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THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE .

JANUARY, 1858.

PLATE I.
PORTRAIT OF MR. RICHARD HORNSBY.

PLATE II.
TWO LABOURERS' COTTAGES,

(For description see page 81.)

MR.

RICHARD HORNSBY, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER, OP SPITTLEGATE WORKS, GRANTHAM, LINCOLNSHIRE. If undeviating integrity, earnestness of intention, Mr. Hornsby is both Lincolnshire born and bred. and a thorough knowledge of his profession should We have to go so far back as the summer of 1790 bring success, Mr. Hornsby has surely earned his for the time of his birth-on rather a memorable reward. One is at a loss which to admire the more, day at that period, being no other than the fourth the genuine straight-forward character of the man of June, the birth-day of good King George himhimself, or the excellence of those inventions with self. The Hornsbys then farmed at Elsham, near which his name is identified. But, after all, one Brigg, where the son continued until his fifteenth is only the reflection of the other. We see in the year. He was at best but a delicate boy ja nd, good, sound, durable machinery that Hornsby and much against his friends' inclination, who would Sons send out, how the spirit of the master-mind have preferred his adopting some less laborious has been employed upon them. From him the pursuit, bound himself apprentice, in 1805, to Mr. whole works take their tone. There shall be no- Havercroft, a wheelwright at Barnetby-le-Wold. thing here but what is honestly fitted for its pur- His new master shared the fears of his own relapose, Turning neither to the right nor the left, tions as to his ever being able enough for such uninfluenced by any other consideration, the aim work, remarking, on first seeing him, that "he of the House has been to supply the farmer with looked far more like filling a coffin than making those implements really best adapted for his use. one.” The choice, however, was a good one. The This is now, and indeed has long been, well known; pursuit agreed with him, and in five years' time he and we but echo the opinion of the whole country left Barnetby a hale, hearty man. when we say, there are no people with whom a man Mr. Hornsby turned his steps towards Grancan deal with more confidence than with the tham, where he quickly engaged himself with one Hornsby's of Grantham.

Mr. Seaman, of the Spittle or Hospital Gate. The This firm has now been established as that of latter had discrimination enough to appreciate the Hornsby alone something like thirty years. It owes value of his young workman. On the first of its origin and gradual development to the man January, 1815, a business was opened under the whose portrait here occupies so worthy a place in title of “ Seaman and Hornsby, Makers of Horse our pages. Much as the business and repute of Thrashing Machines, &c., &c."

The firm pros; the house have increased of late years, under the pered, and in eleven years from this time we find careful direction of his eldest son, it was Richard Mr. Hornsby entering into a partnership of a yet Hornsby himself who not only commenced, but more agreeable character. In a word, his marriage established it. Like many other good men before further settled him as a Grantham man, while but him, who have honestly risen to eminence, we trace two years more found him with the works altohim back to small beginnings—the road-side gether under his own control. In the December foundry-the master-man, busy at the forge—the of 1828. Mr. Seaman retired with a competency, gradual extension from one department to another and in ius.uess was known henceforth as that of until many hundreds have to look to him for their Hornsby's solely. sustenance; and the town he entered a com- The success of the House may be dated from this parative stranger, points to him and his as its period. It was in Mr. Hornsby's hands that the pride and boast.

trade gradually extended, and its repute proporThe county, however, has an equal claim to him. I tionably increased. It was under his immediate OLD SERIES.)

B

(VOL. XLVIII.—No. 1.

inspection that the machinery, for which they are By the North Lincolnshire Agricultural Sostill so famous, was first tried. It was with his im

£ 20 0 primatur that the horse thrashing-machines* bowed By the North Lincolnshire Agricultural Soto the power of steam ; that the drills (first made ciety, at Caistor, July, 1851.......

20 0 here in 1815) were improved, and the dressing. By the Great Yorkshire Agricultural Society, machines were perfected.

