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MR. SAMUEL JONAS. There are few better representatives of his order, or on a grand field-day in Hanover-square, there is than Mr. Sam. Jonas, of Ickleton. A shrewd no farmer speaks up for his fellows with more judge and a spirited man of business, with every effect than Mr. Jonas. He occupies no ambiguous ability to carry out his intentions, he brings the position, but is thoroughly identified with those he character of the British farmer quite up to the professes to feel for. 'And so when he says, the standard of our own times. With something of farmers "must have this,” or “they wont have the old school in his bearing and appearance, there that,” the Council know it is no idle boast or vain is no one more alive to the advancement and im- prayer they are now hearing of. provement the art of agriculture must achieve. It Mr. Jonas – like his relative Mr. Jonas Webbis, indeed, from the experience of such men that is a native of Suffolk. He was born at Great we gather the only reliable test of the progress we Thurlow, in that county, on the 27th of September, are making. Theorists may write, and amateurs 1802, so that he is now in the fifty-sixth year of his may talk, but it is the practical man who works. age. It is, however, with the county of Cambridge He flourishes or falls with the pursuit ; and makes that, until very recently, he has been more identiit bis first duty to see what he can adopt and what fied, having farmed for a number of years at he shall avoid. The farmer shuts himself up no Ickleton. His doings even as a public inan are all longer in his own home and to his own prejudices. more or less associated with this district. He On the contrary, you find him all the world over ; wrote, for instance, the Prize Essay on the farming a farmer still, learning and sifting out all he can of Cambridgeshire, for the “ Journal of the Royal for the advantage of his profession.

Agricultural Society"- the farming of his own “Sam Jones," as he is familiarly termed, is one county, as it was then called. This paper was an of these—known all the world over. You see him especial favourite with the late Mr. Pusey, the then at all our great meetings, bustling about either as Editor of the Journal, and often cited by bim as one in authority, or in some other way quite as an example of what such an essay should be. much interested in what is going on. It is not for More in connection—at least by its boundaries himself alone either that he is speaking or working. with his present residence, Mr. Jonas was instruOn many an occasion ere this he has been one of mental in forming the Saffron Walden Agricultural the best champions of his class. There is moreover Society, of which it is almost needless to add he is an independence of action and earnestness of pur- a zealous supporter. His sideboard gives evipose in what he does that is always sure to tell. dence with what success as an exhibitor. Whether it be at a local meeting in his own county,

Of the great national Society of the kingdom he OLD SERIES.)

CC

[VOL. XLVIII.--No. 5.

has been almost from the first a prominent mem- the Royal Farmers' Insurance Institution; and is, ber. His name has been on the Council for no less in fact, ever ready to take his part in promoting than eighteen years, while he has been actively the interests and watching over the welfare of his employed as a member of the sub, or really work- brother farmers. ing committees. His services have not even ended Mr. Jonas has left Ickleton, and is now occupy. here, as he has officiated as steward of the cattle- ing about three thousand acres of land at Chrishall yard at five of the great annual meetings. His Grange, near Saffron Walden, in Essex. The knowledge of his subject, unwearied activity, and largest portion of this extensive holding, when first business-like tact have more than usually well engaged on by him, was in as exhausted and as qualified him for such an appointment.

foul a state as it was possible to imagine. It was Some years since he was equally distinguished truly uphill work. His proverbial energy and deas a leading man at the meetings of the Protection termination have, however, brought it round; and Society-a cause of which he was a most energetic we believe we are justified in saying that, for the and determined supporter. He wrote a good deal spirited manner in which be cultivates bis land, at the time, in maintenance of the principles he so and the large sums he expends in food for stock warmly advocated and so conscientiously believed and artificial manures, Mr. Jonas ranks worthily in. Although he fought a losing battle, he retains with Mr. Hudson of Castle Acre, and other such the friendship of many good men he here first eminent English farmers. became acquainted with. They saw and appre- We usher him accordingly into their company; ciated how thoroughly he was in earnest.

where his friend Mr. Webb first “sat” at our reMr. Jonas has been for some years a Director of quest, now some years since.

PLATE II.

VICTORIA, A SHORT-HORN Cow;

THE PROPERTY OF LIEUT.-COLONEL TOWNELEY, OF TOWNELEY PARK, BURNLEY.

