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Six horses, one mule, four working bằllocks, | one each; a few firkins to the milk cows; working and twenty heifers, were supplied every day. The horses and working bullocks got a little hay also. horses got three firkins well filled every day; the One man and a boy provided and prepared all this mule two; working bullocks three each; heifers food.


It is but a short time since machines propelled structed steam engine or water power, this is never, by horse, water, or steam power have been em- or at least seldom the case. ployed to any great extent by farmers in this, or in 2. In putting on or taking off belts, be sure and fact any other country, the great proportion of the have your feet firm. Never put your thumb or Jabour bestowed on land, and nearly all the work fingers between the belt and the pulley. The safe of the whole farm, being performed by manual la- handling of belts cannot be performed by a mere bour, or the direct traction of drauglit animals. novice ; practice is always essential. With the advent of the application of machinery 3. Never pass before a mowing machine to put have come the dangers resulting from its use, in- anything to rights. If you stand at the back or volving the loss of life and limbs to its operators. upon the machine itself, there is little danger, These accidents can, however, be prevented to a otherwise much; as several serious and fatal accivery great extent, by care and prudence. When dents during the past season give evidence. machinery was first extensively used in manufac. 4. Study the details of all your machinery with tures, accidents were of every-day occurrence. an eye to the liability of danger to yourself or serLimbs were cut and torn from the body, and even vant, and devise means by which it can be avoided, the whole frame mangled in the worst manner. and you will confer a benefit on the whole farming But at the present time such agonizing scenes sel- community. dom occur, and when one does happen, it is often 5. Give preference to machinery that, combined in using some new machine with which the work with other good qualities, is constructed with men are unacquainted, or, what is more generally reference to the avoiding of injury to the person the case, the victim is a new hand, often a few who has it in charge. Along with the observance hours only since he first entered the building. of this advice, never allow a person under the inNow from these facts we may understand that the fluence of liquor to come near any kind of maprincipal cause of such accidents is either careless- chinery. The whisky jug is often the cause of ness, or ignorance of the dangers resulting from much suffering in this way as well as in others. the use of machinery. At the present time, ma- If the reader will remember these hints, they may chinery for manufacturing purposes is built with prevent many sad accidents. reference to obviating any danger which might arise from its use, Wheels are guarded and belts placed in positions least liable to come in contact

" GOD SAVE THE PLOUGH." with the dress or persons of those in attendance, or in many cases entirely boxed in; and in all well-regulated factories, every precaution is taken

See how the glittering share by which life and limb can be protected. The

Makes earth's bosom fair,

Crowning the brow; workman also has a set of rules by which he is

Bread in its furrow springs, guided in all necessary handling of his tools or

Health and repose it brings, machine, and the young beginner, who is not wise

Treasures that mock at kingsenough to profit by the experience of his seniors,

God save the plough! soon learns a lesson which he will never forget,

Look to the warrior's blade, impressed upon him as it has been in blood.

While o'er the crimson'd glade Our farmers are at present in the condition of

Hate breathes its vowthe manufacturing, operatives of twenty-five or

Wrath it unsheathiog wakes,

Love at its flashing quakes, thirty years ago, in as far as ignorance of the

Weeping and woe it makes-manipulations of machinery, and they have to learn

God save the plough! in the same manner those have done. But much of the experience of the latter class can be profit

Ships o'er the ocean ride,

Storm wrecks their banner'd pride, ably applied by the former, and with great ease.

Waves whelm their prowWe will give a few hints on this subject, which will

While the untroubled wain be found of practical utility.

Garpeth the golden grain, 1. Greater care should be taken in handling

Gladdening the reaper trainmachines driven by horse power than is necessary

God save the plough! when steam or water power is used, the motive

Who are the truly great ? power in the former case being more liable to start

Minions of pomp and state,

Where the crowd bow ? when not wanted, and that in either direction.

