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exhaustion of previously-accumulated nitrogen in the assume, that a portion is locked up in the soil in a pracsoil, to direct condensation by the latter of the nitro- tically-unavailable form--that it passes into states of genous compounds occurring in the atmosphere, to the combination in which it can be drained away, or evapoformation of ammonia or nitric acid within the soil at rated from the soil-or lastly, that in some form or the moment of the evolution by chemical changes of other it is got rid of by the functional processes of the certain elements in the nascent state, to the accumula- growing crop. The actual or relative amounts of the tion of combined nitrogen from the atmosphere by the several influences, science is not yet able to determine." plant itself, or to its assimilation of the free nitrogen of “ It is obvious that, at any rate, some of the apparent the atmosphere-whether, or in what proportion, these loss to immediate increase of the supplied nitrogen will Beveral possible sources may take part in the result, is be due to the unequal distribution of the manure, in reas yet a great problem, open for solution."
lation to the under-ground feeders of the plant. If With regard to the important point, of the propor- this were all, however, the unrecovered nitrogen in a first tion of the nitrogen supplied in tbe manure, which was crop should be sooner or later available to those which recovered in the increase of barley corn and straw ob- follow. But one thing is certain, that, even taking tained by its use, the general result, omitting all refer- together the increase in several immediately succeeding ence to detail, may be very briefly stated. In the after years, the proportion then recovered, of the preexperiments in question, the analyses showed that, even viously unrecovered nitrogen, is very much less than when the nitrogen supplied in manure was the less ex- the proportion of the whole supplied, which is recovered, cessive, scarcely 40 per cent. of it was recovered in the in the year or years of its application. This is even the increase of produce, taking the average result of several cuse when the provision of the necessary mineral conconsecutive years. In some of the individual years, there stituents is very liberal. Indeed, a much less amount was nearly, or even over, 50 per cent. recovered-tbat of nitrogen newly supplied in the form of salts of amis, when the tendency to corn was the highest; in monia or nitrate of soda alone, will give a greater inothers, there was less than 30 per cent. of the supplied crease of produce than the larger amount of supposed nitrogen recovered in the increase of crop obtained. residual nitrogen, with direct mineral manures in ad
“ In thus speaking of the proportion of the supplied dition. It cannot well be supposed, therefore, that the nitrogen recovered in the immediate increase of the amount of the supplied nitrogen unrecovered is simply barley crop, our form of statement must be understood due to its greater distribution, or the exhaustion of as only representing the practical result, as measured mineral constituents, though still remaining, so far as by the difference between the amount of nitrogen in the state of combination is concerned, arailable.” produce with nitrogenous manures, and in that without " As a fact in practical agriculture, it must be conthem. It must be admitted that we have not the means cluded, that the nitrogen supplied in manure for full of deciding whether or not the crop grown by nitre- crops of grain, is not recovered in the increase within genous manure has assimilated the same amount of ni- any moderate period of time. We hope on an early trogen from other sources, as that grown without it. We occasion to add to the statistical results in this and in cannot say, therefore, whether the soil has to render an former papers on other crops, those relating to the proaccount of more or less of nitrogen than that indicated portion of nitrogen recovered in increase, to that supby the column of the amounts unrecovered in ihe increase plied in manure for grass. But even with all the evi.
The proportion unrecovered in the imme- dence which the facts of the field will be able to diate increase is, however, obviously very large. It may provide, the problem will still remain—of the exact be supposed that this at first unrecovered amount is explanations to be given by science, of the loss which still available to after-crops. We may as alternatives is experienced by practice.''
THE USE AND ABUSE
OF ALUM IN BREAD-MAKING.
