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of evaporation to escape. In the neighbourhood of a

£. £. d factory wbole fields may be seen covered with clamps, One ton of roots will produce 11cwt. sogar, brown, the reserve stock of the manufacturers.

There are
worth, duty included ...

3 100 many sorts of betteraves, but the two sorts in general

And also cwt. molasses, worth

0 2 0 growth are the white Silesian, and a variety of the Sile

And 2) cwt. of refuse for the farmer, worth... 0 1 8

And 17 cwt. of juice. sian with a red skin and white interior. It exhausts the land more than potatoes; but though sold off the farm

£3 13 8 it has the good quality of returning to it as much ma. nure, perhaps, as if wholly consumed on it (indeed the

The duty here is two-pence per lb., and it is usually latter would be impossible, as in its raw state it is a

sold at 6d. (not now), which is considered a profitable

price. dreadful scourer), as all the refuse after pressing-that is the farinaceous part of the root-is eagerly bought is fair to suppose we can in sugar, if we please;. We

We undersell the French in most manufactures ; so it by the farmer at from 8s. 4d. to 13s. per ton for his fattening bullocks, cows, and sheep; to the first named shackled, whether it was sugar or tobacco we wished to

were told we were to have free trade, to be totally unhe gives 100 lbs. weight per day. Now, as we know a bullock will eat 4 bushels of swedes in twenty-four


The molasses are distilled, of course, and some potass hours, we may calculate at all events that it stands as

made from the refuse. 2 to 5 superior in quality to raw roots. This refuse, which looks like pressed rags, and is in flat pieces about

Many distilleries are expressly for extracting spirit as large as the palm of the hand, has also the peculiar The whole of the refuse from this is useless.

from the root itself: a ton is expected to make 10 gallons. quality of improving by keeping in clumps (well trod) for two or three years, enabling the farmer to lay in a

Beet-root sugar-refining is also carried on to a great store when a drop occurs in price. A great comfort to

extent; the decrease in weight by the process is one-fifth. a stock-keeper to know he has always a reserve of food

White sugar is retailed by the grocers now at 8d. to for all weathers and bad seasons. The crop that follows

9d. per lb. Remember I always write in English is wheat; hot summers suit it best.

measures and weights. It was a long time known to be a saccharine root in

It is allowed to be a most lucrative trade in all its France, but its usefulness was not developed till 1812,

branches. It is carried on over the whole of this nor. when the Government passed a decree permitting the

thern department. Valenciennes is the very heart of it; growth to the extent of 250,000 acres, and exempted it

but much is also done near Paris, Marseilles, and on the from all duties; in three years it ceased to give this en

frontier near Switzerland. couragement to the growth, but its prosperity pro

The alcohol is sold for mixing with the Geneva cognac, gressed; in 1827 there were 89 factories, producing 8

and also for making eau-de-vie ; also for varnish, and million pounds of sugar ; in 1836 more than 500, making many descriptions of manufactures requiring cheap nearly 50 millions ; in 1837 they put a duty on it spirit. It has been sometimes exported to England,

but is not allowed at this time, of a half-penny per lb., and added another farthing in 1839. From thence to now it has continually advanced.

Spirits are sold by all grocers, Geneva and eau-deI introduced myself, one fine morning, at a factory £2 1s. 8d. per annum.

vie at 6d. to 7d. per pint; the licence for which costs about a league from Lille, as an English stranger, asking the favour of an inspection of it. The owner most cheapness of spirits here, and the general sobriety,

I cannot finish this letter without remarking on the politely acceded to my wish, first making me partake of and comparing it with the contrary of both in Enghis déjeûner, the usual eleven o'clock breakfast of chops, land. It cannot be that the climate is warmer, for coffee, and wine. This hospitality I felt the more, as

there is no bill between this city and the Polar Seas, and it was only the second time during my three months

it is indeed cold here. The unrestricted sale here, at all stay I had the opportunity of enjoying it, as all classes are alike unfortunate in their ignorance of our truly

events, does not produce drunkenness. English custom of inviting all who cross our threshold

An English FARMER IN FRANCE. to take something, from a glass of beer to a seat at din- Lille, March 4th, 1858. ner. He then showed me his sugar and his distilling processes ; it took three hours to go over it, and a most interesting mass of machinery it was.

