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or unhealthy mutton-chop, from the loin of the gold-structuae and nutritive quality, although when degenerated medal Southdown. Further on we turn to “the dis- into fat, it may still present the semblance of ordinary eased heart of a Devon heifer, by conversion into fat” – muscle, and thereby deceive both bayer and seller. We his Royal Highness the Prince Consort exhibitor and should therefore expect in vain to replenish our ove breeder. There is only one grand moral example want

muscles by the use of such food, nor should animals thas overing, and that forms the illustration of a whole page heart, being converted into fat, no longer retains its contra

fed be regarded as prize specimens of rearing and feeding. The “ the diseased heart by conversion into fat,”. of the tile power, but beats feebly and irregularly. The blood, gold-medal Short-horn-Mr. E. Wortley exhibitor and therefore, now moves onward in a slow and feeble current

. breeder. There is no mistake, no shy fighting here. Hence the panting breathlessness due to stagoation of blood In the first place, you are shown the heart of an animal in the lungs, which the heart labours (in vain) to remove, in the healthy state it should be, and then that of while the skin and extremities are cold. Hence the stupid, one diseased by over-feeding. Let Mr. Gant's text heavy-headed expression of a congested brain, and the blood. speak further to this. He is now going the round of the stained appearance of meat after death. The slightest exer yard:

tion to an animal, under such circumstances, might saddenly

prove fatal. Were a man, in this condition, to present him. My limited opportinity for examining them enabled me sell at an insurance office, it would refuse to insure his life at to detect no external sign of disease, except in two Devon any premium. Yet, under similar circumstances, « sherp is Cows, Class IV., No9.32 and 33, prize £5, each of which was awarded gold and silver medals, and its feeder a prize of Bufferiog from prolapsus vagina. One of them looked very £20 !!" ill, and laid her head and neck flat on the ground, like a greyhound. I pointed out these animals to a man who was draw.

Mr. Gant's remedy-for we prefer that he should ing water, and I asked him if their condition was one of com- speak for himself—is :-He said, “I knows nothing of them beasties

“ Instead of pursuing the present system of rearing cattle, in p'ticler, but it's the case with many on 'em, I knows that.' much as it may test the qualities of food, and other matter I passed on to the pigs. A pea of three pigs, belongicg to of minor importance, let breeders, feeders, exhibitors, and His R yal Highness the Prince Consort, happened to be placed prize judges alike visit the slaughter-houses ; let them do this in a favourable light for observation, and I particularly noticed with a due koowledge of diseased appearances, and let them their condition. "They lay belplessly on their sides, with their thus discover that system of rearing which is most compatible noses propped up against each other's backs, as if endeavour with the health of cattle, and which produces the largest ing to breathe more easily; but their respiration was loud, amount of the most nutritious food for man. Under the presuffocating, aud at long intervals. Then you heard a short, sent system the public have no guarantee, and are not insored catching snore, wbich shook the whole body of the animal, the best, if indeed the cheapest food. The bulky witbers of a and passed with the motion of a wave over its fat su face, fat bullock are no criterion of health, and its flat tubular back which, moreover, felt cold. I thought how much the heart, may conceal the revolting ravages of disease." uuder such circumstances, must be labouring to propel the blood through the lungs, and throughout the body. The gold

If we recollect aright, in the early days of the Smithmedal pigs of Mr. Morland were in a similar condition, if field Club this was done. The judges inspected the anything, worse; for they snored and gasped for breath, their carcases of the animals after they were killed, and remonths being opened, as well as their nostrils dilated, at each vised or confirmed their decisions accordingly. As the inspiration ; yet these animals, only twelve mouths and ten Society increased in influence and numbers, no doubt days old, were marked 'improved Chilton breed.' They, with the practice was found inconvenient, if not altogether their fellows just mentioned, of eleven months and twenty: impracticable. Still, the fact that this has been done three days, had early come to grief. Three pigs of the black gives weight to the suggestion, and shows that Mr. breed were in a similar state at seven months, three wecks, and

Gant asks nothing but what the Club itself has already five days ; yet sich animals 'the judges highly com mend.'”