Every now and then, of late years more especially, death in his dungeon, he swallows every mouthful in we are terrified with some household cry. By some fear and trembling. Most probably there is something means or another we are found to be slowly, perhaps, wrong in it. Only when fur removed from cities does but systematically killing ourselves. We are living over he breathe again. Over the home-made heavy brown sewers; have heavy curtains to our beds; or arsenic- loai of his country cousins can he eat, drink, and be tinted papering to our rooms. We delight to season merry. As he cuts the solid slice from off it, he ejacuour food with condiments that are little less than rank lates mentally, or may-be distinctly enough,“Ah! this poison ; and cling to essences and sauces that, like the is the thing ; there is no alum here I can see." When fox of the Spartan boy, are eating out our vitals. Even Coleridge's taciturn friend greeted the dumplings as the plainest fare is not without its alloy. Water itself “ Them's the jockies for 1!” he had, no doubt, been is declared to be impure; the best meat to be diseased ; ' suffering from an attack on baker's bread. the finest bread “doctored," and the nicest beer But after all, is alum this terrible curse we take it to drugged. It is not only Damocles in Grosvenor-place be ? Are we really justified-as happened ere nowwho sits down to dinner with this drawn sword of dan. on finding its presence in our quartorn loaf, in rushing ger hanging over him. Tradesmen mutually return off to the baker's house, and pulling it, oven and all, the compliment one on the other; while Hodge carves about his ears? Or shall we, more reasonably, be content a crust that, if he did not bake it himself may be as to indict him, and fine him, and ruin him ? Dr. Odling, much tampered with as anchovy paste or London at a recent meeting of the Society of Arts, actually reporter.
quests us to pause ere we do anything of the sort. In Indeed, the sins of the baker are a very old story. a paper he read some fortnight since, on the chemistry There is scarcely a man but who knows too well how of bread-making, he discourses in this wise-He is even the best bread is manufactured-how it comes to speaking of some secondary varieties :-“But these look so white, and so fine, and so “ crummy." Like flours, in proportion to their glucogenic tendencies, do the stato prisoner, who believes his doom is a secret not make good bread, and it becomes an object with the baker to oppose the glucogenesis as much as possi. | the introduction of alum into food. With salt it ble. Hence, in making bread from certain kinds of was very different. They might be told that the flour, he finds it necessary to add alum, or lime, or chemical effects of alum on the animal system bean-meal, or some corrective substance which, from were not extraordinary, but there were chemical experience, he knows will cause the flour to yield a effects to be considered." Dr. Normanby, Mr. Varley, loaf presentable to the eye and agreeable to the Mr. Johnstone, and Mr. Malone also spoke to the palate.”
injury arising from the constant use of alum. But Dr. This has long been the popular, and, as it would ap- Gilbert “suspected the truth lay somewhere between pear, not erroneous opinion. It receives more confir- the two extremes. He was not disposed to think that mation a little further on:-“ One very important use alum could be, with advantage to the consumer, added of alum is to prevent any undue deterioration of the to really good flour, for the purpose of bread-making. starch during the process of raising and baking. If we On a large class of constitutions he thought there was mix a solution of starch with infusion of malt, in the medical testimony enough to show that alum, or course of a few minutes only the starch can be no alumina, in bread acted injuriously. With such it longer detected, being completely converted into dex- | induced constipation, and this was a fruitful source of trine and sugar; but the addition of a very small quan- more serious disease. On the other hand, it was to be tity of alum either prevents altogether, or greatly remembered, that owing to the seasons, which we could retards, the transformation. The action of diastase not control, a considerable portion of the flour, which upon undissolved starch is very gradual, but here also must be consumed by somebody, was not in a perfect the interference of the alum is easily recognizable. condition to yield a bread of good texture and Bread made with infusion of bran or infusion of malt is other requisite characters without the aid of some very sweet, sodden, brown.coloured, and so sticky as extraneous matter; and if the bread were not of almost to bind the jaws together during its mastication. suitable texture and condition, its digestion would be But the addition of alum to the dough causes the loaves imperfect, and if digestion, then assimilation also. to be white, dry, elastic, crumbly, and unobjectionable, The question was then, so far as related to alum, both as to taste and appearance. I have found that whether or not the benefits which it undoubtedly proflour, which of itself was so glucogenic as to yield bread duced, so far as the physical and some other characters undistinguishable from that made with infusion of malt, of the bread were concerned, were greater or less than could, by the addition of alum, be made to furnish a the evils he believed it in many cases induced. The white, dry, crumbly, eatable loaf.”