15 0 From this it is but an

at Bridlington, Angust, 1851 old story of well-merited distinction, with the old By the Royal Agricultural Society of England,

at Exeter, July, 1850

50 0 moral of going again to those who use you the By the Royal Agricultural Society, at York, best. Public and private experience have alike

July, 1818

50 0 confirmed this; and the Hornsbys have never re- By the North Lincolnshire Agricultural Soceived a premium or an order but that they deserved ciety, at Lincoln, July, 1848

20 0 it. Let their long ranges of workshops, and their

For the Patent Combined Thrashing, Shaking, hundreds of men in them, speak to the latter; and Pressing Machine : while for the former we have some as readily avail. At the Universal Exposition at Paris, 1855, the Medal able proof.

of Honour. For their Improved Patent Portable Steam En- By the Royal Agricultural Society of England, gines they have been awarded :

at Carlisle, July, 1855, the First Prize of.... 20 0 At the Imperial Royal Agricultural Society of Austria, By the North Lincolnshire Agricultural Society, at Vienna, May, 1857, the Gold Medal.

at Boston, August, 1855, the First Prize of.. 5 0 At the Hungarian Agricultural Society, at Pesth, June, By the Royal Agricultural Society of England, 1857, the highest Diploma of Merit.

at Lincoln, July, 1854, the First Prize of .. 10 0 At the Universal Agricultural Exposition, Paris, 1856, By the Selby and Tadcaster Agricultural So

the First Prize of £24 and Gold Medal, for the best ciety, at Selby, July, 1854, the First Prize of 20 0

Portable Steam Engine for Agricultural Purposes. By the Herts Agricultural Society, at Hertford, At the Universal Exposition at Paris, 1855, the Medal October, 1854, the First Prize of ...

5 0 of Honour, for the best Portable Steam Engine. By the Northamptonshire Agricultural Society, At the Great Exhibition of the Industry of all Nations, at Oundle, Sept., 1853, the First Prize of .. 5 0

held at the Crystal Palace, Hyde Park, London, By the North Lincolnshire Agricultural Society,
July, 1851, for the best Portable Steam Engine for at Gainsborough, July, 1853, the First Prize of 5 0
Agricultural Purposes, the First Prize or Council By the North Lincolnshire Agricultural Society,
Medal.

£ at Horncastle, July, 1852, the First Prizes, By the North Lincolnshire Agricultural So

amounting to

26 0 ciety, Boston, August, 1855

20 0 By the Great Yorkshire Agricultural Society, By the Bath and West of England Agricultural

at Sheffield, August, 1852, the First Prize of 100 Society, at Tiverton, Joine, 1855 ..

100 By the Highland Society of Scotland, at GlasBy the Royal Agricultural Society of England,

gow, August, 1857, the First Prize of ...... 10 0 at Lincoln, July, 1854

20 0 By the Bath and West of England Agricultural

For Patent Drills of every kind :Society, at Bath, June, 1854

10 0 By the Royal Agricultural Society of England, at By the Selby and Tadcaster Agricultural

Salisbury, July, 1857— Society, at Selby, July, 1854 20 0 For the best drill for general purposes

5 By the Herts Agricultural Society, at Hert.

For the best turnip, seed, and manure drill.. 5 0 tord, October, 1854 5 0 For the best corn drill

2 0 By the Great Yorkshire Agricultural Society, At the Universal Agricultural Exposition at Paris, at York, August, 1853

12 10 June, 1856, for the best drill for general purposes, the By the North Lincolnshire Agricultural So.

First Prize of £10, and the Gold Medal; for the ciety, at Gainsborough, July, 1853..... 20 0 best corn and seed drill, the First Prize of £10, and By the Royal Agricultural Society of England,

the Gold Medal. at Gloucester, July, 1853 ...

10 0 At the Universal Exposition at Paris, 1855, the Medal By the Bath and West of England Agricul.

of Honour, for the best corn and seed drill, and for tural Society, at Plymouth, June, 1853 .... 15 0 the best drill for general purposes. By the Royal Agricultural Society of England,

At the Great Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations, at Lewes, July, 1852....