Give us hard hands and free The animal should therefore either be detached, or

Cultures of field and treethe machine locked when it becomes necessary to

True sons of liberty handle the working parts. With a properly con

God save the plough!



Among mineral manures none are more highly they are judiciously employed in connection with valued than lime and its various admixtures with animal and vegetable manures. marl and other earthy substances. That lime As the value of marl is computed by the quanfurnishes any absolute nutrition to the plant is ex- tity of lime which it possesses, that value can be tremely doubtful, as very few traces of it are ever roughly ascertained by the effervescence which enfound in analyzing the different kinds of vegetables. sues when vinegar or muriatic acid is poured on it, Its great advantages as a fertilizer appear to be after which a chemical analysis, if deemed expedi. almost entirely derived from its chemical action on ent, would show the exact per-centage of this and various ingredients, and in a certain mechanical in all other ingredients. When a bed of marl is first fuence which often acts favourably in improving found, and no good reasons are given for its use, the texture of the soil. In order to use lime with farmers should be careful to use it first in small any degree of certainty as to its effects, a partial quantities, and thus experiment with it until they knowledge of its chemical and mechanical uses is are perfectly satisfied of its real worth. In order to absolutely necessary. It is obvious to all, that this get poor land into a good state of productiveness substance on different farms produces the most by lime and marl, it is also necessary to manure contrary effects. While, used with discretion, on highly with animal and vegetable fertilizers, such some soils it produces the most astonishing results, as stable manures. But where it is impossible it is known to be attended with really ruinous from the scarcity of these manures to bring it up in effects when applied to marly and calcareous soils, this way, the cheaper but slower process of without they have previously been very much re- ploughing-under green crops can be resorted to duced, in which case lime can be applied in small with almost equal success. "Clorer is perhaps the quantities in conjunction with other manures. best crop to turn under, when the land is in good Lime is used with the greatest advantage on peaty heart enough to produce it; but when too poor for soils, and those which contain a large amount of its production, buckwheat can always be relied on vegetable matter—clayey soils, which need to be until the soil' is sufficiently replenished for the acted on by its mechanical effects, in rendering growth of clover or lucern. them more light, open, and easily cultivated-soils Farmers possessing fertile land must be aware, which are barren by the existence of green copperas by what has been previously said, that if they find (proto-sulphate of iron)- those which need potash, the use of lime or marl beneficial to their crops, and, as a general rule, most soils which are sterile they must not rely too implicity on this class of and worn out from long and exhausting systems of (mineral) fertilizers, but rather increase than cultivation.

diminish the amount of farm-yard manures ; for Marl varies very much in its composition in the increase of the crops which is produced by different localities, but is generally known as a liming rather tends to exhaust the soil of its mixture of various kinds of earth with lime; and necessary ingredients, and to destroy its fertility; its value is chiefly estimated by the amount of this so that while the use of lime is continued, it bemineral which it contains-hence we have clayey, comes more than ever important not to decrease the sandy, and earthy marls. Although owing its fer- | use of other manures. All this extra labour and tilizing qualities mostly to its per-centage of lime, expense bestowed on this system of cultivation will its other ingredients are often highly valuable, be doubly repaying; for if there is any profit in especially when applied to opposite formations of raising medium crops on a farm, this profit rapidly soil. Thus sandy marl would prove the best of swells when the same land is made to produce large fertilizers for stiff clay. In England the value of and abundant returns. marl has long been recognized, and we are informed Most marls need to be drawn out and exposed that leases were granted as far back as the reign of to the action of the weather for some months before Edward I. which compelled the tenants to make it is intended to use them, that they may be pal. use of it, but its use is much less employed since verized and made suitable for application by the lime has become more known.

action of the weather. Some kinds are so stiff and The farmers at one time were so confident of its unmanageable, as to need the action of both the virtues, that they depended almost entirely on it

