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and mischance, the deep culture and pulverization of with the same quantity of seed in each row, makes a
Well, the “shack” being eaten off by sbeep and pigs,
course you will autumn-clean thoroughly ; forking out after wheat, following beans, manured: a long while probably, skimming, cross-cultivating, and raking off back to the last manuring; yet the third wbite-straw
weeds and rubbish. Plough say one inch deeper than crop was profitable, and the rows of a fourth shine green usual, in order to bring up 100 tons of fresh long, and hope ul, with brown stripes of fertility mouldering undisturbed subsoil, 10 supply the crop with mineral their clods between.
nutriment during the first year. Level and pulverize Actual experience of only one year's crop, added to
with the harrow and roll; carefully pick all root-weeds ; the bright prospect for another, may not warrant our
and then comes the drilling. But mind one particular advocacy of a revolution in wheat-growing such 88 our
point. “ Plough dry and sow wet,” as Mr. Smith says: system would prove if largely carried out. We do not
that is, do all your paring and ploughing, or ploughing venture to recommend any farmer to sow all, or even
followed by scuffling, or whatever order of cleaning you half, his next year's wheat on this plan; but we do urge
a lopt, wlien the land is dry; and wait for rain to make all occupiers of suitable soil, and whose agents or land
a moist seed-bed, before you harrow fine and drill. lords are not afraid of " exhaustion,” to try a few Getting-in wheat well is always a great advantage; but acres, and, our word for it, they will soon be willing to stretch the rows a little further. We are in a position there is no store of manure in the soil to make up for
is of far more consequence, one would think, when “the culture is cheap and casy, for we huve per- defective tillage, and the preparation and treatment of formed it two successive years; there will be no loss
the earth itself is to be the sole support of the crop. with the first crop, at any rate, so you need not be fear- Therefore, be nice about the moisture as well as the fine ful; and ihe reward in many ways is so promising, that
tilth of the ground into which you deposit the seed ; the experiment is well worth your trouble, contrivance, and take especial care to cut-in deeply enough with your and risk."
drill coulters. A remark as to the desirability of having In perusing the following detailed description of our
a fine description of seed (“red”) for the sake of wheat husbandry, let no one suppose we are presuming to stand between the Rev. Mr. Smith and the readers of for white wheats without mildew), and the caution of
a bright silica-stielded straw, unless in a district famous his “Word in Season," or that we claim the well liming, brining, or dressing with arsenic or vitriol – “ originality" of cultivating grain on the stripe system according to your custom-need not be addressed to men by means of horse power instead of manual implements, of business. Our method is sinply a modification of that originated at Lois-Weedon, and our directions conform to those
Now for the sowing. There is to be a stripe of three given in Mr. Smith's publications. Jethro Tull worked rows at every five feet; the “spaces" between the rows the intervals between his wheat-rows with the plough being 10 inches each (instead of Mr. Smith's "foot”), and “hoe-plough ;” Mr Smith has progressed very far
and the " interval between the stripes, therefore, toward accomplishing his more perfect tillage by horses
40 inches. You want neither the slow line and dibble, and traction implements; and we have simply contrived
nor a sort of parallel-rule wheel" marker” purposely a manner of common plougbing and suhsoiliog between
constructed; for a good 5 or 6-feet corn drill, ei:her the wheat triplets, without either injuring the plants or
with a "slecrage,” or with a "swing" coulter-bar and defeating the end in view. And we trust that when a good man for “ leader," can accomplish the feat. the public learn how easily the thing is done, they Arrange four coulters on the drill thus: two at 60 will no longer hesitate to make trials in every suitable | inches apart, and, within these, two more at 40 inches locality.