some precedent for. His pamphlet, originally the subThis is very graphic, and almost amusing in its tone, ject of a communication to the Observer newspaper, is were not the injury said to be of so serious a character. called “Evil ResuLTS OF OVER-PEEDING CATWe shall not follow our author into the dissecting-room, TLE-A New INQUIRY,” and is dedicated to the of his labours, in which he gives further and yet more agriculturists of Great Britain and Ireland. However useful illustration. We must be content, the rather, sound or unsound his deductions may be, we must do with the chief resolt and its consequences :

Mr. Gant the justice to say that he has spared no trouble “ Under the present system of rearing and feeding, one dis- nor expense in perfecting his work. The plates alone ease is of most frequent occurrence, namely, conversion of the must have been very costly, and for the original of one heart into fat. I am supported in this opinion by the intalu- -the diseased heart of the Shorthorn– he paid no less able testimony of Professor Quekett, of the Royal College of than half-a-guinea ! Surgeons, who re examined the hearts in question, and con- There is one reflection forces itself upon us here. If firmed my observatious."

animals intended for the butcher are really in this disThe consequences are

eased condition, what evils must follow from breeding. "That in over-fed, corpulent animals of forced growth, the stock being almost equally over-fed? And yet our er. muscular substance of the most vital organ, the heart, is perience of only last summer recals pigs and sheep in pallid, soft, and greasy; and that its fibres then contain fat this panting, helpless state ; while one of the prize fat instead of the fibrillæ, in which reside both the contractile cows at this very Christmas Show was sent home again power of muscle, and its outritive value for human food. We in calf! To us it is very satisfactory to feel, that of this therefore say that such meat no longer retains its healthy branch of the evil we have long continued to complain.

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WOOL AND WOOLLENS.-IMPORT AND EXPORT.

Incidental mention was made by Mr. Ashworth, in a an admixture of cotton with wool in various fabrics ; paper on cotton read at a recent meeting of the Society “the attractions of the article manufactured, together of Arts, of the Increased Production of British Wool, with its comparative cheapness,” according to his and he inferred that the increased consumption and dictum, having called for more wool, and, with this enhanced prices were mainly due to the introduction of increased demand, led to a greatly-improved price.

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Now, we are not prepared to admit to the fall the of the fleece, which would not perhaps equal 5 lbs. per
reason so plausibly assigned by the cotton advocate, sheep all round, now that short-woolled sheep are more
nor to place very great reliance on his statistics re- general than they were in former years, and making
garding wool. He states the British wool grown in allowance for lambs.
1857 at 143,042,782 lbs. at 19d. a lb., which gives a We now receive much larger supplies of foreign and
value of £11,322,219. That grown in 1836 he fixes colonial wool than formerly, our imports having nearly
at 108,000,000 lbs. at 13 d. a pound, making an aggre- trebled in twenty years, reaching in 1857 to 129} mil-
gate of £6,075,000. This change in the inanufacture lion pounds. And our shipments of woollen yarn
from pure woollens to mixed wool and cotton fabrics, and fabrics to foreign states and our colonies are also on
he tells us, has been attended with an unexpected gain a largely increased scale, owing to the increase of
to the British wool-growers, by an increase of trade wealth and population. While in 1835 our woollen
and higher price amounting to 54 millions sterling. manufactures and yarn exported were only valued at

The same increase of prosperity, and to a large ex- £7,000,000, in 1857 they reached £13,647,186.
tent (Mr. Ashworth adds), has been shared by the But this was by no means owing to the extra-
sheep-farmers of Ireland; but the accounts are not ordinary ability or skill of the cotton manufacturers ;
clear, in consequence of large quantities of Irish wool for only £2,000,000 in value of the exports came under
having been sold for shipment to France, Belgium, and the denomination of “mixed fabrics," and the home
Germany."

consumption of these mixed cottons and woollen goods
Now, however well read he may be in the history was certainly not so large as that.
and statistics of the cotton trade and cotton manufac- We cannot pass over, in our consideration of British
tures of the country, we fear Mr. Ashworth's views wool, the increase in our Colonial production. Aus-
and figures respecting wool and woollens are less to be tralia and New Zealand, the Cape Colony, Britisha
relied on; and we must, therefore, join issue with him India, and Canada have largely increased their num-
on several points.

ber of sheep, and their yield of wool. In Australia, France we know to be, like ourselves, a large im- in the two principal colonies, we find, in 1855, Vicporter of foreign wool; but we are not aware that she toria had 5,322,000 sheep, and clipped 22,353,000 lbs. seeks specially that of Irish origin, and we doubt wool ; New South Wales, 8,144,000 sheep, and clipped whether the Irish wools do not, for the most part, go to 17,671,000 lbs. wool. Liverpool, and, throngh the public wool sales there, The apparent anomaly in these figures is attributed enter largely into the British manufactures. From to two causes : the lighter fleece of the old colony, and 3,000 to 4,000 bales of Irish wool, we know, reach the fact that Port Phillip is of more convenient access Liverpool annually, the average import of the last six to the south-western district of New South Wales than years being 3,300 bales.

