cows and calves
54s. to 60s., Sussex
508. to 548,
602. made satisfactory rafes. There were not any fat sheep on offer,
21s. to 35s., but good couples met with purchasers.
50s. TEWKESBURY FAIR was well supported, but the
POTATO MARKETS. greater part of the business was transacted through the hands of the auctioneers. Messrs. Weaver and Moore sold SOUTHWARK, WATERSIDE, MONDAY, April 26.upwards of 560 beasts, and Messrs. P. Thomas and Son Since our last report the arrivals bare not been heavy, eitber also sold a large supply of stock. Beef sold at from 5d. to coastwise or from foreigo ports, but the trade has been in so 6d. ; mutton in the wool, from 6 d. to 7d. ; shorn, 5d. languid a state that there has been no opportunity of effecting to 6d. per lb.
sales ; so that our quotations are almost nominal, as followTIVERTON GREAT MARKET.-The brilliant weather Yorkshire Regcots..
140s. to 180s. per ton. did not appear to operate as an inducement to graziers to send Lincolnshire do........
140s. to 160s. their cattle to market. The number of bullocks driven was
140s. to 180s. hardly equal to an average. Owing to the small supply and Do. reds
80:, to -5, the extensive demand, beasts of good quality went off freely. Perth, Fise, and Forsar Regents 120s. to 140s, The prices obtained were, however, rather below those which Ditto ditto reds ... 70s. to 80s. were realized some time sioce. Fat bullocks were not plen- French whites
403. to 80s. tiful, and sold readily at from 93. 60. to 103. 6d. per score. Belgian do..................
50s. to 60s. There was a tolerable show of cows and calves, which fetched Ditto reds
808. to 90s from £12 to £17 a-piece. Barreners were worth 78. per score. The few working steers exhibited were quoted at £36 per
BOROUGH AND SPITALFIELDS. pair. There were not a great many sheep penned. They were LONDON, MONDAY, A pril 26.—The supplies of homedisposed of at remunerative rates. Fat wethers 7d., fat ewes grown Potatoes are on the increase. Since Monday last the 6d. to 61d. per lb.; store hogs 35s. cach; butchers' calves 5d. imports from abroad bave amounted to 300 tous from Antwerp, to 6d. per 1b.; rearing calves £1 58. to £2 each.
210 tons from Rouen, 110 tons from Brnges, 126 tons from TOWYN FAIR --The attendance was far more numerous
Louvain, 335 tons from Dunkirk, 110 tons from Ghent, and
30 tons from Groneogen. The trade generally is heavy, as than was anticipated, as in consequence of the delightful wea
follows: ther the farmers were busily engaged sowing. The supply of stock was not large. Two-year-old steers realized from £7 to
140s. to 180s. pe ton, £8; cows, in-call, from £12 to £14. The supply of horses
Kent and Essex do.
80s. to 160s. Scotch
120s. to 160:. was very meagre; some entire animals were exhibited, and ap
90s. to 100.. peared very strong and useful.
50s. to 90s, WINSLOW FAIR.-A good supply of beasts, sheep, and Lincolos
120s, to 140s. swine, and a numerous attendance of graziers and dealers. Foreign
60s. to 100s. The cow stock was remarkably good, especially the heisers,
COUNTRY POTATO MARKETS.-YORK, April 17.some of which made from £18 to £20 each, but the trade was generally speaking dull ; pigs a slow sale, at moderate prices ; | Leeds, April 20. – A fair show of potatoes, which sold
Potatoes sell at 13d. to 14d. per peck, and 48. per busbel. a poor supply of horses.