apart; making the dis:ances in this order, 10 inches, First, then, we would say, believe in the principle : 40 inches, and 10 inches. Each outside coulter will rely upon the fact that tilling the fallow intervals does
make the middle row in a stripe of three; and the really nourish and augment the growth and produce of inner coulters will sow the rows next the fallow interval, the wheat. Für if uncertain on this point, you are sure
tbe borses (in length) walking along this space left to select a field for trial in too high a condition ; the re
midway of the drill. When arrived at the end, the drill sult being an early over-luxuriance and final failure of is to turn short, the outside coulter returning in its own the first year's crop: Land in condition for producing track; ard the seed is shut off from the pipe of that a heavy crop- of wheat on the ordinary plan (as, for
outside coulter next the unsown part of the field, so instance, a bare fallow, a field of roots highly manured, that the ou side coulters act alternately as “markers" a bean or pea stubble, or a piece of seeds richly dressed and sowing-coulters. In this way, the drill marks out with dung or sheep-feeding) is too good to begin upon.
its own work, without any difficulty after the first course Rather choose an oai stubble, perhaps a barley or even
—which the drill-leader "draws" by siin ple eyesight. a wheat stubble-depending upon the known nature of
Whatever swervings or bends may occur, the width of your soil, and its being in or out of "heart."
the interval to be cultivated is always invariable. Also, make up your mind to sow earlier than you The next year's crop will have to be sown along the would any other wheat, because there are less than intervals between the stubble-strips; and the same mode half the common number of rows on an acre ; which l of drilling will suffice, provided the stubble rows remain
visible, at least in some parts of the field. How then, the beat, a latitude of deviation from the true line that do we manage to antamn-clean the ground?
must be allowed him; and the uptorned slice has just Having barrowed up the thickest of the stubble room to fall over, short of the wheat on the opposite (which must be left very short by the reapers), stir the side of the interval. Very few clods will be found to fallow intervals with Bentali's, Coleman's, or some other roll and bury the young plant. scan fier set as narrow as required ; and barrow them Break up the bottom of every furrow with a proper two at a time, by means of two oat of a “set” of three subsoil, penetrating 5 or 6 inches, according to the harrows-that is, the middle one removed, so as to miss strength of your team. We use Bentall's broad-sharer the stabble space. Rolling may be done over the wbole with the side-bears removed, a 6-inch share on the surface; or å roller made on purpose, in two short heel, and subsoil point in front, this going at least 5 lengths with a space between, may be employed. The inches down wiib 3 horses. The total depth below the stubble being pretty plainly seen, is a sufficient guide- suriace is thus 9 or 10 inches. When the same intervals mark for the driilmen, who cannot get far wrong when come under operation again (that is, in two years time), the first stroke has been taken in the rigbt place, and if we nay perhaps work still deeper, and it may be with a the land is in a fine state and dark with moisture. The double tined instead of single subsoiler. The horses, seed may be harrowed-in with barrows covering all the of course, are all barnessed in length, walking upon the ground. Should the stubble stripes be pecuniarly free furrow bot:om. of couch, perhaps forking out the tufts may suffice : Leare the field thus treated (looking lengthwise like but we must be prepared for cleansing them when foul; a wheat crop, and cross-wise like a trenched-up fallos, and therefore have contrised how to pare or scarify remiading me of those corrugated pictures presenting them without interfering with the drilling. When the two views at different angles), and let the frost and drill has begun to work, follow it with the broadsharer snow, wind, rain, and drying sunshine exert their forces set only about 22 inches wide-not in the track of the upon it. And observe how large an extent of superfices drill, of course; but breaking up the stubble lines is exposed; for not only can the atmosphere enter 9 between the intervals just sown. 'We find that this inches down into the subsoil, but the furrow-slices operation does not displace or root-up the seed ; and thrown up at an angle, almost double the area of sur. after it any amount of barrowing and rolling, length- face in the intervals. wise and crosswise, may loosen and shake out the In January and February, taking the chance of root-weeds, without fear for the beat in tolerably dry suitable weather, the same tillage is to be repeated, only weather. Only this must be done before the grains on the other side of each interval. The plough turas have chitted ; or at any rate, before the germs reach the back the pulverulent furrow-slice of the former opera. surface.