, summer and winter elements to reduce them to a and made it supersede the use of dung, by which proper state of fineness for application. means they were enabled to sell large quantities of Lime should not be applied in its caustic state, hay and straw. But this course, although it en- except to lands containing large quantities of inac. abled them for a time to raise good crops, even- tive vegetable matter, and on those in which organic tually reduced the soil, and thus has arisen the manure is contained unchanged and ineffective. old saying which was cited by Barnaby Goorge, who When partially slacked and reduced to fineness by wrote so long ago as the middle of the sixteenth exposure to the air, it possesses sufficient caustic century, that "lime and marl are good for the father, properties for all other soils, if applied soon after but bad for the son.But this saying, like many being slacked. Mild lime, after being reduced to others of ancient date, is evidently an error when a powder, is more beneficial to all lands, with the exception of the above, as it does not exhaust the soils frequently contain lime in sufficient quantities; vegetable matter in any greater quantity than is re- but this is not invariably the case, as soils somequired for the growth of the crop. The trifling times resting on limestone, or abounding in loose saving which might be gained by the immediate limestone and shells, are frequently devoid of lime application of caustic lime would never pay for its in such a form as to be useful. We can only acinjurious effects on all soils, excepting those which count for this phenomenon by supposing that the contain large quantities of organic matters requiring soil was originally derived from some other source to be dissipated. Besides, caustic lime should not than these rocks, or that the firm texture of them be used in contact with seeds or herbage; and has prevented their crumbling enough to benefit when applied to clays for the purpose of improving the land. Thus it often proves that liming is bene. the texture of the soil, it frequently causes quite the ficial on what is called limestone land. We should contrary effect, as it unites in a mortar with the advise its use in small quantities at first on such clay, causing it to harden and form cakes. In lands, without the owner is perfectly satisfied by most all cases, we think it is self-evident that lime analysis that his land is totally deficient. By should be applied after air-slacking, in its mild pouring muriatic acid or vinegar on a small portion, (carbonated) form.

he can at least tell if it contains lime to any conWe are frequently asked whether lime will siderable degree.-G. T. H. in the “Country benefit soils associated with limestone rocks. Such Gentleman."


This is a valuable manure for almost any descrip-, excellent substitute for animal excrement and comtion of soil

, from the light sands to the heavy and post, and almost supersede the necessity of the latviscid clays. No one, who has experienced the bene- ter, in ordinary husbandry. If the weeds and mud ficial results attending its application, will doubt its should be taken out after haying, and placed in the value, especially when applied as a top-dressing to barn or compost yard, with common muck, mould, lands in grass. The most proper season for remov- and vegetable matters of a succulent and perishaing and spreading it, we are informed by those ac- ble character, or thrown into heaps with forest customed to its use, is immediately after haying; or leaves, straw, weeds, &c., it would decompose, and if it cannot be conveniently done at that time, the by the next spring furnish an invigorating manure work may be deferred till after harvest. It is a for every description of crop. judicious plan to mix this weed with loam or muck, There is abundant testimony of the value of seaforming it into a sort of compost. The mass should weed as a manure, in the books. Many years ago, be frequently turned. If convenient, ashes, lime, the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland plaster, and clay may be added, depending consid- charged an intelligent committee with the labour of erably upon what kind of soil the mass is to be ap- investigating its composition and value, and their plied to; but it should not be permitted to decay in report is highly favourable. Dr. Holland, in his a heap by itself, as in this case the limited amount Survey of Cheshire,” says, “The ground thus of fibrous or ligneous substance contained in the manured not only gives a larger produce of potamass causes it to decompose almost “to nothing"- toes, but is in a state of excellent preparation for a a slight residuum only being left after decompo- succeeding crop of either wheat or barley.” In a sition, and this of a very weak character, and not, work by the Rev. Philip Falle, upon the island perhaps, of sufficient value to warrant its applica- of Jersey, whence we obtain the famous Jersey tion to the soil.