readily at 15ld. per 21 lbs, a holesale, and 16 d. retail. MALWALES CATTLE FAIRS have been held at Carmarthen TON, April 17.-Potatoes, ls. per peck. RICHMOND, April on the 15th, at Langathen on the 16th, and at Landovery op 17.- Potatoes, 4s. 8d. per bushel. "MANCHESTER, April 22. the 17th of this month. There was a fair number of store - Potatoes, 13s. to 21s. 6d. per 252 lbs. cattle for sale at each of those places. There was a full
PERTH POTATO TRADE.-The potato trade has been attendance of dealers, and pearly the whole of the stock were
dull this week, and prices have a downward tendency except sold at about ten per cent. lower than at the same fairs this time
for seed sorts. No dealer is willing to risk a venture in the last year. Cows with calves were rather scarce and commanded
southern markets at the former rates, owing to the beary in high prices. Fat cows were in fair supply and demand at fally portations from abroad. Retail prices have not experienced late rates. Horses and colts were rather scarce and in fair any alteration.- Perth Courier. demand, but at low prices. Pigs continued in good demand at no improvement in their value. WORCESTER FAIR.- There was a large supply of
ENGLISH BUTTER MARKET. beef, and many fat oxen were sold by auction. Beef made LONDON, MONDAY, April 26.- Our market is firm, and about 6d. per ib. Sheep were also plentiful. Fat mutton, quotations for price are about the same. out of the wool, brought about 6 d., in the wool 7 d. to 7d.,
Dorset, fine .......... and considerable business was done in this department.
per cwt. 116s. to 118. The show of store cattle was limited, and the demand was
100s. to 106s.
Freab.... tolerably brisk, at improving figures. Store sheep were
per doz. Ibs. 10s. to 156. more plentiful, and sold well.
CARMARTHEN, (Saturday last.)—A small quantity of new Butter has been brought into this market, the quality far
below the standard ; but after the fine copious rains which CHESTER.-There was an abundant supply of cheese for have fallen we shall soon have plenty of grass, sod a good supthe time of year. Plenty of factors were present, and purply of first-class butter. Farmers realized this day for der chased freely anything that was good. Prices ranged from Butter 18., and for old Butter 10d. to 1010, per lb. Cbeese 45s. to 62s. The quantity pitched was nearly 130 tone, a dragging trade, from 208. to 223. per cwt. Several lots were taken home, and some remained unsold.
BELFAST, (Thursday last.) -Butter : Shipping price, 100s. GLASGOW.-There was a large supply of cheese, and a to 112s. per cwt.; Brkins and crocks, 10d. to lid. per Ib. very heavy market. Eight carts were shown in the basaar, Bacon, 528. to 56s; Hams, prime 70s. to 761., second quality aad 19 tons passed the weigh-house scales. To make sales, 80s, to 66s. per cwt. Prime mess Pork, 858. per bil. ; Pork, lower prices were taken, although we contique former quo- 438. to 49s. per 1201bs. ; Beef, 1208. to 130s. per tierce; tations : Prime early made, 40s, to 520.; inferior and late Irish Lard, in bladders, 72e. to 76.; kegs or firkins, 646 made, 449, to 48s.; new skim, 240, to 25.
to 66s. per cwt.
ON THE PRACTICE OF PARING AND BURNING
IN DAUPHINE (FRANCE.)
By F. R. DE LA TRKHONNAIS.
Before I had the pleasure of reading Dr. Voelcker's ex. The practice of paring and burning is evidently one of cellent paper upon the subject of paring and burning, as great antiquity. In the “ Théâtre d'Agriculture," written practised upon the Cotswolds, in Gloucestershire, published more than three hundred years ago by the celebrated in the last number of the Royal Agricultural Society's Olivier de Serres, we read a very minute description of Journal, I had intended to write the following remarks that operation as practised in his time; and the advantages upon the same subject, from notes taken in September last he enumerates as resulting from this mode of preparing the at Grenoble, whither my duties as Vice-president of the land, especially for greep crops, so fully bears out the conAgricultural Section of the Scientific Congress had called clusions arrived at by Dr. Voelcker and the experience of me. I am glad other engagements and more pressing occu- the farmers in Dauphiné, that I am induced to offer to my pations have delayed my writing upon this interesting reader a condensed translation of Olivier de Serres' detopic, because the perusal of Dr. Voelcker's able paper scription, which no doubt will be new to the public, as the has enabled me to elucidate several points which I could bulky work from which I take it is rather rare, and very not satisfactorily explain ; and, in reciprocity, I feel certain | little known, that the result of experiments and observations made at so It must be bɔrne in mind that the following passage was great a distance from the Cotswolds, and under such different written more than three centuries ago; and I wish I could circumstances, and, moreover, quite independent of his own, render in adequate modern English the quaint and picwill prove interesting to that able Professor, and to those turesque old French style of the author : who, like myself, have derived so much pleasure and in- "Since tilling the land is nothing else but to pulverize struction from his valuable contribution to the Society's and scarify it, to render it capable of receiving, nourishing, Journal.