tion, covering over the long-exposed broken subsoil in The quantity of seed per acre depends, like the time the old furrow, and going 4 inches deep below the sar. of sowing, upon whereabouts you farin : being regulated face level, casts up upon the top a new slice of stiff by the quality of your soil, its altitude and aspect, its unmellowed soil for the weather to act upon as before. tendency as to weeds, its liability to worms and slugs, The horses are obliged to walk along the old furtor, the peculiarities of your climate, the character of tbe treading down the crumbled subsoil; but (as it bas particular season you may bave, even the proximity of become so friable), not inflicting much damage by your holding to harbours of birds and vermin. What compression. The newly opened furrow must be subis early in one situation, may not be so in another; soiled as before, and left in this exposed state. what is thin seeding in one neighbourhood, is thought So far, your tillage has provided a supply of more or thick in another. As an example, take our own case : less pulverized earth 9 or 10 inches in depth, on both November being the great wheat-sowing month with us, sides of every interval, and within a few inches' reach our present crop was got in the first week of October. the wheat rootlets. And if you comprehend Jethro In ordinary husbandry we drill 6 to 10 pecks per acre, Tull's teaching, you will understand that soil more or the former quantity at the beginning of the season, less pulverized by atmospheric action must be neceswhen every kernel will have a chance; gradually in- sarily more or less “ fertilized ;" hence, your growing creasing the amount as the period of sowing gets later : plants will have close at hand a deep store of nutriment at the same time putting in more on poor than on rich on which to feed during the summer. The difference, land. Mr. Smith tried only 1 peck, but " for safety you perceive, between our method and ordinary suband the sake of the sample" now uses 2 pecks an acre. soiling, lies in the circumstance that every one of the Our tillage being less perfect than his, and the plants subsoiled furrows remains open and exposed, instead of lying open to greater injury from borses' treading, &c., being immediately buried by a succeeding furrow-slice. we deemed it best to drill 3 pecks per acre. Tbis ap- And it is not a mere deep stirring without inversion as pears but a small quantity; yet Mr. Smith's experience performed by the tines of a subsoiler or cultivator ; with a thicker seeding has shown that the stalks are too
neither is it a complete inverting of the staple and submany and weak to bear up their bulky heads erect. soil, as in doubble-digging or trench-ploughing, that And consider, that as the average distance between our
we practise. But the staple (that is, a 4-inch stratum rows (taken over the entire field), is 20 inches, we have of it) is inverted, and removed by the plough of the less than half the number of rows that common 9 inch subsoil that lies beneath; and the subsoil is then torn to drilling gives us ; and thus our 3 pecks an acre puts as much seed in every single row as about 7 pecks does in pieces, and submitted to the disintegration of our change
ful English weather. plain drilling. In fact, we drill with the same cog-wheel As far as you have proceeded at present, half the land on the cup-barrel for both cases.
is in undisturbed possession of the wheat rows; and the When your wheat is well up, and the triple-row alternate halves, or intervals, are deep-worked on both emerald stripes are beautiful from end to end, comes the sides. But as the plough opens a furrow having only 1 first really Tullian operation, namely, the ploughing along or 8 inches of clear bottom, and the subsoiler breaks the 40 inch intervals. With a common plough, and horizontally only a few inches further toward the centre horses "in length” (a boy leading the first horse), of the intervals, there will still be a ridge of unmoved plough a single furrow down each interval, going say 4 ground along the middle of the interval some 10 inches inches deep. Aiming to keep the coulter 6 inches from in width. Therefore, in April or May, break up this, the wheat-row on his left-hand side, the ploughman has and stir the whole breadth of the interval with any no difficulty in taking his furrow within 4 to 7 inches of suitable subsoiler or grubber. We use Bentall's imple.
ment, the central subsoiler, and two side-tires, without common crop, and though liable to twisting and whip-
You will probably be pu zzled about the best way of
The subjoined items of expenditure on our 10-acre
3 8 husbandman will time this stimulating operation accord.
1 10 ing to the obvious thriving or lagging growth of the
1 10 plants, and will narrow the width of the implement
Hoe-weeding by hand..
3 4 First horse-boeing intervals
09 as the season advances and the roots extend.