cattle, he says that “Nature having denied us the Muscle shells, and the rich, unctuous and viscid benefit of chalk, lime and marl, has supplied us sand abounding along the coasts and on the shores with what fully answers the end of them in husbanof creeks, are other important and valuable elements dry-it is a sea-weed, but a weed more valuable to of fertility, and when spread upon soils of every de- us than the choicest plant that grows in our garscription, produce highly beneficial results. This dens. * * * Being spread thin on the green turf, sand is composed principally of animal and vegeta- and afterwards buried in furrows by the plough, ble substances, intermixed with the exuvia of testa- it is incredible how, with its fat unctuous subceous and crustaceous insects, saline particles, and stance, il ameliorates the ground, imbibing itself an extremely fine sedimentary substance deposited into it, softening the clod, and keeping the root by the waters of the ocean, together with carbonate of the corn moist during the most parching heats and hydrate of lime, animal matter, and earth. The of summer.” intermixing of these several substances constitutes We are aware that our friends on the sea-shore, that highly efficient fertilizing mass denominated who have access to this plant, value it highly. We sea mud, or “flats."

suggest whether it has not sufficient value to justify When a farmer can obtain a sufficiency of this its being collected away from our immediate shores, article with which to dress his lands, he need not and landed up the creeks, and in such places as to fear the failure of his crops for lack of manure. bring it into the vicinity of a large extent of farmSea-weed, and sea mud, or flats,” constitute an 'ing country.

THRASHING MACHINES. The monthly meeting of the members of the straw, and in saving a great deal of labour." It Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland was was on the principle of driving a number of flails, held on Wednesday, the 24th March, 1858. The which were made to revolve round a cylinder, by Right Hon. Sir John M'Neil, K.C.B., in the means of water power. But from the force with chair.