and bringing the seeds to maturity, it follows that the opeOn my way to Grenoble, through the magnificent and ration which effects this result the sooner and the better is fertile plain of Graisivaudan, I had remarked upon many the most praiseworthy. It is baking or burning the clod fields a multitude of little mounds, systematically arranged, or turf which bears the honour of this husbandry above all and undergoing the process of burning; for the careful other kinds of tillage, by means of which the land is perattention of the men in attendance, in raking fresh soil fectly well prepired; since, being freed from all hardness, over those mounds evincing symptoms of entire combustion, roots, and weeds, it is rendered fine, like ashes, and afterat once led me to suppose that a slow charring, rather than wards fruitful in all kinds of crops. The land, being thus incineration, was aimed at. Subsequent inquiries proved renovated, will produce nothing spɔntaneously (having no that I was right in my conjectures.
seeds left in its bosom), but will gaily grow all that which Numerous excursions in the neighbourhood, and frequent you will commit to it. Garden-crops, fruit-trees, vineyards, conversations with the farmers, showed me that this prac- delight in soil thus prepared more than in any other. tice of burning was a general system throughout the Meadow-lands are greatly benefited by it, and become country, and regarded by all as a most useful operation- richer than anywhere else. In conclusion, this husbandry, equivalent, in fact, to a complete application of manure. by its excellence, may be said to be the quintessence of
There is nothing for which I entertain so great a respect agriculture, and worthy of admiration; man having found as those practices based upon the experience of time imme- by this artifice the means of accomplishing in ten days that morial, and handed down from generation to generation, to which it takes the sun several years to do, preparing the our own time, although perhaps no one was ever concerned land in so short a time and so well, and this by fire, that it in ascertaining the why and wherefore of such practices; is rendered subtle and obedient to produce anything. That the well-established fact of their efficiency, borne out by the invention came from the burning of torn-up woods and evidence of daily experience, being a sufficient ground for plantations, from which the people grew abundance of corn. their continuance.
For a long time has this mode of cultivation been resorted This practice was the object of much discussion at the to upon cold mountains, which thus derive from fire what Congress. It was pooh-poohed by several. For myself, I did they lack from the sun." not view it at first with any high degree of favour, although
Then follows a minute description of the modus operandi, I was ready to admit that it must be attended with some which differs very little from that used in Gloucestershire, beneficial results, or else its prevalence would not have be- and still less from what I have observed in the plain of come so constant and so general. I resolved, then, to in- Graisivaudan. Olivier de Serres recommends this operation vestigate closely the nature of the operation, to ascertain to be made in May or commencement of June. The turfs the chemical character of the soil, and to determine as should be first dried, then heaped up over a small faggot, accurately as possible the chemical reaction and other phe- the grass side dowowards. This heap should be about five nomena generated by the process of combustion.
feet in diameter at the base, and from four to five feet in Happily for my inquiries, there were in the Congress height. They should be arranged at regular intervals and several gentlemen residents of the country, who had be. in straight lines, for the better distribution of the ashes stowed upon that subject a great deal of attention; and, over the land. The author strongly recommends to avoid a with their kind help, by which I was saved a great deal of rapid combustion, saying, “Clods and turss must be constantly time and trouble, I have succeeded in satisfactorily ex- heaped up over the mounds from which smoke issues in too plaining the beneficial results of burning, in the peculiarly great a voluine;" and so much importance does he seem to constituted soil of the plain of Graisivaudan,
attach to this point, that he says the fires should be
watched night and day. He further remarks that in mense stride accomplished by science during this long other countries, where this practice was prevalent, and interval, is, that Olivier de Serres gives no other reason for especially in Piedmont, clods of clay are mixed with the recommending the practice than the experience of ages, corturf. He argues at some length the policy of having one roborated by his own; whilst to this cogent one, Professor or two large heaps, or else a numerous series of small ones ; Voelcker adds the forcible arguments of scientific analysis and although the large heaps offer some advantages, the and demonstration. chief of which is the economy of fuel, he prefers the smaller I will now submit to the reader the result of my investiones, as being more handy for spreading, and also because a gation in Dauphiné, where, as I have stated, the practice of greater area of surface is burnt by the multiplicity of the paring and burning exists as a regular and well-established heaps over the land, and especially, he adds, because the mode of manuring the land at a small cost. earth is not baked so hard as would be the case with a large The beautiful plain of Graisivaudan, so well known for its heap, where the earth in immediate contact with the fire picturesque magnificence and its extraordinary fertility, forms would be overburnt, and produce no good effect. After the basin of the river Isère, from the frontiers of Savoie, to considering all these points, the author goes on :
the city of Grenoble. Below Grenoble, following the “ As soon as the fire is extinguished, the earth will cool course of the river, it takes the name of Moirans, up to the of its own accord in a short time, and it will remain in Rhone, in which the Isère falls. On one side of the valley heap until a fall of rain is anticipated, when it should be is the chain of the Alps ; on the other, the group of the spread evenly over all the surface, except over the spot Chartreuse mountains. Its soil consists of alluvial deposits where the heaps stood, because there the earth is suffi- from the disintegration of the calcareous rocks of the neighciently burnt and prepared ; this will appear evident from bouring mountains brought down by the river Isère, subject the wheat, in its time, being more luxuriant in those places to frequent overflowings, and by the torrents from both than elsewhere, as if in those places alone the richest sides of the mountain boundaries, which from every ravine manure had been applied.