Sydney, and therefore receives the pastoral produce of Prench buyers no doubt appear at our London sales, that locality. as do purchasers from other parts of the Continent. But the considerable trade of those parts of New We have not the latest figures of the imports of wool South Wales and of the adjacent portion of Victoria is into France, but in 1853 France imported 48,400,000lbs. now vigorously contested by a third party, the coof wool. She has of late years been puying increased lonists of South Australia, who have already naviattention to sheep.culture in Algeria, where there are gated the river Murray as far as Albury, and conveyed now about eight millions sheep, and about sixteen million the wool by steamers and barges to the shipping port pounds of wool are produced there.

of their own colony. The wool produced on extended We next join issue upon the quantity of sheep in the pasture runs in the northern runs of Australia, now kingdom, and the British wool produced; and here we

that the Moreton Bay district is to be formed into a certainly enter upon very debatable ground. Un- separate colony, will no longer swell the returns of fortunately we have no return of the number of sheep Sydney. kept in Great Britain. Mr. Braithwaite Poole, in

The export of wool from Port Phillip has slowly 1863, estimated the total annual growth or produce of increased in spite of the attractions of the gold digwool in Great Britain and Ireland at 32,000,000 gings. Only one year was it beaten back (1851) as fleeces, averaging 4 lbs. each; and taking the wool to

will be seen from the following table : be worth ls. a pound, this would give a total value of

YEARLY EXPORT OP WOOL PROM VICTORIA BEFORE nearly £6,500,000. In the official British catalogue

Years.

Years. of the Paris Exhibition (1855), the estimated annual

Wool, in lbs.

Wool, in lbg, 1846 6,406,950 1851

16,345 000 produce of wool in the United Kingdom is stated to be

1847 10,210,030 1852

20,247,000 about 130,000,000 lbs.

1818 10,554,663 1853

20,843,000 It is easy to assume figures; but estimates necessa- 1849 14,567,005

22,998,000 rily differ; and we would refer to Mr. McQueen's Sta- 1850 18,491,000 1855

22,353,000 tistics of the British Empire (p. 21)-no mean authority The imports from the Australian colonies last

- ho estimated the production of British wool in year fell back to about the produce of 1855, being 1835 at 246,700,000 lbs., valued at £13,979,166, and 49,000,000lbs., having in 1856 exceeded 52,000,000lbs. the foreign wool then imported at 46,500,000 lbs., Various inducing causes, other than the trivial valued at £3,750,000. If the number of sheep were reason assigned by Mr. Ashworth, must be looked to then 48,000,000 in the kingdom, although this may as having stimulated the production of British wool at have been too high an estimate, they must in twenty home and abroad. The tide of emigration ; new and years have somewhat increased. We know, by the agri- extended pasture land in Australia, New Zealand, and cultural returns, there are in Ireland and Scotland at Southern Africa ; the progress of settlement in Canada; the present time about 9,000,000 sheep, and in Eng- the extension of trade with Central Asia (our imports land and Wales there cannot be less than 40,000,000 ; | from India having risen to upwards of 19 millions); and at 5 lbs. per head all round, the wool produce of the diffusion of wealth owing to the gold discoveries the United Kingdom would be 245,000,000 lbs.-10 and increased commerce, and the greater attention paid increase, after all, upon Mr. McQueen's estimate. to sheep culture, owing to the demand for food

But, then, these assumptions depend upon very un- all these and other reasons might be much more truly certain data, owing to the absence of precise returns of assigned for the existing prosperity and enhanced the sheep in England, and the different average weight demand.

AND AFTER THE GOLD DISCOVERY,

1854

SPRING PROSPECTS.