40 0 held at the Crystal Palace, Hyde-park, London, By the North Lincolnshire Agricultural So

1851, for the best corn and seed drill, the Great ciety, at Horncastle, July, 1852 .......... 7 0 Council Prize Medal; for the best turnip and maBy the Great Yorkshire Agricultural Society,

nure drill for either ridges or flat ground, the Great at Sheffield, August, 1852

15 0 Prize Medal. By the Royal North Lancashire Agricultural For the best drop Drill for depositing turnip or mangold

Society, held at Preston, August, 1852 .... 5 0 wurtzel seed at any required intervals, and in any * In 1830, the labourers of Lincolnshire conceived a

given quantity, the Great Prize Medal. violent dislike to these horse-thrashing machines, and By the Royal Agricultural Society of England at Car. traversed the country in mobs, destroying them. The far

lisle, July, 1855 :

£ s. mers became much alarmed, and Mr. "Hornsby's yards For the best corn and seed Drill

100 were filled with such implements, consigned by them to his For the best gozall occupation corn Drill.. 5 0 care. His premises consequently became a mark for the For the best turnip Drill with manure........ 50 rioters; but they were never attacked, as the men, having By the Royal Agricultural Society of England, at Lingained their point with the masters, went back to work with the fail. In a very short time they again revolted, or,

coln, July, 1854 :

£ s. rather, asked as a favour that the thrashing-machines For the best Drill for gercral purposes ...... 10 0 might be brought back! From that day their use was

For the best corn and seed Drill

10 everywhere recognised, until in turn they had to succumb to For the best turnip Drill, on the flat, with manure 5 0 steam.power.

For the best turnip Drill, on the ridge, with manure 5 0

0

By the Royal Agricultural Society of England, at By the North Lincolnshire Agricultural Society,
Gloucester, July, 1853 :-

£ S.
at Spilsby, July, 1847......

......£30 For the best corn and seed Drill, with R. H. By the North Lincolnshire Agricultural Society, and Son's patent fore-carriage steerage 10 0 at Market Rasen, July, 1846..

3 0 For the best turnip and mangold wurtzel and

By the North Lincolnshire Agricultural Society, manure Drill, on the ridge

10 0
at Gainsborough, July, 1845

10 0 By the Royal Agricultural Society of England, at Lewes, By the Yorkshire Agricultural Society, at BeverJuly, 1852:

£ 8. ley, August, 1845, the Prize Medal. For the best Drill for general purposes ......

10 0 | By the Lincolnshire Agricultural Society, at For the best corn and seed Drill 10 0 Sleaford, August, 1845......

1 10 For the best turnip, mangold wurtzel, and manure Drill, on the flat

10 0

The firm has been also successful with cake For the best turnip, mangold wurtzel, and ma- crushers and chaff cutters ; numbering in all about nure Drill, on the ridge

10 0 200 money prizes, of about £1400 value, and 21 By the Royal Agricultural Society of England, at Exe- gold, silver, and bronze medal prizes. These inter, July, 1850:

£ 8. clude the Great Council medal at the Exhibition For the best corn and turnip Drill

10 0 of the Industry of all Nations, London, 1851; the For the best Drill for turnips and manure, on

Grand Medal of Honour, at the Universal Exposithe flat.....

10 tion at Paris, 1855; three gold medals at the For the best Drill for turnips and manure, on the ridge

10 0

Universal Agricultural Exposition at Paris, 1856; With other similar prizes at earlier meetings of the the gold medal at the Imperial Royal Agricultural Royal Agricultural Society, as well as at the Yorkshire, Society of Austria, at Vienna, 1857; and the gold West of England, and others.

medal at the Agricultural and Horticultural Society For Corn-dressing Machines :

of Gers, at Condom, 1857. The Medal of Honour at the Universal Expo- £ 8.

In appropriate commentary on this legion of sition at Paris.

honours, we may avail ourselves of the following By the North Lincolnshire Agricultural Society, well-written description from the Official Illusat Bo-ton, August, 1855...