pour into the valley, along with their turgid watera, “After this, the field should be ploughed, but very lightly, streams of calcareous gravel, loosened from the limestone at most three inches deep, in order to mix by little and cliffs by the action of the atmosphere, and then borne little the burnt with the raw soil of the bottom. The sub-along by the torrents. Such soil like that described by sequent ploughings should be deeper; and if the burning Dr. Voelcker in the neighbourhood of Cirencester is then has been expedited in June, and good showers have eminently calcareous, the proportion of carbonate of lime occurred, canaryseed, turnips, &c., either mixed or separate, being generally from 30 to 40 per cent., and sometimes can be sown; then in the following October rye or wheat
amounts to 50 and 55 per cent. To this is not confined the can be sown, three or four years in succession.”
remarkable analogy existing between these soils, both so Further, the author says: “ Not only will such earth, greatly benefited by the same operation : the proportion of burnt and thus prepared, enrich the land, but it carted to nsoluble silicates is nearly the same in both ; and this is other fields, as is done with stable-dung, it will greatly an important feature, as I will presently explain. amend them also. All kinds of fruit trees are rejoiced by The mode of paring and burning in the Graisi raudan Valley this earth, if some of it is put around their roots; and it is identically the same as that described by Olivier de Serres : will also be highly beneficial to artichokes, asparagus, and the turf is pared, dried, and then formed into small heaps over other precious garden plants.”
a faggot. The number of these heaps would amount to about Then meeting the objection of those who think this
350 per English acre. As it is recommended by Olivier de amendment of the soil is not a lasting one, thinking all the Serres, the great point of the operation is to produce carboni. fertilizing elements are destroyed by the action of the fire, zation, and not incineration, of the superincumbent vegetable he says: “As to the fear of short duration, those alone
and earthy matters. But however carefully the opens are who have not tried it have this opinion, doubting a thing watched, there is always a certain degree of incineration, in so well authenticated; for every tillage thus prepared the centre of the heap, of those parts which are in close prorremains strong and vigorous enough to serve as long as can imity to the fire: the earthy matter becomes bricky, and of a be desired, provided the field be treated as to rotation of reddish colour. This
, in the experience of the most skilful crops according to the laws of good husbandry, and not burners, is to be avoided. according to the ancient oracle, Do not draw all the
M. Emile Gueymard, a government chief engineer, who has nutriment from thy field. All these things weighed and paid great attention to this subject, points also to the overbursconsidered, our husbandman shall prefer this mode to any ing of the earthy and vegetable matter as an evil by all means other, if the high price of fuel does not hinder him ; and to be avoided. This eminent chemist very truly says that the this is the only excuse he can have. And, as a conclusion, turf and the clods contain bumus, and other matters, which, he will form his opinion of this practice from the report of during the burning process, yield some carbonate of ammonia
. those who use it the most, and who say in their patois :- It is, then, very evident that, if the temperature be too bigh, • Those who do not pare and burn,
all the humus disappears, and the carbonate of ammoniaWhen others reap, will only glean.""* most valuable fertilizing element—is volatized and totally Such were the ideas about paring and burning three hun-escapes. dred years ago, when a time-hallowed experience was the
Besides the mechanical advantages of paring and burning, only guide of agriculture. Those who have had the good which everyone will admit, for strong retentive soils, and those fortune of reading Dr. Voelcker’s able paper upon this sub- others so ably demonstrated by Dr. Voelcker as resulting from ject will not fail to be struck with the great analogy exist that practice apon the poor clay lands of the Cotswolds, there is ing between his statements and those of Olivier de Serres; another upon which M. Gueymard lays a great stress, that is the the only difference, a very striking one, showing the im transformation of insoluble silicates into gelatinous or soluble
silicate immediately available to the plants. The stems of most * Qui non crème, ou non fème,
herbaceous plants contain from 30 to 50 per cent. of silica, Quan tous autres moissonnou, il glène.