The past season has been a trying and an eventful | in the majority of cases, the plant has made its appear. one to most farmers. We were comforting ourselves ance, and looks remarkably well. The bean and peas with ideas of permanent prosperity, and cosingly ima- seed lay a somewhat prolonged time in the ground, but giving ourselves snugly reposing in the warm nest which came up safe and healthy-looking. We cannot, under the past two or three years of “good times " had enabled such favourable auspices, avoid coming to the conclusion us to build, when suddenly a storm arose—a tornado in that the prospects of our spring cropping are also remark. the commercial world, and crash after crash gave ably good. The land being in fine condition, we antici. ominous sounds and unmistakable warnings. Soon the pate a rapid and full growth, the oats most probably flourishing tree upon which our hopes depended was requiring, on the best land, topping to retarul their proshaken to its very roots, its leaves shed all driven and gress. gone, and its branches were broken and scattered by the

Potatoes. The season for making preparation for storm. Such was the sudden and unexpected turn of this crop has been all that could be desired. The soil affairs in the agricultural world consequent upon the is in a finely pulverized state, and the crop is for the shock to commercial credit. It was incredible ; at first, most part planted under every condition advantageous few would be induced to believe it. Failure succeeded to its growth. A large breadth, too, has been got in, failure in rapid succession, and at length the general and being thus early, we augur a greater freedom from body of farmers were convinced that, for the present at disease, and a corresponding yield of marketable tubers, least, their prosperity bad waned. A reaction was the the earlier settings generally producing the greater result, and needless alarm at once took the place of in- quantity of large potatoes. We should greatly rejoice credulity: hence the farmers began to pour supplies upon to find that this unusually mild winter has tended to pat the markets, and an unusual and unwarranted depres- an end to the mysterious scourge we call “ potato sion in prices has been the consequence. Now my ob- disease;" it would indeed be a blessing most worthy of ject in this short paper is to try and stem this downward

a nation's gratitude. course, and bid my brother farmers take courage. The worst is over ; be patient : signs of renewed activity in

The Root Crops.- We never knew farm work in such the commercial and manufacturing departments of our

a forward state : great progress has been made in fallor. country's industry appear, and serve to show that ing and preparing the land for the root crops; a fine speedily you will feel the benefit of an increased demand tilth has in innumerable cases been already obtained : for your indispensable products. The trial has been a

the fear is that continuous rains may set in, and prevent severe one; but I trust it bas passed or is fast passing the completion of the fallow : so far everything has been away, without leaving distressing evidence of its effects; favourable. Much land is in preparation for the manand, in reliance upon the energy, the enterprise, and the gold wurzel crop. This crop continues to obtain greater vast resources of our astonishing country, I would urge favour with the agricultural public, and its culture is a renewal of every effort, as farmers, and the adoption widely extending. We are heartily glad it is so. It is and practice of those safe and salutary improvements

an invaluable crop, and ought to be grown by every which modern agriculture has developed and confirmed. farmer who has stock to keep. The culture, manageOur mainstay and safety is in the improved practice of ment, storing, and mode of consuming it is now so

with agriculture, so that, "come what may," we can face patent, that every one may adopt it as a farm crop the world's markets, and no longer entertain such dread advantage. of foreign competition.

Spring The Grazing Department.-The grass-lands as a Prospects ”—the crops.

whole do not correspond with the favourable state of the The Wheat Crop. There probably never was a arable-lands. The absence of snow, " the poor man's winter better adapted to uphold the security of the wheat manure," during the winter, is and will be felt. About plant than the past. Throughout the whole season a month since they looked sadly, being brown and very scarcely any damage has been sustained, and the fullest bare of grass. In the past week or two they have reand most healthy plant ever known has been the result covered their greenness, but are slowly progressing, and upon the average of the country; indeed, but few dis- will not be ready for the early stocking we were looking tricts have a thin plant. In fact, the plant is too forward to. This will be severely felt, as the winter full—too much crowded, if anything, to be more keeping (mangolds excepted) has for the most part than usually prosperous; a fault, if it be one, not to be long been finished, and much' difficulty is experienced greatly deplored : we have often to complain of thinness by flock-masters in providing for their flocks; this bas of plant, and but seldom the contrary. The wheat crop, led to many forced sales, causing, a few weeks since