subject required much careful consideration; and if a The testimony of Liebig and Payen are both quoted substance or method that would have the same effects to warrant the use of alum; and Dr. Odling thus sums in retarding the chemical changes to be avoided in up in favour of the practice :-" In the absence of any flour and bread, and which at the same time was unevidence, either from fair inference or direct observa- doubtedly innocuous, could be generally adopted, few tion, that the introduction of small quantities of alum would then uphold the use of alum. The suggestion into bread is prejudicial to health, it seems that the of Dr. Odling to use lime-water, as recommended by practice is not so reprehensible as is usually maintained. Baron Liebig, was deserving the serious attention both It certainly improves greatly the quality of bread made of bakers and medical men.” Mr. Dugald Campbell from inferior flour, and, in a politico-economical point went more decidedly with the baker, and was “preof view, is important, inasmuch as it renders a large pared to say that such a quantity of alumn as would do en quantity of flour suitable for human food in the form injury would render the bread unsaleable." And Mr. of bread, which flour would otherwise have to be de-Callard, himself a baker, confirmed this :-“Dr. Snow voted to less important uses."
had mentioned a quantity of alum as having been found Still the doctor had it by no means all his own way.
in bread that he (Mr. Callard) could not suppose to be He rather takes it for granted that we really know of possible. Such bread could not possibly be eaten." no ill effects arising from the use of alum. Dr. Snow, We regard the points of this discussion as not withon the contrary, "had many years ago come to the out interest, and we present them accordingly to our conclusion that the practice of putting alum into readers. The conclusion would seem to be that the bread was a fruitful source of rickets amongst children. evil has been greatly over-rated. It is very certain It appeared to him that rickets were more prevalent that some of the much-noised alum discoveries have amonget children in London and the south of England been made upon tests anything but reliable. Dr. than was the case in the North or in Wales, where the Odling characterized the means often employed as a children were just as overcrowded and as deficiently disgrace to chemistry, and in showing up “ the loose supplied with milk as in London. He believed that speculation,” and “groundless defamation" of gentlefor grown people the admixture of a little alum was gasping for notoriety,” had throughout the best not very injurious, though for children it was so." of the argument. Still the use of alum in any degree
Then again, Mr. Pittard, “ And many other medical is but at present a necessary evil. Mr. Callard, the practitioners had a settled belief that alum in bread was baker, in admitting it was extensively used, said the injurious to mankind. Sickly children had been found trade would be glad if scientific men could point to to improve marvellously upon baked flour, whilst they some less objectionable substance, and the public will pined away upon soaked bread. The chemists spoke readily echo this request. We gather from what we slightingly of the medical men because they did not heard, that on the whole the common opinion as to pretend to know the chemistry of the question, and said alum is a very correct one. It is injurious, and is that they were ignorant that ihe alum was decomposed mostly to be found in the best-looking bread. Dr. in the making of bread. Even if that were so, it did
Snow has detected much less in the bread supplied to not prove that the alum was rendered innocuous; if the lower classes, though he had expected that what alum was resolved into alumina and sulphuric acid, he were called cheap bakers used more than those who did not know whether alumina might not be injurious supplied May-fair, but such was not in reality the in the body. It was a fact worthy of note that, although alumina was one of the most plentiful substances It is a question, then, that concerns us all, and one on the earth, yet it did not ter int he compo- that we trust such men as Dr. Gilbert and Dr. Odling sition of any organic bodies whatever, whether have as yet by no means done with, They may “reform animal or vegetable. This alone was reason against it altogether.”