giving them that rigidity which enables them to withstan
the blast of high windo. Silica is very abundant iu most With whatever cavils chemists may attack this explauasoils, since they contain a large proportion of earthy silicates. tion, it is nevertheless beyond controversy that in the But silica in such a combination is not soluble, and cannot be burnt mounds of the fields, in Dauphiné, I have recognized the assimilated by the plants; for that purpose it must become presence of ammoniacal salts, the existence of which can but gelatinous. This is effected by the contact with carbonic acid in a very small degree be accounted for, from the existence of of the air and the humidity of the soil, but by so slow a pro- organic matter in the soil previous to its being burat: the only cess, that it often happens the plant cannot find a sufficient source from which it can be produced is uodoubtedly the quantity for the requirements of its growth.
nitrogen of the atmosphere, Eartby silicates, however, when acted upon at a bigh tem- Norwood, March 3. perature by alkaline or earthy carbonates, become soluble in acids, and are then available to the plant. Now, all the soils which are found from experience to berefit by paring and burn- SUPERIOR LINCOLNSHIRE RAMS TO BE ing contain silicates and carbonate of lime; and thus an ele
FOUND IN LEICESTERSHIRE. ment of nutrition supplying the plant with what may be com- SIR, -For many years the ram breeders in Leicestershire pared to the bones of animals, that is, the siliceous coating and at Peterborough fair you may not only find many ram
have gone into the county of Lincoln to hire or purchase rams; of their stems and leaves, which enable them to stand erect
breeders from the county of Leicester, but from many other and rigid, is rendered immediately available. But a certain near and far distant counties, with a view to make a new temperature is necessary to produce gelatinous silica. M. breed more profitable, by producing more weight of wool and Gueymard says that in all his analyses he found this substance mutton per acre; as actual merit is profit. Men of weak unonly in the layers of clods and tuif which were in immediate considering what an animal makes, so much as what it costs
derstanding are caught by mania, ornament, and fashion, not contact with the fire, that is, in the very nucleus of the mound; making. It, of course, is bad, to breed animals without profit: the outward layers, which were only charred, did not contain an ornamental animal is one thing, and a profitable one is any. This obscrvation is borne out by the fact, that on the another. We have no business to breed any inferior cattle, spot where the fire stood the stems of the wheat or hemp plants, sheep, and horsea, but the best of its kind, as the best consume which are generally cultivated after burning, are invariably
no more food than the worst. lo trying to breed animals with
too great a proportion of fat flesh in proportion to the lean, found to be stronger and tougher than anywhere else.
not only are the stamina and size, but the milk is deteriorated; Another chemist, M. Lebreton, goes a step further, and pre- which caused the once Bakewell alias long-horned cattle to tends tbat combustion introduces into the soil a certain quan
degenerate in size, lean flesh, bone, and milk; being now nearly tity of ammoniacal salts, the formation of which cannot be
shadows to what they were in Mr. Bakewell's day. Animals attributed to the remnant of manures and organic matter left
may be bred until they nearly lose all their milk, which spoils
them for the country dairy-men and the great milk-men in the in the soil.
metropolis ; and many of the Bakewell or Leicester sheep I will now examine how the presence of these ammoniacal have been bred until they have reduced their size, constitution, salts, which I have been able to ascertain do really exist in
milk, and lean flesh. Mr. Bryan Ward, at Drayton, ou the burnt soil, and in the distilled water with which some of it had Welland, Leicestershire, many years - back, crossed his pure
bred Leicesters with the best Lincolns he could find, which been washed, can be chemically accounted for ; begging the jucreased the wool, size, constitution, and lean flesh. Mr. Ward reader to consider this explanation as a mere surmise, as I am lets yearly upwards of 100 ram sheep, which have improved not aware that actual experiments have been made to test its numerous flocks in many counties. Mr. Sandy, of Holme accuracy.