, & then, has an abundant plant; and we have every great depression in store stock. This, however, has been evidence of its favourable progression. The season for recovered, and this kind of stock is now selling at a rolling or compression has been most favourable, and a remunerative price to the breeder, but at a rate not good firm seed-bed has been obtained, which is likely to leave a fair margin of profit to the grazier, universally known to be so conducive to the safe Fears are also entertained relative to the healthy state of growth and prosperity of the seed-crop. There has also the flocks, owing to the very inferior quality of the been a sufficiency of cold and frosty weather to keep the winter food they have been compelled to subsist upon. plant in check, so that scarcely any crops have become This, I trust, is in a great measure unfounded, as the winter-proud. Should the season continue favourable, general resort to corn, cake, and other artificial conwe anticipate an early harvest and a good crop.

diments would keep them in condition, and prevent the in. The SPRING CROPS.-Beans, Peas, Barley, and jurious consequences arising from unwholesome food. The Oats. These have all been put in under tbe most number of sheep to be brought forward will undoubtedly favourable circumstances. The soil is in the finest state be considerable, as, owing to the fineness of the winter, imaginable to receive the seed; they have been early the casualties have not been very great. The only town, and every good grain may and must grow; indeed, | danger in from the unwbolerome character of the tarnip

But to my

text:

and coleseed crops upon which they were fed, and con- grazing. I therefore anticipate a short supply of wellsequently the absence of condition requisite to being put fed animals, both in cattle and sheep, for the grazing to good grass: nearly all of these crops suffered frum department, and consequently a scanty supply of marmildew. From this cause also we anticipate a falling off | ketable meat for the first summer months; this generally in the condition of the cattle brought forward. It is leads to many animals being sept to market before they true, abundance of cake may, in a great measure, com- are properly fatted, which tends strongly to depreciate pensate for the absence of quality in the turnip ; but prices. One word relative to pork. The supply of this abundance will not in all cases be given. Many good store pigs has greatly increased ; and as these are yards of cattle will come out in their usual splendid fatted as porkers, the tendency will be to produce a greater stute, the pride of their exhibitors, fit either for the reduction in the price of meat; even at present, pork butcher or for further grazing ; but this class of animals does not retain its relative value in the markets.— I am will form the exception, not the rule, this year. Nothing, well aware these remarks are not of much worth; but I upon the general average, will compensate for a de- am desirous to proroke inquiry, therefore they are meant fective turnip crop: it must be felt in the summer's to be more suggestive than dogmatic.

THE LONDON, OR CENTRAL FARMERS' CLUB,

THE USE OF GUANO FOR ROOT CROPS.

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The ordinary monthly meeting for discussion took place , has not fallen, for its treatment, into the hands of some on Monday eveniog, April 5, at the Club-house, Blackfriars. member of this club who is more competent to expatiate on

Mr. Owen, of Clapton, as Chairman for the Year, presided. it than myself. I consider that by incrcasing the weight of In consequence of the meeting falling on Easter Monday, roots per acre, we secure the means of keeping more stock, the attendance was not large, but it included Messrs. R. thereby laying a foundation for good farming. (Hear, Baker, H. Trethewy, John Thomas, T. W. Granger, C. T. hear) It is my intention to state, on this occasion, the re. James, L. A. Coussmaker, W. Gray, T. F. Wilson, J. sult of three years' experience respecting the different kinds Wood, J.C. Nesbit, T. Hatfield, T. B. Chapman, James of artificial manures which I have used in competition with Thomas, E. Purser, J. Howard, J, G. King, J. Cressing- Peruvian guano at the same expense per acre. In 1855 I ham, J. Wood (Croydon), T. Congreve, S. Skelton, H. was induced to use as an experiment four different kinds Owen, G. S. Harrison, R. Marsh, W. W. Good, Oxen, of manures for Swede turnips, three of which I purchased jun, &c, &c.

from three eminent manufacturers of turnip manures. I The subject for discussion assigned for introduction to shall classify them as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3. They were Mr. W. Sainsbury, of Manor House, West Lavington, all drilled at the same time, with Swede seed, and at the Wiltshire, was thus stated on the card : " The Advantage same expense per acre, in competition with guano. The of Guano for Root Crops, and the Best System of Applying swedes drilled with the three first-named came up, and it without Injury to the Germination of Seed."