THE MANAGEMENT OF FARM HORSES. It is not my intention to enter into any lengthened Feeding and Food.—The common every-day expedisquisition upon the management of farm horses ; but, rience of farmers has, I think, decided the point as to in accordance with my usual limits, I shall confine my feeding. Every one adopts the system of mangerself to the simplest part of the question-their every feeding, and almost universally by means of chaff and day management whilst pursuing their regular work. corn, followed by rack-meat consisting either of clover
I will first notice the Stable or Shelter. Upon this or mcadow-hay. The horse will, of course, more point great difference of opinion exists amongst the best readily supply himself from partially-prepared food than practical farmers. Unquestionably, if a borse is kept otherwise. Hence cut chaff is so desirable, as also in a warm stable, he consumes less food; but then he split beans or bruised oats, and the like; for they have is more liable to colds, and subsequent inflammations, in this state the double advantage of requiring less from exposure to the variations and inclemencies of the mastication, whilst at the same time the animal derives weather in this fickle climate of ours : whereas, by being the greater nourishment. I need not say that oats fed in a comfortable stable or shed, and having the run and beans have long stood prominent as the best corn. of a warm well-sheltered yard, he is kept in a more food for horses ; and although many deviations have hardy state throughout the winter or cold weather ; and occasionally been followed by practical men, they inin summer, the cool grass-field or the shaded yard is far variably come back to the simple food of bay and corn. more healthy after a heated day's work, and of course It is true that recently we have bad various compounds much to be preferred to the hot, close stable, however brought before us ; and, by an unlimited process of pufffreely ventilated it may be from above, as the exposure ing, much is brought into consumption as food for horses. to draughts of air from below ought most certainly to I am inclined to believe that these mixtures are good, be avoided.
but they are abominably expensive, being chiefly made On farms having a deficiency of grass-lands, I should from the meal of oats, beans, peas, barley, and Indian advocate the turning of the cart-horses, after their corn, largely mixed with the locust bean, dried and powday's work, during the hot months of summer, into a dered, and sold at a price far above its original value. cool paddock, there to be supplied with artificial The usual allowance of corn for a farm-horse in regular grasses, after their usual feeding. The great aim should work is generally in the proportion of one-and-a-half be to keep them in an equable, healthy state ; and the bushels of oats to two pecks of beans per week, which is best judgment of the farmer will be constantly required, ample, given with wheat, chaff, or finely cut hay and to provide such food and shelter at the return of the straw. My own practice is to grow for them a suffi. various seasons as tend best to secure such a desirable cient quantity of oats; and I give them an almost uneod.
limited allowance of chaff, cut from oat sheaves by The most important part of the subject is the Feeding Cornes' machine. I am not prepared to say it is the and Food of the Farm Horses in the different seasons of most economical course, but I do think it one of the the year. Farmers perhaps err more upon this point most healthy systems pursued, aided by a small supply than any other, and in a great degree from their in- of clover hay at night during the winter, and in the ability, on many farms, to control ignorant or bead early spring by a few mangold roots, or Swedish turnips, strong farm-servants, to whom much of the produce of or carrots, daily. In the summer the same feeding of the farm is frequently open, the waste of food and the chaff is given; and they are either turned out to be irregularity of management often trying the temper of grazed in the grass fields at night, or are supplied with the most hearty and good-natured master. Before pro. artificial grasses in the fold-yard. Their general maceeding, I give the following extract. Spooner says : nagement should consist of careful grooming. Great “ The stomach of the horse is comparatively small, inattention is given to this point almost universally ; holding about three gallons; wbilst the ox possesses no anything will do for a cart-horse, if he is only ready for less than four stomachs, the first of which is consi- the morning's work ; and galled shoulders, cracked heels, derably larger than that of the horse. This difference contracted feet, with divers other sores and ailments, are shows-wbat, indeed, the babits of these animals also the result. Their stables and hovels should always have demonstrate-that whilst, on the one band, the ox is a plentiful supply of litter in the winter; and I think constituted so as to consume a very large quantity of they should have a cool yard, paddock, or grass field food at a meal, the horse, on the other, is adapted to for the summer. Their food should be supplied to them consume a moderate quantity, and often. If such at long intervals, i. e., a good feeding, as above, should mass of food as is often found in the maw of the ox, be given in the early morning, a slight refreshment at were contained in the stomach of the horse, it would