Pierrepoint, has proved, by the great number of prizes he
has taken at the Royal Shows, that he has the best pure-bred It is well known that some porous substances have the Leicesters in the kingdom.
SAML. ARNSBY. remarkable property of produciug the combination of certain Mill Field, Peterborough, April 10, 1858. bodies by the simple means of the intimate contact produced by the simultaneous passage of these bodies through the pores of
MY WINTER GARDEN.-The March breeze is chilly, that substance. It is thus that alkaline cyanures are now prepared but I can be always warm if I like, in my winter garden. I without the help of animal matter, and by fixing the nitrogen turn my horse's head to the red wall of fir atems, and leap over of the air. The process consists in passing through a porous
the furze-grown bank into my cathedral, whcrein, if there be substance impregnated with an alkaline solution a mixture of endless vistas of smooth, red, green-reined shafts holding up
no saints, there are likewise no priestcrast aud no idols; but sterm, air, and oxide of carbon ; this last gas being obtained by the warm, dark roof, lessening away into endless gloom, paved the incomplete combustion of charcoal in a furnace suitably with rich brown fir-needle-a carpet at which vature has been heated.
at work for forty years. Red shalts, green roof, and here and Now, in the burning of land, the circumstances are precisely there a pane of blue sky-neither Owen Jones nor Willement
can improve upon that ecclesiastical ornamentation ; while for the same as in the above process, viz., an incomplete combus
incense I have the fresh healthy turpentine fragrance, far sweeter tion, the gaseous products of which are mixed with air and
to my nostrils than the stilling narcotic odour which tills a watery vapour; and the passage of this mixture through a Roman-catholic-cathedral. There is not a breath of air within, porous mass containing several energetic bases, such as lime,
but the breeze sighs over the roof above in a soft whisper. I potash, magnesia, and cyanures may then be produced, which, shut my eyes, and listen. Surely that is the murmur of the
summer sea upoa the summer sauds in Devon, far away. I by being subsequently decomposerl, must give ammoniacal hear the innumerable wavelets spend themselves gently upon results.
the shore, and die away to rise again. And with the innuBut this is not all; besides the oxide of carbon, the gascous
merable wave-sigha come innumerable memories, and faces
which I shall never see again upon this earth. I will not tell mixture contains a great quantity of carbonized hydrogen,
even you of that, old friend. It has two notes, two keys since part of the burniug process consists in the distillation of rather, that Æolian harp of fir-needles above my head; wood, as well as an incomplete combustion of charcoal. Now, according as the wiud is, east or west, the needles dry or wet, carbonized hydrogen mixed with air, and passing through the This easterly key of to-day is shriller, more cheerful, warmer porous mass, becomes decomposed; its hydrogen forms am
in sound, though the day itself be colder; but grander still, as
well as softer, is the grand soughing key in which the southmonia by combining with the nitrogen of the air, and its car- west wind roars on, rain-laden, over the forest, and calls me bon forms carbonic acid by combining with the oxygen : hence forth, being a minute philosopher-to catch trout in the the carbonate of ammonia always found in burnt earth. nearest chalk-stream.-Charles Kingsley in Frazer's Mag.
GENERAL AGRICULTURAL REPORT FOR From the above figures it must be obvious that a large APRIL.
quantity of produce is still in stock ia the United States, Although the weather bas been somewhat favourable for unless, indeed, the extent of last year's crop has been greatly the time of year, the frequent changes in it have had the over-estimated. Apparently, therefore, there is no prospect effect of checking the progress of vegetation ; nevertheless, of any important movement in the value of wheat for some our accounts from most of the leading agricultural districts, time. in reference to the general appearence of the young wheats, As regards spring corn we may write differently. Our are very favourable. Everywhere they are looking strong own crops are wholly inadequate to meet the demand ; conand healthy, and promise a good return to the farmer. The sequently, we shall no doubt use up every quarter of barley, sowing of Lent corn was concluded about the usual period, oats, beans, and peas imported during the season, without and as respects the plants no reasonable complaints can be producing any important change in the quotations. Conimade.