Victoria, a red roan cow, bred by Colonel all the cows at the Birmingham Fat Cattle Exhibie Towneley, calved October 30, 1853 ; got by Valiant tion. The next week she was again declared the (10989), dam (Jenny Lind) by Bem (8831), g. d. first prize and GOLD MEDAL cow at the Smithfield (Ruby) by Selim (8545), gr. g. d. (Lady) by the Club. Never before this has any one animal been Earl of Aylsford (6155), gr. gr. g. d. (Lily) by Sir so highly honoured. Robert (5178), gr. gr. gr. g. d. bought at the Earl Victoria is really a splendid cow-of most magni. of Aylsford's sale.

ficent proportions, perfect symmetry, and admirable Victoria ranks amongst the most famous of prize quality. Her head is neat, breadth great, and her animals. She has already taken no less than fifteen chine, chest, and fore-quarter wonderful—as, infirst prizes, at meetings of the Royal Agricultural deed, is she good all through. She had fed, Society of England, of the Yorkshire Society, the moreover, most evenly, and was an extraordinary Midland Counties Society, the Smithfield Club, and specimen of what a fat beaet should be. Victoria, others of more local repute, At the Chelmsford however, was not destined for the butcher, but remeeting of the Royal Society, in 1856, she was turned after her last triumph at the Smithfield Club awarded the first prize as the best heifer in-calf, to Towneley Park. She was even said to be in which she produced in the September following. calf when exhibited -a declaration that, it will be reAt the Salisbury show, in 1857, she was awarded membered, caused some talk at the time. Victoria's the first prize as the best cow. In the December praises should be sung over the “ Herd Book," of the same year she took the first prize as the best and not in Mr. Jeffries' window. of her breed, and the GOLD MEDAL as the best of

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The farming of the valley of the Wandle river himself on this marme soil. He will first see partakes rather too much of the character of the around him extensive fields of lavender and other other suburban districts. The high prices paid in scented oil-producing plants; and leaving them, he the metropolis for certain roots and household will enter upon the marme farms, held by consivegetables, and the ready access to almost inexhaus- derable and enterprising holders. He will find tible supplies of organic manure, enable most of here the ordinary powerful Kentish turnwrest the holders of the land near London to cultivate plough chiefly employed; and if he has not been their ground in defiance of all rotations, regardless used to see it in operation, he will hardly fail to of almost any other object than that of the highest-note how much better it does its work than its first priced produce. The farming of the Wandle appearance would lead the stranger to anticipate. valley is not an exception to this rule. From its It was on these lands that, in the past month commencement at Croydon till it terminates at of April, I found the powerful steam-ploughs of Wandsworth, the banks of this bright chalk Mr. Fowler. They were at work on a sainfoin stream are hardly ever more than ten iniles from field of the hazel loam to which I have before alWestminster Bridge; the influence of London luded. Around these were assembled a group of upon the lands around it is therefore evident at intelligent farmers, with Garrett of Leiston, and every footstep we advance along all the rich vale other zealous and scientific implement makers. through which it flows towards the Thames. Here I had the pleasure of again noting the ex

Still there are some things to be noted even here, cellent work which these steam-ploughs accomworthy of the attention of the farmers of other dis- plished, the evenness and depth of the furrows, tricts of our island. The very geological situation and the uninterrupted steadiness with which the of the valley is worthy of notice. The Wandle, in machinery accoinplished its allotted task. fact, traverses pretty closely, for a considerable por- Few spots could have been better chosen for such tion of its course, the line which marks the division trials than this field at Woodcote; the soil being of the London and the plastic clays, from the great of an even texture ; the field level and extensive, southern chalk formation. As the traveller de- and not altogether devoid of historical recollections, scends the valley from Croydon, he will find the which might serve to cheer on the skilful modern clay hills of the London basin sloping down to implement maker in his difficult task; since, only a the northern bank of the river, and the chalk hills few fields off, in the same hamlet of Woodcote, is bounding his view, and forming the soils of the found the site of the old British, and afterwards south side of the stream. From the base of these Roman Noviomagus, where it is pretty certain rude considerable chalk hills issue forth the copious old British, and Roman ploughs once merely bright springs which form the Wandle river; and roughly-stirred the surface of the ill-cultivated land, on their northern slopes rest the calcareous loam and where the ploughman could not venture forth soils, known in Surrey as “the marme lands”- to his miserably-executed task without an armed soils long since correctly described by Stevenson attendant to protect him and his team from the as deep hazel loams resting on the chalk, and robber. Strange advances these, from the old varying in depth with the elevation : very deep at wooden plough then employed, made by the the base of the hills, and thinning off to three or ploughman's own hands, and dragged slowly four inches in ascending to the Downs. When through the soil by half-a-dozen ill-fed horses or deep, there is no drawback to their fertility. When oxen, to the ploughs of the turnwrest, and of Ranshallow, pale, and inclining to clay they are consi- some, and Howard, and Fowler ! dered to form backward soils in the spring. They Of the steam plough, I am well-disposed to are described by Mr. Trimmer as forming a narrow speak hopefully. Much has already been done band extending on the north-side of the chalk hills with it: practice and experience will in time asfrom Croydon to Guildford (Jour. Roy. Ag. Soc., suredly do far more to render it practically availvol. xii., p. 488).