be - either by a nose-bag or a return to the stable, if impossible for this animal to perform those severe exer. near-and a prolonged feeding in the evening. All tions whieh are frequently expected from him, from the heating or injurious food must be avoided, or very loaded stomach pressing against the diaphragm—the sparingly given-as tailing wheat, barley, bran, &c. The muscle of respiration-which would materially interfere artificial grasses should not be given to them in a fresh with its action. It should also be borne in mind that state. Tares ought to be mown some hours beforehand, the progress of chymnification is accomplished by one- as also should lucerne and sainfoin, both most excellent half of the stomach only, thus affording an additional grasses for horse-fodder. If given in their fresh state, reason why a large mass of food cinnot be conveniently they should be passed through the cutting-box with good taken by the horse at one time.' This extract contains oat, or wheat, or barley-straw as a corrective. the true principles upon which the feeding of the farm. I shall now only notice one other important part of horses ought to be regulated. It is manifest that it the subject—it is the mode and time of working cartshould consist for the most part of " concentrated food, horses. It is highly important that the horse should be such as grain ;" and hay, straw, and roots may be sup- in as close contact with his work possible; the nearer plied to the horse occasionally, but they are not his the work, the easier will be perform it. It is most renatural food,
prehensible to see, as we sometimes do, three, four, or
even five horses yoked in length to a common plough. jecting the horse to the drudgery of work, a correspondIt is infinitely preferable, where it can be adopted, to ing regimen becomes requisite. Nature clothes every work them in pairs, or abreast; mine are frequently animal according to the climate, and its natural requireworked four-abreast, in various fallow work; most soils ments; and I am persuaded that when a horse is every can be ploughed with two good horses abreast. The night exposed to cold, that he becomes clothed with a gearing should be light and simple, and the practice of greater quantity of hair, and consequently more liable driving at plough should be got rid of generally; a pair to perspire when at work. I have also proved that by of horses, guided by either a single or double line, is quite keeping horses constantly tied up in such a stable as I sufficient. The question of one-horse carts versus wag. have described, that both accidents from each other, and gons-of varieties in ploughs, scarifiers, harrows, and diseases, are much less frequent, and particularly accirollers - will very properly come into consideration in the dents, when new and strange horses are introduced economical working of cart-horses ; but I cannot stay to amongst them. The other point to which I would discuss it now, and shall merely notice the time of allude, is the system of going one yoking a day, a working. It is customary in many parts of the kingdom system which I very much disapprove, considerfor the horses to be out at dawn during the winter ing it to be quite inconsistent with justice to the months, and at six o'clock in the summer, to return at animals. The circumstances which I believe have two o'clock, for the day's work. This is good; but it given rise to, and still tend to support the custom, is often attended with inconvenience in many seasons. are inconveniently placed buildings, the unsuitable In fallow-time, it is requisite that the turnip-sowing distance of labourers' cottages generally from their and manuring, &c., should go on simultaneously. In work, and the supposed saving of time, in not ungoking these months they should be rested at noon, and then and yoking in the middle of the day. Now under the exworked till five or six o'clock, as required. Many isting state of things, much of this reasoning may be prefer two yokings generally : this is a great loss of time quite plausible ; but there is no reason why such things on many farms, where the farmstead is distant. I should exist. I consider it as unnatural an act as one cannot say I experience much loss or inconvenience can be guilty of to take out horses at six o'clock in the from pursuing the practice of only one rather long morning and work them until two o'clock without yoking of nearly eight hours, in summer, with a slight tasting food as many do; but the truth is they do not rest at noon, and a mouthful or two of grass or clover, work, and the fact is, they cannot work constantly all and in the winter a yoking of seven hours, without that time, but when at plough, &c., stand at the ends food; but I do not recommend it. Great care should at least one-third of their time. When horses are kept be taken that the horses, when in work, should not be constantly going—as when in harness they always ought allowed to stand too long exposed to cold or biting to be there is less chance of their taking colds or being winds. Most of the inflammatory diseases take their exposed to inflammations. The men will tell you that rise from such exposure. They should be steadily they plough an acre a day (which, however, they seldom worked, and from their work be brought at once to the do), and that's enough, and that they cannot do more stable, and their feeding and grooming at once proceeded by two yokings; but I know that however much is to with.