0 10 trated Guide to the Great Northern Railway :By the Royal Agricultural Society of England, at

No visitor to Grantham should leave the town Carlisle, July, 1855, first prize of ...

5 0 By the Bath and West of England Agricultural

without visiting the immense manufactory of Society, at Tiverton, June, 1855.....

Messrs. Hornsby and Son, whose agricultural im

3 0 By the Royal Agricultural Society of England, at

plements have gained for them a world-wide repu. Lincoln, July, 1854, first prize of ....

5 0

tation. Those who inspected the rich collection of By the Bath and West of England Agricultural

machinery devoted to farming purposes, at the Society, at Bath, June; 1854, the first prize of 5 0 Great Exhibition of 1851, will remember the enBy the Selby and Tadcaster Agricultural Society, comiums awarded to the productions of this emi

at Selby, July, 1854, first prize of..... 2 10 nent firm. The wonderful development in this deBy the Great Yorkshire Agricultural Society, at partment of science, and the great demand for firstRipos, August, 1854, first prize of..... 2 0

class articles, are partly exemplified in the history By the Herts Agricultural Society, at Hertford, of Mr. R. Hornsby's career. Forty years ago this October, 1854, first prize of

2 0 By the Royal Agricultural Society of England, at

gentleman walked into Grantham,-without capital Gloucester, July, 1853, the first prize of

or friends, it is true; but endowed with a patience

5 0 By the Bath and West of England Agri. Society,

and determination which speedily placed him on at Plymouth, June, 1853, the first prize of.... 3 0

the high road to success: his present position is By the North Lincolnsbire Agricultural Society,

entirely owing to the intelligence with which he at Gainsborough, July, 1855, the first prize of 1 o has studied the requirements of agricultural inBy the Royal Agricultural Society of England, terests, and to the encouragement he has given to

at Lewes, July, 1852, first prize of........ 10 0inventions of great ability and convenience. The By the North Lincolnshire Agricultural Society, works of Messrs. Hornsby and Son possess an inat Horncastle, July, 1852, the first prize of 1 5

terest which all must acknowledge and appreciate. By the Yorksbire Agricultural Society, at Shef

The Turnery, into which the visitor is ushered on field, August, 1852, the first prize of........ 5 his visit to this manufactory, will prepare him, in By the Royal North Lancashire Agri. Society, at Preston, August, 1852, the first prize of 3 0

some measure, for the extensive operations of this By the Yorkshire Agricultural Society, at Brid

firm. In the immense department for machinery lington, August, 1851, the first prize of...... 5 0

are the corn-drill, successfully introduced by Mr. By the Royal Agricultural Society of England, Hornsby in the early days of his career, and ex

at Exeter, July, 1850, the first prize of...... 10 ohibited at the world's bazaar in 1851, where a By the Royal Agri. Society, at Norwich, July, 1849 10 0 council medal was awarded for it. Five of these By the Royal Agri. Society, at York, July, 1848 10 0 machines, each combining various excellencies, By the Royal Agricultural Society, at Newcastle- were then shown. The ten-rowed corn and general upon Tyne, July, 1846..

3 0 By the North Lincolnshire Agricultural Society,

purpose drill is a 'highly finished machine, with an at Caistor, July, 1851

improvement patented by this firm, of India-rubber By the North Lincolnshire Agricultural Society,

2 tubes for conducting the seed down to the channel at Loath, July, 1850

made by the coulter, which is a valuable improve

3 0 By the North Lincolnshire Agricultural Society,

ment upon the old plan of a series of cups, made at Brigg, July, 1849......