pared with wheat, spring corn is cinmanding good prices. The all-engrossing topic of discussion in agricultural Many of our large growers, rather than sell at present quocircles bas naturally been the almost continuous decline in tations, have determined to hold over their wheats till next the value of wheat. Some persons contend that that produce year. Possibly this is sound policy, as we can scarcely anhas run down to a point at which speculation is sure to com- ticipate two consecutive years of such enorinous general mence, whilst others are of opinion that prices have not abundance as last season produced, and we do not see any seen their lowest range. The position of the trade, we may reason to look forward to other than a steady increase in remark, is very different from what it was at this time last the consumption of the better kinds of food, as the trade year. Then, the French ports were closed against exports, and commerce of the country are unquestionably steadily and our millers were not subject to direct competition in an recovering from the effects of the late severe panic. article fully equal in quality to their own. This competition We have continued to import very large quantities of pohas induced great caution in buying wheat where otherwise tatnes from the continent. In some measure, they have it would not have existed ; not thatoui importations have been made good the deficiency in our own crop and rendered the large, but the almost entire absence of orders from this coun- trade somewhat heavy ; nevertheless, good and fine samples try has compelled the French millers and the usual shipping have sold at from 160s. to 1809. per ton. The quantity of houses to forward to agents in this country, and the orders sound potatoes now on hand in this country is reduced to a have for the most part been to sell immediately on arrival. narrow compass ; but on the continent, especially in France So long as this system continues—and it is not confined to and Belgium, the supply is Jarge for the time of year. four only, as similar advices have been received with most Throughout the month the wool trade has been in a most of the wheat imported from Germany and the Lower Baltic depr.:ssed state, and prices of all kinds of wool have given ports--so long shall we have to report dull and, perhaps, way nearly, or quite, 1d. per lb. The public sales are likely drooping markets, even though the stocks of foreign pro- to go off heavily at further depressed rates, since nearly er duce in warehouse have become much reduced. We must qui e 60,000 bales will be offered during their progress. bear in mind that very large quantities of wheat remain in Store stock, arising from the heaviness in the demand for the hands of the farmers both in England and throughout fat beasts and shcep, bas ruled heavy and drooping. The the continent, as well as in the United States. An extensive business done has been very trifling. speculation, and a determination to warehouse rather than Throughout Ireland and Scotland there has been no iicsell at present prices, might improve the trade to some ex- portant movement in the corn trade Wheat has continued tent; yet, on the other hand, we are fully a:vare that any dull and flour has ruled lower, but other articles have mostly upward movement in value in this country would be followed supported former terms. From Scotland steady shipments by a large outflow from Ainerica, where the shipping season of produce have been made to the south, but the exports is just commencing. As yet, very little of last year's wheat from Ireland have shown a great deficiency when compared has been exported, and the shipments of flour have been with many former corresponding seasons. only moderate -- those of other articles baving fallen off considerably, as will be seen by the annexed official return made up to the 13th of April, current year:
REVIEW OF THE CATTLE TRADE DURING EXPORTS OF BREADSTUFFS FROM THE UNITED STATES TO
THE PAST MONTH. Great BRITAIN AND IRELAND SINCE SEPT. ), 1857. Notwithstanding that the trade of the country is recover
Flour. Meal. Wheat. Corn. ing from the effects of the late panic, that consumption is brls. brls. bush.
bush. 1857-58 744,339 123 3,415,596 2,351,437
rather on the increase, and that the importations from the 1856-57 775,188 186 7,01 1,580 4,102,980
continent still continue limited compared with many pre1855-56 735,988 5,719 3,755,317 4,337,877 vious corresponding periods of the year, the cattle trade has 1854-55 130,704 5,235 206,545 4,649,478 | been in a very unsatisfactory state during the whole of the TO THE CONTINENT.
month, and a severe fall has taken place in the quotations, Flour. Wheat. Corn.
Whatever may have been urged to the contrary in some brls. bush. bush.
bush. 1857-58. 182,143 209,751 14,90]
quarters, it is now clearly apparent that production has 1856-57 379,388 2,716,791 496,913 216,162 over taken consumption. And who, we may ask, can feel 1855-56 619,964 2,156,734 214,287 1,426,210 surprised at this result, which reflects the highest credit 1854-55 7,646
295,645 35,541 | upon our breeders and feeders ? and, further, may we not