0 10 If possible, have the intervals in a state of powder,
13 0 say by the middle of June : as you should perform
Surveying reaper's work..., another operation when the wheat is in full-ear or going
1 11 out of bloom, namely, earth-up the wheat rows as you Thrashing and dressing
8 1 would potatoes, only with care and moderation. This
Delivering at market
19 may be done with a ridge or double-mouldboard plough, the horse being driven and guided by a lad walking
Total working expenses .......... £3 2 6 along the next adjoining interval. Owing to excessive to which, of course, are added the rent, tithe, rates, draught, our intervals last summer were too rough and cloddy to admit of this process being done at all; and taxes, and interest on outlay. And this is the cost of as the seed had been imperfectly put in the ground, many growing an acre of wheat, and at the same time falodd stalks in the outer-rows were dashed down by the lowing that acre for next year's crop. July storms, bent an inch or two above ground, and laid It now remains for us, in concluding this series of prostrate across the intervals. Gathering up these straws papers, to urge the experiment upon all who are desirous made tedious work for the reapers, and the grain in them of growing wheat at a profit, in spite of low prices. was also light. Earthing-up slightly, Mr. Smith finds, And should our second harvest corroborate the assurance will prevent this, without injury or retarding the ripen- of the first, we shail be able to enforce the adoption of ing of the corn. But the stems are stronger than in a the system on the largest scale.
AERATION OF LAND. Whatever be the elements of the atmosphere by which | wind, so arranged, by means of a vane, as always to present the earth may be acted upon, it is certain that the soil, if the open mouths to the wind; and let these funnels be freely exposed to such elements as present themselves in connected by an upright pipe with the drains. the ordinary state of the atmosphere, has its fertility greatly The pressure of the wind in the mouth of a funnel will increased.
cause an equal pressure through all the drains, it not being It signifies nothing what are the required elements, un- able to escape through the ends, because of the water less it be capable of demonstration that it is solely owing lodged in the bend; and air will, consequently, permeate to some particular elements, and that those particular the soil at all times when there is a breeze. elements can be supplied to the soil at a cheaper rate by It might in some situations be possible to use waterother means than by exposure.
power, or even steam-power, for an occasional service, as To effect this exposure, it bas been usual to have frequent many well-drained farms now-a-days are furnished with ploughing, fallowing, drilling, &c, which conduced to this steain-engines, and the aëration through the ordinary purpose, and were otherwise useful by destroying weeds; drain-pipes would be effective. but I venture to suggest the following plan, not as a sub- In steam-packets a long bag opened to the wind at the stitute for the ordinary means, but as an accompanying side, near the top, forces air into the hold amongst the measure, which is small in first cost, and in its action at cattle. Gas companies find that their gas permeates in tended with little expense :
large quantities through the soil, although their pipes are Let drainage-tiles (perforated, if needful) be laid as as tight as they can make them, and the ground they are usual; but let all the drains in a field be connected. At the laid in dense; whereas, in the plan suggested, the pressure lower end of the field, where the drainage is discharged, would be in perforated pipes, and through a loose soil. let the ends of the pipes (not perforated) be well packed in The plan would not interfere with the drainage, but clay, and the ends of the pipes made like an inverted would be a second use for the same pipes, and be stimusyphon, so that drainage-water will lodge in the bend. In lating the crops at periods when it would be otherwise imvarious parts of the field-or one part, if that be found practicable to manure them.
G. H. B. sufficient- let there be large bell-mouthed funnels to gather
THE IMPORTATIONS OF FOOD IN THE LAST TWENTY YEARS. An official return has lately been laid before Parlia- | amounting to but 1,000 or 2,000 quarters ; in 1836, ment of the quantities of articles of food imported from we imported 28,000 quarters. The figures for last abroad in the last twenty years, of the same kind as year are not yet made up. About 7,700 cwt. of rye those produced at home, upon which Customs duties meal were also imported in 1856. are still levied; and as the subject is necessarily in- Of the pulses our foreign imports do not vary much, teresting to our agriculturists -- few of whom will see at least of late years; about 100,000 quarters of peas the document—we will run over the details, to see and 350,000 quarters of beans are near the average. what quantities of articles we import of a like character Grain pays the duty of ls, a quarter, and meal 4d. to those produced at home.