made equal progress up to the time of the first hoeing; the The CHAIRMAN, in opening the proceedings, observed, guano swedes, when they made their first appearance, that the best method of growing roots must always be an looked stunted in their growth, and anything but promising, interesting subject to the farmer; and, knowing how great and were much more injured comparatively by the turnipMr. Sainsbury's experience was in reference to it, he was Ay, than those drilled with the three other manures. They quite sure that gentleman would treat the topic in an

were not ready for hoeing for at least one week after the interesting manner. He was sorry that at the present three first-named, which I attribute to the seed not having moment the article of guano bore such a very high price in come in contact with the guano, as a preventive from inthe market; but he had no doubt that Mr. Sainsbury jury to the germination of the seed. The result was that would show that even with that price the use of guano was in the month of August, the progress made by the swedes attended with great advantage; while, on the other hand, with all four manures, was about equal in appearance; in as it was a most valuable manure, he trusted the day would the latter part of November, No. 1 and No. 2 swedes were soon arrive when it would be obtainable at a far lower rate. about equal in weight; No. 3 were not so good; but the guano

MR SAINSBURY said: Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen, swedes were about three tons per acre more in weight. the subject for discussion this evening is one, I think, of In 1856, in order to test the relative merits of Peruvian the greatest importance to the farmers of this country. The guano as compared with bones, a friend of mine drilled sixvalue of guano has been tested by many practical men, by a teen bushels of boues per acre and I two cwt. of guano, the comparison of it with a variety of artificial manures. I land being about the same in quality. In the latter part of have myself taken much care to give the thing a fair trial. November the guano swedes were full three tons per acre more I well know how cautious I ought to be, in stating the result than those drilled with bones. In 1857 I wished again to try of my experience, and I have no doubt there are many the relative merits of the same (Nos. 1, 2, and 3, and guano) practical men present who are much more capable than I at an equal expense per acre. All these manures were then am of explaining in detail experiments in relation to this used on pieces of land of the same value, and drilled in rosubject. I do not presume to teach, or dictate in any way; tation at the same time with rapeseed. The result was that I only wish to give an exact statement of what has taken Nos. 1, 2, and 3 took the lead at first, and the guano rape was place on the farm in my occupation, with different manures not so flourishing; but after the first hoeing of the three in competition with guano ; and I regret that the subject first-mentioned, the guano rape gradually overtook that

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nure.

drilled by the three other manuros, and when my sheep be- the drill, to cover the seed. I should state that the principle gan to feed the rape in the latter end of July, it was quite of this drill is to deposit the guano, allowing a suficient quarpalpable that the guano rape was doing the best. After tity of earth to cover the manure before the seed is deposited, my sheep had been feeding the rape about a fortnight, the which prevents the guano from burning the seed. This drill rape drilled with the three first-named manures began to may be used with equal advantage in drilling guano or supershow mildew ; the rape with the guano was growing luxu- phosphate, either with or without ashes. Our friend Mr. riantly without being much affected by mildew, and at the Nesbit, iu his admirable work on Agricultural Chemistry, end of six weeks I considered that I had one-fifth more feed mentions that in drilling guano for root crops it is necessary per acre after the guano rape than after that manured with that the guano should be mixed with four or six times its Nos. 1, 2, and 3. In consequence of my wishing to try the weight of ashes, to prevent it from burning the seed; but, relative merits of guano in competition with farmyard dung, with all due respect for Mr. Nesbit's valuable information remy sheep fed a piece of early tares and were folded on the specting the mixture of ashes with guano, I trust I have land, after which I put a heavy dressing of farmyard ma- shown plainly from my experience that two bushels of dry