PRACTICAL FARMER. be done by one yoking, more is to be done by two, with
greater ease to the horses. Upon some lands from halfan-acre to three-quarters will be a good day's work, whereas upon others an acre and-a-half can be done
with comfort. Men have just to consult their own THE MANAGEMENT OF FARM HORSES. feelings in order to judge of those of horses, and knox
whether more work is to be done in one yoking of 3
hours, without refreshment, or by working 9 or 95 Sir,- In the very excellent article which appeared in hours divided into two yokings, by 2 hours to feed and your last week's paper upon the above subject, by a rest in the middle. Some will urge the loss of time
Practical Farmer," there are one or two points which going to and fro, yoking, and unyoking, &c. I am I can hardly agree with, although I am aware that they quite aware that there is much more time spent thus are customs generally tolerated in this country, and will than is required, simply on account of the unwillingness be approved by many. The first point to which I will of the men to fall in with the two-yoking system ; with allude, is “the stable or shelter." Your correspon activity very little time need be wasted in harnessing dent seems to approve of the plan of turning the and yoking horses. Your correspondent very justly horses out into a yard after being fed in the stable. remarks that two yokings are also much more conNow, with the unsatisfactory state of many of our farm venient, the afternoon being frequently the best time to buildings, this may be the more preferable of two evils; harrow for the destruction of weeds, &c. The stomach for I am quite convinced that nothing could be worse of the horse, he also truly says, is small, and unfitted than to keep horses tied up all night in a low, close- for being overcharged with large quantities of food, at roofed stable, yet exposed to sbarp draughts of air from long intervals ; and here again the propriety of the twodefective weather-boarding, no divided from one yoking system. I have now only to add another reanother by stalls, and standing perhaps upon a whole mark, and one of considerable importance. It is thisweek's accumulation of their own muck; but when we that " custom is second nature ;” and whether, with find a high, well-ventilated, brick or stone-built stable regard to the question of “ stable and shelter," or partitioned off into proper stalls for each horse (which
that of "
one or two yokings,” custom will do a great not only tend to prevent draughts, but to prevent the deal; for we have often observed that by altering the animals from kicking or disturbing each other), with the usual routine of treatment to which animals are accusfloor properly formed, with a gutter behind the lorses, tomed they will for a time suffer from the effects of and the manure regularly cleared out every morning, I the alteration, however advantageous it may afterwards think there can be no question of this being preferable prove, so much are we all creatures of custom, and to turning out into a yard, in the winter season, horses particularly the lower animals, which are destitute of that have been heated to perspiration during the day. I reasoning faculties. There cannot be a question, neverI am aware that as much liberty as possible is natural, theless, that however much custom may reconcile to any and congenial to the disposition of every animal; but particular plan, that can be no proof of the superiority when we transgress the inclinations of nature, by sub- of the plan itself. Trial and observation have induced
TO THE EDITOR OF THE MARK LANE EXPRESS.
me to arrive at the conclusions I have now set forth. themselves upon the subject, and whom you may be My desire is to avoid being influenced by prejudice on pleased to favour with a place in the columns of your any subject, I shall therefore read with attention the valuable paper.
Your obedient servant, views of any gentlemen who may choose to express
HOW TO MAKE THE MOST OF A HORSE. It is true that Mr. Smith, of Woolston, is gradually
“I am often assured, when talking of shoeing, that it is quite getting rid of his cart-horses, and as certainly inocula- | impossible to persuade country smiths to listen for a moment ting his brethren with a mania for steam cultivation. to any new suggestion, or to adopt any new plan; that they Mr. Fowler again declares his share of the good work are an obstinate prejudiced race, and nothing can induce them done, and only cements a union with Mr. Williams, of to relinquish any of their old notions. I can only say, in reply, Baydon, to render the process yet more perfect. We that this does not at all accord with my experience of them as
a class; on the contrary, I have found them, for the most part, are, in a word, to ploughby steam as surely as we thrash or travel by it. Nevertheless the horse is going in their work, and anxious to do it as well as they could. I
to be hardworking, painstaking inen, evincing great interest by no means out of fashion.