3 0 of tin, working one within the other. This drill By the North Lincolnshire Agricultural Society,

has also another improvement of two coulter bars, at Lincoln, July, 1848, 017 3 ol by which an equal pressure is obtained upon every

coulter, and the double-action lever enables the rick, forty quarters, in five hours ready for market, manure to be deposited to any depth, and covered must be appreciated by farmers.' up previous to the seed being deposited. The “ The whole of the operations in this establishvisitor, in promenading through this great manu- ment are on a great scale, and will astonish the factory, will do well to notice the moveable steam uninitiated visitor. The plant is estimated at engines, for which Messrs. Hornsby and Son re- £100,000. The number of hands employed is 500. ceived the preference at the Great Exhibition over There are rooms and yards for every department of all their competitors ; and have taken the first prizes implement manufacturing :-for carpenters' work ; in twenty-one out of twenty-three public competi- for testing engines; a smithy, with thirty forges; tions.

The services rendered to agriculture by a lathe-room; draftsman’s-room; four joiners' this little machine are invaluable. The necessity of shops ; sawing-room, with six saws at work : imthreshing corn under cover in barns is obviated by mense quantities of wood (oak) and iron lie about. this steam engine, the rick now being threshed in The timber-yard contains a stock of an average the open air at once as it stands. Instead of three worth of £6,000. Machines are here in readiness or more barns clustering round the homestead, a to be sent to all parts of the world, especially to single building will now suffice for dressing corn New Zealand and Australia, Sweden, Austria, and chaff-cutting.' Besides these, there are many France, and South America." uses to which the moveable steam engine may be It was only this last week that we ourselves had applied. The winnowing machines of the same the pleasure of inspecting the works ; but Christmanufacturers elicited the following verdict of the mas is a busy time in the Strand; and we can only Judges at the York Agricultural Meeting :- offer our thanks to Mr. Measom and his Guide, • Several machines,' they say,' were tried, but could for a description that has served us so well. not get through the grain, shorts, straw, and chaff, For the last few years declining health has preas it came from the threshing machines, without vented Mr. Hornsby taking any very active share being choked, or requiring much more time than in the business. He has, however, a worthy sucHornsby's, which did its work well, parting the cessor in his eldest son, who, with two younger whole into best corn, good tail, tail, whites, screen. brothers, now represent the firm. Under their ings, and chaff, at the rate of about fifteen quarters good stewardship the trade has been still increasing, an hour, and dressing over the second time at the wbile the name, even in this age of competition, rate of about twenty quarters per hour, parting the more than sustains its pristine repute. “ A good whole into six parts, as before, in a workmanlike name," says an old proverb, “is a precious ointmanner.' • Such masterly mastication and diges- ment;" and thạt of Hornsby promises long to illustion, making the contents of our supposed wheat' trate the adage.

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The treatment of the cow in the early days of The large-boned, coarse-looking cows were eviEnglish busbandry was evidently of a very rough dently in the highest favour with the farmers of those description. In times when the advantages derived days; they perhaps were the best adapted to with. from feeding her well at all seasons was utterly stand the rough treatment they had then to endure. disregarded—when warmth and cleanliness were When the cows were ill, they assigned the origin of deemed to be, for her, useless luxuries—when she their complaints not to neglect or bad feeding, but was only kept in good condition with the duration if the disease was in the slightest degree uncommon, of the grass of her pastures—when hay and straw to very imaginary and evil causes. It was about was her only winter sustenance-need we wonder, the year 1596, that Leonard Mascal, of Plumstead, in such days, that her breeding was equally nego in Kent, gives evidence of what knowledge even a lected, and her diseases ascribed to all kinds of cattle-doctor possessed in those days; for he came imaginary causes, such as the influence of the to the farmer's aid in his book “On the Government witch or the shrew-mouse?

of Cattle.” In this book, amongst other equally It is hardly more than two centuries since we wise observations, he gave them directions how “to first find our English agricultural writers giving know the difference between cattle bewitched, and any directions for the breeding of cows. It was other soreness.” Then, with a similar credulity, about the year 1669, that old Worlidge gives, with the farmers of that time believed, it seems, that if a commendations, his English translation of Virgil's poor little shrew-mouse ran over their cow, it renadvice to the breeder of oxen-directions which dered her lame. So Mascal gravely propounds to would rather startle a modern breeder. He says: them the following remedy:-“You shall have her “ whoe'er breeds,

to a briar growing at both ends, and draw the To choose well-bodye'd females must have care. beast under it, and so she will recover." Then he of the best shape the sour-lookt heifers are ;

proceeded to inform his reader that if the cow had the Her head great, long her peck, and to her thigh, Down from her chin, her dewlaps dangling lye;

bloody flux, then “ye shall take a frog ; cut off his Long-sided, all parts large, whom great feet bears,

left leg, and so put him alive in the beast's mouth," And under crooked horns her bristling ears ;