able; and this remark may apply not only to the If the farmer, in his way, during the month of plough dragged through the soil by portable May, from London to “The Derby," alights for an engines, but to the too-much-neglected digging hour or two at the Carshalton station, he will find machines, which have been hitherto only partially successful. The existing general feeling of the considerable difference in favour of horse-work. farmers of Surrey, with regard to the steam And if this be true as a comparison, merely taking plough, is much the same as those which have acre for acre, or hour for hour, every one who been pretty well described by Mr. C. W. Hoskyns, knows the supreme value of time in the autumn in his report upon the implements of the Salisbury months on clay soils, and the difference, in capacity Meeting, where he observes (Jour. Roy. Ag. Soc., of day-work, between a horse and a steam-engine, vol. xviii., p. 424): “It is remarkable, and may be must be aware that a new multiplier at least of 2, accounted for by those who can best explain the if not more, may be placed to the credit of the alternations of public feeling and opinion, that at steam-engine, regarded as an available power or Chelmsford, the year before, the one expression auxiliary when work is pressing, and when, acheard on every side was, in various modes of ex- cording to a well-known poetical authority, the best, clamation, to the effect that' at last the problem of or rather only method to lengthen the shortening steam-culture was solved !' while at Salisbury, days, is to steal a few hours from night."" where the preparations for this new class of trials On the right-hand side of the road leading were on a scale far larger, and twice the number of through Woodcote to Banstead, the traveller will competitors were actually on the field (several more pass “ The Oaks," once the beautiful hunting seat having been entered), the general expression was of the Derby family, the early and powerful supquite the other way. Not that the interest shown, porters of the races at Epsom, whose former poweror the concourse of spectators, was less; but a ful influence there is still known throughout the feeling the opposite of anything like sanguine ex- land in the “ Derby" and the “ Oaks." About pectation, or the prospect of realized results, a quarter of a mile beyond this seat commences the seemed to have gained ground during the lapse of yet unenclosed portion of Banstead Downs, which the twelvemonth. Whether it was that there had a few generations only since extended from Epsom been time to reflect that, after all, there was no- Downs to Croydon; and to the pedestrian or the thing really new in ploughing by steam, except equestrian traveller on his road to Epsom, I comperhaps in the subordinate ingenuity of improved mend the open down to the right of the road as one details in connecting the implement with the engine, of the most picturesque routes he can select. He or in turning at the headlands, or whether simply will see here the farming of the most thin-skinned because the novelty of the thing as matter of com- chalk soils, intermixed here and there with fields of petitive trial had lost its first freshness, the eager stiffer soil, and of the diluvian alluded to by Mr. expressions of expectation heard before had sub- - H. Evershed in his prize report on the Farming sided into a tone and attitude of mere criticizing of Surrey (Jour. Roy. Ag. Soc., vol. xiv., p. 395); interest, somewhat difficult indeed either to accom-and, during nearly the whole distance between modate, or, in the language of the police, to keep * The Oaks” and Epsom Downs, the explorer will back, so that the ploughs, and workmen attending traverse an elevated ridge commanding the finest the machinery, might have room to act, but far views of the valleys of the Wandle and the Thames, from exhibiting the ready and impulsive conviction backed by the distant hills of Middlesex and Buckof a thing accomplished, that had been noticed the inghamshire. year before.

As is remarked by Mr. Evershed, in many in“Of the actual trials themselves, at Salisbury, to stances the natural herbage which clothes the sides say much is impossible. Such a soil, on such a of the chalk ridge, producing alike an imposing situation, liardened to such a condition not only by prospect and very useful sheep pasturage, has been its own flinty nature, but by the long-continued broken up and brought under tillage ; but the influence of one of the most extraordinary seasons change has seldom produced satisfactory results, that has ever been known, were enough to render the unlevel position of the ground opposing a naany trial practically abortive. But no one who tural barrier to its cultivation, while the scantiness saw the work performed, even under these adverse of the produce forms a very insufficient return for circumstances, by Mr. Fowler's plough, could the necessary outlay. Under these circumstances doubt that, in his case at least (not to the least the Downs of Surrey will probably long remain disparagement of the other competitors), steam- one of the most prominent features of a very beauploughing, as such, had attained a degree of excel- tiful locality. The size of the farms in this district lence comparable in point of execution even with varies from 200 to 600 acres, the average being the best horse-work. As to the relative economy, about 300 — the rental averaging about one pound there seems little reason to doubt that the calcula- per acre. The course of cropping as we recede tions arrived at by Mr. Amos and others the year from London is commonly the four or five-shift, before, at the adjourned trial at Boxted Lodge, viz.: 1. Turnips; 2. Barley; 3. Seeds; 4. Wheat, were sufficiently near the truth to leave a very in or 5. Oats. Sainfoin is extensively grown on the

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