which it was wrought the flails were soon broken Mr. Hope, Fenton Barns, said—In introducing to pieces, and the invention proved a failure. this subject, perhaps a slight sketch of their his. Another thrashing machine was invented about tory might not be uninteresting, particularly as it | 1758, by Mr. Michael Stirling, a farmer in the enables us to review the progress that has been parish of Dumblane, Perthshire. This machine made in mechanical science, the great saving of I was similar to the flax scutching mills of the day. labour, both human and animal, that has been It has been described as a vertical shaft with 4 effected, and the large additional quantity of food crossed arms enclosed in a cylindrical case 31 feet produced, by the more perfect manner in which high, and 8 feet diameter. Within this case the grain is now separated from the straw. In early shaft and its arms were driven with considerable times this separation was performed by laying velocity. The sheaves of corn being let down down the straw with full ears in a narrow circle, gradually through an opening on the top of the named in holy writ “the thrashing floor," and box, the grain was beaten off by the arms, and treading it out with the feet of oxen. It was one pressed, with the straw, through an opening of the of the benevolent edicts of the divinely commis. Hoor. The grain was separated from the straw by sioned Jewish Lawgiver. “ Thou shalt not muz. riddles shaken by the mill, and then cleaned by zel the ox when he treadeth out the corn.” This fanners, also driven by it. It was reckoned the method is still followed in Eastern countries; and great defect of this machine that it broke off the even at the present day, as we learn from the ears of barley and wheat instead of beating out the latest authorities, in some of the States of America, l grain. It succeeded better with oats, and was a large proportion of the grain is trodden out by used by Mr. Stirling himself, and also by some horses. With grain easily raised, and cheap in others for several years. It was driven either with comparison to the wages of labour, and in hot and water or cattle. A few years after Mr. Stirling's dry climates, wbich renders grain more easily machine came into the partial use it attained, mills shaken from the straw, this manner of performing of a similar construction were introduced into the work may not be so unsuitable as might at Northumberland by Mr. Edward Gregeon, only first be supposed; still, under every circumstance, they were worked by hand power. Some time there must be great waste of the blessings of divine after this, or in 1772, Mr. Oxley erected a thrashprovidence. It is believed that the Jews possessed ing machine at Flodden, moved by horses. The instruments which may be described as thrashing corn was fed in betwixt two fluted rollers, and machines; but these were only heavy pieces of wood, struck by switchers, placed at 3 inches distant, on sometimes shod with flints, sometimes revolving the cross arms of an open drum: the scutchers cylinders or teethed wheels, and being dragged by were made of wood, and attached by leathern straps, the oxen over the grain, in a manner multiplied the or hung on hinges, as they were described. There. number of their feet in contact with it, and, con- after, or in 1773, Mr. Ilderton erected two thrashing sequently, the work was done in less time. I machines, one at Ilderton, and another at Hawkbelieve it is not known when that simple imple- hill, both near Alnwick. They were worked by ment the tail was first invented or used as a horses, and were made to rub the grain out by thrashing machine. It was well known to the projecting pieces of wood (on the circumference of ancient Romans, and at present is in general use a large cylinder) rubbing against several fluted throughout the continent of Europe. Even in rollers. He used these machines many years, but some districts of England it is still a common it was frequently necessary to put the straw twice implement on large farms, at least it was so before through before it was perfectly clean. Sir Francis the repeal of the corn laws. In Scotland it has Kinloch, of Gilmerton, who was a man esteemed, long been restricted to the Highland crofters. in his day, for his mechanical knowledge, had seen Early in the last century there are various accounts Mr. Ilderton's machine, and also the common flar of attempts made to construct more complicated mill. He endeavoured, by combining the two, to machines to save labour in beating out the grain. produce a workable machine. Sir Francis had a One, if not the first, of which there is any record, large model made; and as it could not be wrought was by Mr. Michael Menzies, an Edinburgh advo- by hand power, he sent it to Mr. Andrew Meikle. cate, who resided in East Lothian; his brother miller, and maker of barley and flour mills, at being proprietor of Letham, near Haddington, and Houston Mill, Prestonkirk, that its effects might also sheriff of the county from 1718 to 1725. A be ascertained by the water wheel of Mr. Meikle's patent was obtained for Mr. Menzies' machine in barley mill; but in making the trial the model was 1732, and it was declared by the Society of Im-torn to pieces, and a like fate befel a machine of provers in Scotland, "to be likely of great use to full size, which Sir Francis erected a few years farmers, both in thrashing the grain clean from the afterwards for one of his tenants, How far Mr,