QUICKS (CRATGÆUS OXYCANTHA) Commor The commencement of the process is as follows: The Hawthorn--for general, or, more particularly, for loaded waggons are weigbed, as they enter, on a weigh- agricultural purposes, are not to be excelled. Their culbridge, and the empty vebicle deducted; the roots then ture is too well known to require any particular con well-washed by steam-power, and drawn into the ma- ment, did we not see so often erroneous practices carried cerating machine by an archimedian-screw ; after this is out; for instance, the planting upon high banks, which very minutely performed, the pulp is pressed in dries them up, and, when crumbled down, leaves them hydraulic presses, and the remains in the press bags are exposed to the inroads of cattle, &c. No better example instantly ready for sale to the farmer. 180 pints of is taught us than those planted by the sides of railwaysjuice are extracted from 2 cwt. betteraves, which goes the Great Western, for instance. There you see them prointo a reservoir tolerably impervious to air (which is perly planted, well cleaned, and properly sheared-in detrimental) till wanted. It is then heated in boiling- fact, hedges worthy our best attention. We have often pans to 60 degrecs (I am not sure if this means the heard Mr. Sharp complain to the unfortunate nurserysame as 60 degrees in England); and a solution of lime man from whom be purchased his few thousand Quicks, is thrown in at the rate of 1 part to 20 parts of juice, that many of them died, when perhaps, as is very often and a little sulphuric acid to neutralize any excess of the case, no care was taken in the first place to give lime. It is then filtered with animal charcoal, which also them proper accommodation. First, then, the soil reduces the colour, and then passes into boiling-pans to certainly, in every instance, should be trenched ; and if evaporate; then a second evaporation and another con- manured, the plants will repay it. Always plant, if the centration ; and then a third filtration with charcoal ; nature of the soil will permit, upon the same level as the then boiling, and at this stage it passes into coolers and field, not upon elevated banks. Place a fence-conbegins to crystallize. The remaining processes it would structed with piles about eight or nine feet apart, be tedious to your readers to have described.

with two horizontal rails—for protection. Then select

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two or three years' transplanted plants; and when the of maize. But for those who object to the maize flavour it
plants are well established, say the second year, cut them is to be corrected with rice.
down within six or eight inches of the ground. The Maize bread with rice, and the compound of the two
following year cut them to about two or three feet, with M. Mege Mouries' improvement, to obtain the maxi-
according to their strength; then the hedge is made.

mum excellent loaf at the minimum cost, the object of all Establishing a good bushy bottom is the principle to

these letters, are intended to form the subjects of our next. aim at. It is a very bad practice to thrust large bundles

I. PRIDEAUX. of bushes into decayed places or gaps : it makes the place larger. It is far better to select strong transplanted three or four-feet trees to fill up with, and give them temporary protection, and thus make up the slight BUTTER-MAKING IN WINTER. deficiency. Never allow the hedge to produce timber, “Winter butter" has no very enviable reputation anywhere, as you very often see; for after it is cut down, besides and compared with that made in June, seems an entirely difthe sacrifice for one or two seasons, the old shoots gene- ferent article. Of course there are reasons for this—let us rally throw up strong luxuriant thorny shoots, and form a bad bottom in return. Should the above fence

enumerate some of them. not be practicable, a low bank might be made, putting

1. The character of the food is changed from green and sucin plenty of plants between each layer of turf and soil; culent herbage to dry hay, or, more generally, cornstalks and this last suggestion does not make so perfect a hedge straw. There is really very little butter in the latter. as the former described plan.

2. The season is changed from mild and warm to cold, bleak, and uncomfortable. There is a constant demand for fuel to

keep up the animal heat; this is partly at the expense of the ECONOMY IN BREAD.-No. 5.

butter product. MAIZE BREAD,

3. The management of the milk becomes difficult. If kept SIR,— Maize may be considered as nourishing as wheat, in a cellar, and a little above freezing, the milk becomes bitter but will not rise like wheat into light bread; and maize before the cream rises ; if allowed to freeze, the cream rises at flour raised with wheat flour is neither so pleasant in tex

once, but is injured in quality, and will produce very white ture or flavour as wheat bread alone.

butter; if kept in the kitchen pantry, when very warm during The maize requires first to be boiled to pulp, like rice, the day and cold at night, it does not rise well, and is apt to and so made up with the wheat flour into dough. The fol

be bitter and acid. lowing recipe has been much recommended :

Other reasons might be mentioned, but they will readily

suggest themselves to the reader. Let us see what can be MAIZE BREAD, To 14 lbs. of maize meal add a gallon of cold water (soft)

proposed to remedy the difficulties. and stir it up well; let it settle, and skim off the husk

1. Feed well—not dry food alove--but grain and roots, as which floats on the top. It should then be boiled for three a substitute for grass. Carrots, turnips, beets, cabbages, etc., or four hours, if possible by steam, or the pan inserted in are all useful in keeping up the quality of the milk. Let their another containing water, boiling, which will prevent its fodder be cut, and some nutritious slops be provided, if roots burning to the bottom; and covered, to prevent drying away. If the meal be good, it will have absorbed all the

are not to be had; and it is well to cut the fodder in any case. water that bas not evaporated, and have become a thick