Good grooms and able do not mean to say that there are no exceptions, because I veterinarians find places and practices as readily as kpowthere are; but the exceptions do not disprove the rule. over they did. There is, indeed, just now a strong I have been sometimes surprised at the readiness with proof of the increasing value of horse-flesh to be seen which smiths have yielded their opinion to me, as soon as they in the sights of London. A young American is taking found that I really knew what I was talking about, and that I ten guineas a-piece from four or five hundred gentle- could not only give them directions, but show them exactly men to teach them how to treat their horses properly the brawny arm which is necessary for such a purpose, that I
how to carry them out in detail, and, if I had only possessed and rationally. He numbers, moreover, in his list, not could have forged the shoe and fitted it to the foot. They all merely princes, lords, and cavalry officers. The agricul, feel that horseshoeing is open to improvement, and as a class turists have even given in their adhesion to him, and they are anxious for information that they can depend on, but Allen Ransome, and his neighbour Barthropp, are they are naturally very shy of relinquishing plans which they going to school again-to learn how to deal with a clever have been long accustomed to, for others which they do not hack or a mighty Suffolk.
comprehend; but any gentleman who will take the trouble to But if there were further proof wanting of how which I advocate, will very soon become a welcome visitor at
acquaint himself with the principle and details of the plan much agriculture still respects the horse, we may go the forge,and while he is improving the condition of his own direct to head-quarters for it. By far the most popular horses' feet, he will find that he is indoctrinating the whole paper in the last number of the Society's journal is district, to the great benefit of his neighbours.” devoted to his interests. There has been no article so much quoted, and none we should think so much
Of course a man must be prepared to encounter some studied for a long time, as Mr. Miles's Essay on Horse- prejudice and leaning to conventional usage. Look, shoeing. It is, moreover, a very model of what such a for instance, at the very first point in this delicate operatreatise in such a place should be. It is well known wrenched off'; as bad a practice as well can be. The
tion -- the knowing way in which the shoe is at onco that half the contributions to the Journal are never read, simply because they are too long to read. The finish, however, in Mr. Miles' eyes is a yet greater
offence :facility with which many writers can cover an almost unlimited number of pages is ever fatal to their suc- "I shall, no doubt, astonish some persons when I assert that
Mr. Miles then starts under favourable auspices. nearly all the evils incident to horse-shoeing are attributable to The most occasional of readers will not tire of him, the affectation and dandyism of the smith, who is not contented and the most careless must learn something from what to follow a necessary and useful art, simple in its mechanical
parts, but calling for the exercise of some judgment in its ap
plication ; but he must import into it dangerous difficulties and There has been no such difficulty as the horse's foot. mischievous ornament; for instance, he assumes that a deep Our own tight boots and throbbing corns sink to nothing narrow fuller, with small nail-holes inclining inwards, and still in the comparison. Old Bowler, with a heart like a smaller openings on the foot surface of the shoe, present a lion, takes another tug at a dead stand, and goes glo- ueat, trim appearance, and show that he is master of his art ; riously away with his load - only pulling three of his knowing full well that nothing but long practice could enable shoes off in the effort. The phaeton, wanted in a hurry any one to navigate a nail safely through a channel beset by so of course, to take the master to the train or the missis many dangers ; but he entirely overlooks the fact that the to tea, is brought round by a cripple--that has been and risk attending the performance. Again, he imagines that
power to do so has nothing to recommend it but the danger just pinched in shoeing. And when our friend does a hoof carefully rasped all over imparts an air of finish to his manage to get his day with the hounds, he lands the work, of which he feels proud, forgetting altogether that he has young horse in a new road to a warping cry of “You've removed a most important covering from the hoof, for which lost a fore-shoe !” Man meets with many a contrivance no amount of ornamental finish can compensate.” to lessen his own ills. He has better fitting, softer
We shall not attempt to follow out the detail of Mr. leather, and more general attention. But what atten- Miles' system, the advantages of which are, that his tion does he give to the fit of his horse ? Is there one in horses are never lame, rarely throw their shoes, while a hundred who does more than curse the smith, and their feet appear to last for ever. His golden rule, change one blunderer for another ? We may have a however, is that the shoe must be made to fit the foot, fancy for a certain sort of bridle, or be particular as to and not, as is too often the case, the foot cut out to the sit of saddle, and give our own orders accordingly. the shape of the shoe. Further, the shoe " must But the shoe is left all to the mercy of the village Vul. be nailed to the hoof in such a can; probably because of its especial importance, and will permit the foot to expand to the weight the force of the truism “no foot no horse."
of the horse; this latterс ondition will be best comLet us start here. We have all in our day had to com- plied with by placing three nails in the outer limb plain of these blundering blacksmiths. Mr. Miles says : 1 of the shoe, and two in the inner limb between the toe