per cwt. This parliamentary return does not include live ani- There are a few miscellaneous preparations of grains mals, salted provisions, potatoes, fish, and such-like and seeds which may be mentioned. Firstly, an inarticles, which come in duty free, but is restricted to creasing supply of semolina-a preparation from the the chargeable articles, which bring in, on the average, wheat of the southern parts of Europe. The best is a net Customs revenue of about £750,000.
the fine hard parts of the grain, rounded by attrition in The iinported food may be ranged under three or the mill-stones, and made chiefly in Italy. We imfour groups, as grain and meal, fruits (raw and dried), ported 1,300 cwt. in 1856. In France, however, this dairy and farm products, beverages or substances used name is given to the large hard grains of wheat rein their preparation, and a few minor items.
tained in the boltiug machine after the fine parts First, then, we have grain,the im ports of which have have been passed through its meshes, and with this, necessarily fluctuated largely in the series of years under when ground, the fine white Parisian bread is made. Of consideration, consequent upon the vicissitudes of seasons vermicelli and maccaroni, other Italian preparations and the variable demand for food supplies, according to of wheat, we import about 5,000 cwts., subject to the nature of our own and the European harvests. Thus, a duty of 18. the cwt. An article termed " while in 1836 we imported but 168,647 quarters of foreiga croup,” comes in in small quantities. In 1853, wheat, in 1853 we received nearly 5,000,000 quarters ; | 1,467 cwts. were imported; and in 1856, 453 cwts. were and the average importation of wheat in the last ten received. Properly this name is applied to the seed of years has been 3,500,000 quarters. To this has to be the wild grass Glyceria fluitans, a very nutritious added the wheat Hour, and other grain and meal. grain, collected in streams in northern latitudes, and
During the last ten years our annual imports of wheat much used in soups, or for porridge in Germany, Poand flour have amounted, on the average, to 5,000,000 land, and Russia; but that which we import is excluquarters; a very considerable part of which has been sively a preparation from wheat, passing under the derived from Russia and countries situated in the Bal- name and competing with semolina. What the tic, Turkey and Egypt, the United States, and Canada. “mixed mustard” (which comes in to the extent of
Our supplies of foreign wheat-meal or flour, which 150 cwt.) is, we scarcely know. It is not mustardfrom 1830 to 1845 scarcely averaged 1,000,000 cwt. flour, for there is a separate healing for that in the per annum, have since averaged about 4,000,000 cwt.; return, and our home growth of mustard seems fully although last year there was a decline of nearly adequate for the supply: it cannot be French 2,000,000 cwt. as compared with the previous year's vinegar-mustard to this amount, and therefore it is imports.
probably adulterated mustard-flour, rated at 5s. the Of Indian corn or maize, the imports may now cwt. against Is. 6d. the cwt. duty on pure mustardbe taken at an average of 1,230,000 quarters per flour. annum unground; and a yearly decreasing quan- Besides the foregoing enumerated articles, we retity of the meal-in 1836, 4,000,000 cwt. Com- | ceived 35,300 cwts. of biscuit and bread in 1856. pared with the enormous imports to supply the The imports of foreign butter continue steadily to Irish famine-wants in 1847 and 1848, the present im- increase, but this supply would go a very small way ports look very insignificant. For bread or human towards buttering the bread eaten by our population, food in any shape Indian cornmeal will, however, never to say nothing of the other culinary uses of butter. make any headway in this country, the colour and Our imports of butter last year amounted to 442,837 Aavour being repugnant to the popular taste, which cwts., and of cheese 394,749 c#ts.; but we managed demands wheaten bread as its mainstay, whatever be to export of these two dairy products 111,008 cwts. of the price. The consumption of maize here is, there-butter, and 28,000 cwt. of cheese ; so that with our fore, chiefly as food for live stock and the manufacture own dairy produce we could do pretty well even indeof starch.