2. The comfort of cows should be carefully attended to. porridge; the produce of the Southern states of America While they suffer from cold and filth, or foul air, they cannot will take one fourth more water than the produce of Europe. yield as good milk as when in warm, clean stables, or in well

This may be made up into dough with 14 lbs. wheat littered and sheltered yards. Water should also be provided
flour as the rice in our last-yeast and salt added—and di-
vided into loaves as usual.

it is the more needed when dry forage is consumed--and it This has been tried here, but did not please so well as

should be so arranged that every animal could drink at will. that with Carolina rice. On the other hand, the Americans A supply of salt is also necessary. themselves are very fond of “ Mush,” a sort of maize por- 3. It is difficult to get a proper temperature for raising ridge, made as follows:

cream perfectly in winter. Some butter-makers scald their MUSU, AMERICAN.

milk when first drawn from the cow; others let it stand twelve “This is made in different ways; but the easiest mode is hours, and then place the pan containing the milk in a larger that which resembles the making of starch or arrow-root.

one filled with boiling water, and allowing it to stand twelve Put five pints of water over the fire, in a pot or skillet ; then take one pound of Indian meal, well sifted from the hours longer, find the cream raised perfectly. It is said that bran, and mix with a little cold water so as to make a thick more and better buttercan be made in this way than in any otber. batter; add salt. As soon as the water boils, add the batter, Chumning in winter, as usually managed, is often a serious stir it well, and keep it stirred and boiling for at least operation. The cream stands too long generally, becoming twenty minutes. “It should be about the consistence of basty pudding, por

very sonr and bitter ; or, it is too cold and fro:bs up, filling ridge, or stir-about; and may indeed be made in the the churn, but producing no butter though churned for hours. same way. Take it up, and eat it with milk, butter, sugar, Let the cream-pot sit near the fire for a few hours before or treacle.

churning, stirring it occasionally that all may get warm alike, " This is the most manageable and convenient of all the and when it is at a proper temperature, 550-feeling a little preparations of maize; it is used daily in a large number of American families, and considered a most wholesome diet.

warm to the finger--the churning will be an easy half-hour's job, What is not used at one meal, is cut into slices and fried or and the butter as yellow and hard as the season will admit of. heated upon the gridiron at the next meal, and eaten with We have found that cows generally gave better milk when butter or treacle."

fed on well-cured corp-fodder, than on second-rate hay, and This worked up into dough with four would be much with "a mess” of roots, apples, or pumpkins, would yield like the maize bread given above, requiring, of course, more milk of very fair quality. Attention to securing a supply of water to work in the wheat flour. And the proportion of proper food for cows, and better care of them, would go far to maize may be much increased for those who like it. I have redeem the name of winter-butter from its present character. a statement of 38lbs. of bread from 14lbs. of flour with 71bs.

J. H. B.

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Surface manuring is no new idea ; yet if our, which assails us is the result of the putrefaction memory serves us, the practice is almost univer- thus caused. Until this process of rotting comsally ignored by agricultural writers of the present mences, ammonia is not formed, and the manure day, as a method of manuring. It is acknow- not liable to waste, and it ceases to be generated ledged as a very good thing to preserve favourite when the rotting is checked. Now, when we are plants or newly-set-out trees from the effect of ready to remove our manure-heaps in the spring, drought; but very little beyond this. “Those who we find them usually rotting to some extent. Let imagine," says the editor of the Working Farmer, us follow, and observe the whole process. It is "they find good results from spreading of manure taken up first, forkful by forkful, and pitched into on the surface, and leaving it for days, weeks, or the cart; the ammonia, of course, all the time seekmonths before it is ploughed under, mistake the ing its freedom; it is bauled, reeking and smoking, action of the litter or longer portions of the manure a long distance perhaps, to the field; now it is as a mulch, for the action of the manure on the dropped into small heaps, where it remains a week soil.” We so far differ from this and kindred or so, until you are ready to plough the land. If opinions on the subject, that we think manuring you are ready, or when you are ready, these beaps on the surface, for ninety-nine farmers in a hun are carefully spread out on the ground, the more dred, the best general method of application. perfectly the better, and then ploughed under-not We except all cases where the drill application immediately, even under the most careful manageof compost is found desirable, and garden and ment, but as soon as it can be done-with a delay, lot culture. Nor do we maintain that there is ordinarily, of an average of some hours. Now, not a more perfect method of preserving and pre- with all this necessary opening and forking, and paring all the elements of the manure heap, by tossing and spreading, our impression is that the its careful husbandry under sheds, an occasional free ammonia is very much like the Frenchman's treatment with diluted sulphuric acid, or some flea, which when he put his finger upon it wasn't other“ fixer,” a cistern to catch the drainings, and there; the point of time when we are ready to lay a pump to pump them back upon the heap, and hold of it, is just when we may as well save ourpatience and perseverance and constant watchful- selves the trouble: it is not there. But let it be