One part of the field was left for guano, which I ashes per acre is a sufficient quantity to be mixed with guano drilled at the rate of two cwt. per acre without farmyard or superphosphate. I hope I have also shown that the drill dung. The result of this experiment proved the guano tur- which I have used is most economical and advantageous. In nips to be much the best. The first time that guano was conclusion, I must confess that my object in introducing this used in its pure state without any mixture of ashes for subject has been rather to glean iuformation from the discussion turnips, the crop was destroyed, in consequence of the seed than to give the results of my experiments. I now thank you coming in contact with it, there not having been a sufficient for your attention, and I shall be happy to answer any quesquantity of earth allowed to cover the manure previous to tions you may feel disposed to ask me on the subject the depositing of the seed. Having lost my crop of tur- (cheers). nips, which was a few acres only, I was induced to re-sow Mr. J. Thomas (Blestoe) wished to ask Mr. Sainsbury the land with rape broadcast, the seed being covered lightly what quantity of ashes he had been accustomed to use to a with the hoes in preference to ploughing, as I wished to cwt. of guano ? keep the manure on the surface. The rape came up with Mr. SAINSBURY said ho had been in the habit of using a good plant; but I soon perceived that it grew iu rank, two bushels of dry ashes to 2 cwt. of guano. just as the manure was drilled; and by the time it was ready Mr. King: What drill do you use ? for hoeing, where there was no guano drilled, the rape- Mr. SAINSBURY: Reeves's. plant died gradually away. I have mentioned this, because Mr. COUSSMAKER (Westwood, Surrey) wished to make a few I think it affords another striking proof of the great value remarks founded on his owă experience. He had not used of guano. I am sure I may say that during the last three artificial manures to a very large extent, having always acted years I have not lost an acre of turnips from the fly where on the maxim, which he learnt a good many years ago, from a guano has been used; nor have I sustained any injury from gentleman in Northamptonshire, Mr. Hildyard, that a good the effects of guano, except on three or four acres where I farm, like a good joint of meat, only required bastiug with its first drilled it in its pure state. Having now, I think, said own dripping. Having kept plenty of stock, he had enough as to the advantage of guano, and shown plainly generally been able to manure his farin with farm-yard that in every instance guano has had the pre-eminence, 80 dung, He did not mean to deay that artificial manures far as my own experience has extended, I shall now, gen. might be used advantageously in many instances, and espetlemen, make a few remarks on the application of guano. cially when a farmer took a farm which was not in good order; In reference to the best system of applying guano for root but when a farm had been got into good order, it would not, in crops, I certainly advocate the use of the drill in preference his opinion, require much artificial manure. With regard to to sowing guano broadcast, although on many farms that the relative merits of different kinds of artificial manure, he method is adopted with success, as a means of preventing quite agreed with Mr. Sainsbury, that guano was the best of injury to the germination of the seed-that is, on lands all (Hear, bear). He happened to live in the neighbourhood where the ridge-system is practised. The farm in my oc- of Aldersbott, where there had been started a new mauure, cupation being best calculated for the drill-system on the derived from the camp-animal carbon, or whatever they flat, I shall co.fine myself to that mode of application, pleased to term it. He was induced to buy a certain quanwhich, from practical experience, I have found to answer tity of this manure for the purpose of trying it against guano the best. With regard to drills, we have a great variety in in money value. Having given £7 per ton for this Aldershott use. Many of them I consider very good for drilliog arti- manure, and £14 for guano, he used twice as much of the ficial manures ; but, as economy in horse and manual-labour former as of the latter, and the result showed that guano pas is a great item in the farmer's expenses, I wish to show decidedly superior to the new manure (Hear, hear). His es. that the drill which I have been using, and which was ma- perie..ce with regard to guano proved that, if they entirely denufactured by Messrs. Reeves, of Bratton Westbury, has pended upon it, they would force the plant very much in its many advantages. In 1857 I used Reeves' patent drill early stages, and afterwards leave it in the lurch (Hear, hear). with great success. As respects economy, guano can be He thought the best application was a balf-dressing of guano used either with or without a mixture of ashes. At the with a ball-dressing of farm-yard dung. If he had to manure same time, I should recommend two bushels of dry ashes for roots, he would not apply farm-yard dung to half the land mixed with 2 or 2 cwt. of guano to the acre, which Reores') and guano to the other half, but would put a half-dressing of drill will distribute with a regularity quite cqual to that each on the whole of the land, experience having convinced of any other drill that I bave ever used with twelve him that that was the best mode of proceeding. Mr. Sainsbary bushels of ashes. On a farm where the land is somewhat level had mentioned the drill system; he (Mr. Coussmaker) had this drill will with two horses put in nine acres per day, always sown his guano broadcast. In so doing, bowever, he and the game horses will take the manure with the drill for a bad met with one great disadvantage, and he would be very day's work. I always give one turn with the barrows after much obliged to any gentleman who would suggest to him_8

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