pendent of Dutch butter or American and Dutch cheese. The imports of foreign barley fluctuate considerably, Eggs, however, still form a large and increasing item ranging from only 100,000 qrs. in one year up to nearly of import, and for these there is an enormous home one and three-quarter millions last year. The imports of consumption. An increased supply of ten or twelve barley meal are trivial, amounting to a few tons ; but millions a year of French eggs comes in usefully for it seems strange why the 50 or 60 tons of pearl the necessities of the cook and the manufacturer, there barley could not be made at home. About 1,000 or being a large demand in many trades for eggs, exclusive 2,000 quarters of bere or bigg come in annually. of our food wants. Last year the imports reached 127
Of oats, our average imports of late years have been inillions ! about 1,000,000 quarters, although last year it reached Of beverages, and substances used in making them, 1,710,300 quarters. Of oatmeal, we seem to draw we imported in 1856, 11,500 gallons of beer, and at larger quantities from abroad; the imports averaging duty of £l the barrel of 36 gallons. 1,000,000 grs. Our foreign supplies of rye are very The quantity of foreign hops received varies. In uncertain : in some years we have imported 100,000 1854 we imported 119,040 cwt.; but since the duty has or 200,000 quarters ; in others the supplies are small
, been raised to £2 5s. the cwt. the quantity has declined,
the imports last year being 18,712 cwts. The average | 97,000 bush. of unenumerated fruits. In addition to annual imports of hops the last three years have been these, there were 2,364 casks of dried apples, 32,642 cwt. 19,720 cwt.
of dried plums, small quantities of dried cherries, peers, A fair amount of roasted chicory still comes in, our re- &c., and 56,534 bush. of walnuts; 127,000 bush. of onions ceipts from the continent in 1856 having been 24,000lbs. may perhaps be included in this class. These, with
- very greatly below, however, the large imports in 1853 some vinegar, pickles, and sauces, make up the category
There is an enormous import of carrawayseeds, which bamis, 182,860 cwt. of lard, 955,057 cwt.’of potatoes,
agricultural origin. For instance, last year we shipped There is a large amount of fruit of various kinds re. 435,000 barrels of beer and ale, 110,008 cwt. butter, ceived from the continent and elsewhere, owing to our 28,000 cwt. cheese, 4,821,277 gallons of British spirits, variable climate being less certain and favourable for the and pickles and sauces of the value of £355,496– early production and ripening of many kinds. Thus making up for these few enumerated articles a total depears, apples, and cherries come in in considerable quan- clared value of nearly £3,500,000, besides many others tities. For instance, in 1856, we received 531,291 bush. of smaller gross amounts. Judging from the average of of apples, 22,532 bush. of pears, 17,651 bush. of cher- years, our food exports may be taken at fully £5,000,000 ries, small quantities of medlars, quinces, &c., besides in value.
THE EVIL RESULTS OF OVER-FEEDING CATTLE-A NEW IN
By F. J. GANT.–Churchill.
It is now just about twelve months since that we had proved races. There is hardly such a thing, now, even to call attention to a rather remarkable pamphlet on as old mutton. But Mr. Gant looks at this in a very the meat trade of the metropolis. The author of this, different light, and is by no means willing to join in the Mr. Gamgee, showed that, despite our amended regu- self-gratulation with which we have been greeting lations and improvements, the traffic in diseased flesh each other :was of itself a regular business. He found sick animals openly offered for sale even in the new market at Isling with the short period in which so much fat or filesh had been
“ When I contrasted the enormous bulk of each animal ton; while he traced their carcases to Newgate, Leaden produced, I naturally indulged in a physiological reflection on hall, and other public resorts. Whatever people might the high-pressure work against time which certain vital inthink of it, there was really no mistake about the fac!. ternal organs, as the stomach, liver, beart, and lungs, must The lower classes, most likely, were the chief sufferers. have undergone at a very early age. Now with the best Indeed, Mr. Gamgee's argument went to this. Meat method of rearing cattle, or that which is most couducive to unfit for human food was bought and sold clearly on their health, the medical profession are only indirectly conthe understanding that it was to be had cheap. Per- cerned; but of the dietetic value of animals só reared for food, haps we were all very sorry for “the poor people," and the profession are, or should be, the immediate overseers and
In accordance with this conclusion, Mr. Gant follows