&c. The whole cow fair, and visag'd like the male,

With such abounding ignorance, we may reaSweeping the ground with her long bushy tail." sonably conclude what comfortless kind of homestead-yards and winter pastures must have existed Mr. Horsfall, of Burley, in Yorkshire, described in in those days; and from the directions which ever the recent number of the Journal of the Royal and anon appear in the works of these early writers, Agricultural Society; notice how, step by step, he it is evident that leaves, straw, and the young shows the demands made upon the cow for her branches of trees were not very unfrequently the calf and her milk and the food necessary to meet sole food on which the dairy cows had to sub- that ensuing waste of her substance. To illustrate sist.

these practical questions, he experimented during How refreshing it is, then, to turn from the rather more than 27 weeks upon six milch cows. barbarism of those days to the modern well-bred During this time the food was weighed, its comand carefully-tended herds of our time—to a period position ascertained, and the disposal of that food when the advantages of gentleness, skilful feeding, traced (Jour. Roy. Ag. Soc., vol. xviii

. p. 156). The cleanliness, quiet, and warmth, are so generally food these cows consumed during that period, and understood ! 'Take, for instance, the researches of its composition, were as follows:

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lbs.

...113}

The constituents of this food could only be dis. , In the casein .

316. posed of by these cows in either the milk they Fibrin

7.35 yielded, the perspiration they emitted, the flesh Manure

414. they acquired, or the excrement they voided. The remainder consumed in perspiration 150.65

Now in this time the production of milk by six cows averaged 14 quarts per day each for 27}

888. weeks = 16,072 quarts, which at 41 oz. per quart The question as to the proportion of the food = 41,184 lbs.

necessary to keep her in store condition, and the When dry or free from moisture..... 5230 farther proportion required by her when yielding

milk, did not escape Mr. Horsfall's attention. He Butter in 16,072 quarts at 30 per 1000 1235 takes for his starting point the established opinion Casein

48,2

1977 of his district, that 20 lbs. of meadow hay suffice Sugar of milk

1804 for the daily maintenance of a cow of fair size in

store condition, a like result being obtained from

214 Other...

120 lbs. of turnips per day. The six cows then

required during the 27 weeks, for their maintenance 5230

only :And in the same time they gained in weight

Albuminous Starch, Total 500 lbs., which their owner calculated to be 300 lbs.

matter. Oil. &c. weight. as fat, and 200 lbs. as flesh. The excrement of Hay.. lbs. 2127 616 9130 22,960 these cows was then examined, which amounted to Turnips .. 2295 306 9100 137,760 88 lbs. a day. This was examined by Professor The excess of the food given to them beyond this Way, who found in it per cent. :

amount, then, was chicfly converted into milk, or Moisture ..

84.85 meat, or the enrichment of the excreta. For the Phosphoric acid

.39 maintenance, then, of a fair-sized cow for one day Potash ...

.58 in a normal state, the following elements seem Soda...

.22 adequate :Other substances. 13.96

Mineral Ingredients.

Phor. 100. Albumen. Oil. Starch, Lime. phoric

acid. Nitrogen .41 = Ammonia .49

Io 20 lbs. of hay.. 1.85 .536 7.95 .90 1.11 So that from these examinations it would appear

120
turnips 1.98 .26 7.82

.97

1.9 that if the nitrogen in the food of these cows “ When cows are in milk, there occurs a much equalled 888, the disposal of this was as follows :- grcater activity of the functions ; they eat and

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