Meikle himself was indebted for his ultimate suc- tions by others that the design was abandoned. The cess to the sight and knowledge of Sir Francis' late Sir John Sinclair, when President of the Board machines it is impossible to say. It is evident of Agriculture, strongly advocated Meikle’s claims that approaches had been made by others to the for a public reward as the inventor of the thrashing principle which he was finally snccessful in carry- mill as then constructed. Through him and the ing out, but none can deny him the high merit of Earl of Haddington a general meeting was held on being the first to construct a really serviceable 29th December, 1809, in the county town of Hadmachine. Sir Francis' efforts might have stimu- dington, at which resolutions were unanimously lated him; but it is well known that for years passed, approving of Mr. Meikle’s claims. A combefore, Mr. Meikle had made various attempts to mittee was formed, and subscriptions to the amount construct a thrashing machine. There is a letter of £1500 obtained for behoof of Mr. Meikle and his from six respectable farmers subjoined to the 2nd family. After Meikle obtained his patent, thrashing volume of Wight's State of Scottish Husbandry, machines were rapidly erected throughout Scotland published in 1778, describing a trial of one made by and the north of England, with various improvehim on the principle of Mr. Menzie's machine, to ments, such as mill lanners and rotating rake or which I have already alluded. His family possessed rakes over circular frame-works for shakers. The a hereditary right to genius and invention. It was invention of this shaker was claimed by Mr. Bailey his father, James Meikle, who went to Holland in of Chillingham, Northumberland. Much was done 1710, in consequence of an agreement wi the well in the way of adding elevators and other improveknown Fletcher of Salton. Meikle's object there ments by a person in Kirckudbrightshire, but the was to learn the art of making pot barley, and also machine itself and all the apparatus connected with of erecting barley mills. He not only accomplished it has continued almost until now in the same state his design in a perfect manner, but after he re- that Meikle lest it, for he readily seized and tried turned, constructed the first fanners for winnowing every alteration that occurred to himself or was grain that were ever seen in Scotland. However, suggested by others. Notwithstanding the total to return to Andrew Meikle, he resolved to attempt change of the moving power from sweating horses thrashing by means of a rapidly revolving cylinder, to the untiring and unvarying stroke of the steamwith raised heaters parallel to its axis, standing out engine, the characteristics of a Scotch mill continue from its surface. This cylinder or drum was now in the same heavy drum, rotating rakes for covered on the top by a concave surface, at some shakers, and noisy wheels and pinions for putting two or three inches distant from the circle described the whole in motion. Dressing-fanners, in order to by the edges of these revolving beaters. A feeding render the grain fit for the market, have been freboard extended radially and horizontally outwards quently added to the thrashing machine; but from from the cylinder, and when near it terminated in the necessary irregularity in the quantity of grain two feeding-rollers, which revolving in towards one thrashed per minute, and the difficulty of adjusting another, not only rapidly drew the straw forward, the fanners properly, complete success has been but held it froin going too fast, which under the rarely attained. The best dressed grain I have ever action of the beaters would bave been liable to do. seen done by machinery, and as thrashed on the The beaten straw, with the chaff and grain lying beater principle, was on the farm of Mr. Hislop of loose amongst it, was delivered on the floor behind Prestonpans. The grain as it came from the mill the cylinder, and the operations of separation by fanners was taken up by elevators, and then carried fork, riddle, and fanners, were accomplished after several feet by an Archimedean screw before it wards by band. This is a description of the work reached the dressing-fanners. This screw partly ing model which he completed in 1785. It was divides the grain and tends much to the delivery of driven by water, and first tried in that year at a uniform quantity; again there are fixed across the Knowe Mill, near Prestonkirk, a short distance from hoppers of the fanners pieces of strong leather, Houston Mill. It was found to do the work admi- which act like springs, opening when there is an rably, and completely answered his expectations. additional quantity behind them, and contracting His son, George Meikle, being at Kilbegie, the resi- when the quantity diminishies. These simple but dence of Mr. Stein, agreed to erect a machine, after ingenious contrivances ensured, or very nearly so, the above-mentioned model, for that gentleman, upon the fanners having a steady and regular supply of condition of Mr. Stein furnishing all the materials grain at all times, and I believe it was mainly owing and paying him for the work, "only in case the ma- to this that the dressing was so perfect. When chine answered the desired purpose.” This was examining Mr. Ilislop's barn machinery, I was agreed to, and the machine was completed in particularly struck with the mode which he had February 1786. It was found to work exceedingly adopted for carrying off the dust, and ventilating his well, and the only difference betwixt it and the barn. There was a large circular opening in the original model was the substitution of fluted rollers ridge of the roof, covered with a hood or cowl, which for plain ones. Another was shortly thereafter turned with the wind, the same in form and conerected for Mr. Selby, at Middleton, Northumber-struction as those placed on the top of kilns for dryland. Mr. Meikle then applied for a patent, which, ing grain. The dust from the straw barn and chaff after some opposition, was granted in April 1788, hole was conducted to it by means of thin boarding, for 14 years, and for England alone. Though Mr. enclosing a gradually narrowing space as it apMeikle obtained this patent he never acted on it, proached the aperture; of course, there was a large and when 10 years of it had expired, some of his opening to it from the barn loft. It seemed to suit friends stood forward and endeavoured to put it in admirably, as the air was quite fresh and sweet, and force; but there was then such a number of erec on looking up to the hood out of doors, I was

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