A more perfect method still is that of Mr. borne in mind that the ammonia we have been Mechi, who applies his manure only in a liquid dealing with, is that only which was generated in state, and for this purpose has his farm traversed the rotting heap before its removal." When the with iron pipes, to convey the fluid to the different heap was opened to the air, the process of rotting fields. He says it pays in England, and it may be ceased, and ammonia was no longer formed. Supso, though his neighbours doubt it very much. posing, then, this free ammonia is pretty well gone, But on a Virginia farm, we think sensible men at any rate we have the remainder of the manure

, would account the Sheriff of London stark mad, with its unchanged nitrogen (not ammonia) to deal We maintain that this mode of manuring (viz., on with. Plough this under to the depth of eight the surface) is in itself so little inferior to the most inches, and for want of the proper temperature to perfect methods, that taking into consideration the cause its putrefaction, it may remain unchanged circumstances of our farming popluation, the ex- and unavailable until another ploughing shall tent of surface and high price of labour, the atten- bring it up again to the influence of heat and mois. tion, and time and management that the mass of ture, which will disengage the ammonia. It is a farmers can give to this branch of their operations, frequent experience, that we plough under deeply

, it is for them the most economical and the best. for a spring crop, fresh stable manure, and receive It will pay better.

no benefit from it whatever until it is brought up We ask now the reader's attention to the am- again to the surface, and the wheat crop following monia theory. That ammonia is the element of reaps the advantage. greatest value in stable manures, we do not ques- But suppose, instead of making a week or two tion. That it is very volatile, flies off and escapes weeks' heavy labour of hauling out manure in the by exposure to the atmosphere, everybody knows. spring, when the teams are at best not strong, and Upon these principles is based the recommenda- there is a press of hard work on hand, you get rid tion to plough under, immediately, manures which of this necessity of hauling cut and ploughing yield ammonia, that the earth may absorb and under simultaneously, and hauling at your conpreserve it.

Now let it be distinctly borne in venience, you throw the manure upon the surface mind, that fresh manure of any sort does not of the grass field, what is the result ? At the contain this volatile ammonia, but only nitrogen, worst, as we have shown above, there is equal loss which is not volatile, out of which the ammonia is of the

free ammonia when

the manure is ploughed formed; and that ammonia is generated only as under. In both cases, that is about all gone, bethe nitrogen putrefies in the rotting manures. If fore it can be with certainty taken possession of, the manure accumulates in the stable, the warmth by any process. The mass remaining on the sur; and moisture of the daily additions soon bring on face, however, the work of putrefaction, which active fermentation, and the pungent ammonia made the free aminonia, and which was stopped by

the opening and exposure of the heaps, is now the manure never begins to rot before it is rerecommenced and very slowly carried on by the moved. By this plan, moreover, we take favourawarmth and moisture at the surface. The ammo- ble opportunities for hauling, and may carry out nia thus formed is absorbed by the litter above it, much of the manure in damp or moderately rainy and washed down by every shower into contact, weather, when the showers will wash the readyand combines chemically with the humus at the formed ammonia immediately into the soil. surface, or with the soil itself. But bear in mind, We have thus undertaken to show that the that when these frequent removals are made, we practice of manuring on the surface is not inconnever find the heaps in such a state of putrefac-sistent with admitted chemical principles, when tion as when we postpone to some one allotted properly applied; and we submit the explanation time, and therefore never have so much free am- to the judgment of practical men, familiar with the monia to deal with. A very large proportion of processes of farm management.-American Farmer.

CALENDAR OF AGRICULTURE. The sowing of all grain crops must now be yards to each animal, and two nights in one place. finished as fast as possible, and also lucerne and All bare grounds and inferior grass lands may flax-seed. Finish the preparation of grass meadow be much improved by the folding of sheep upon lands; sow vetches and grass seeds on wheat and them. barley tilths. The surface of wheat lands will be The lambing season will now draw to a rough and stale; harrow it before sowing the grass close. When beet-root and cabbages fail as food seeds, and again after the seeds are sown, and roll for the owes, give oats, and bruised oilcake mixed, with a heavy weight.

and with a portion of salt. Remove the strong Prepare as quickly as possible the green crop lambs to the pasture fields. lands, and towards the end of the month sow beet- Attend to the milch cows and to the suckling of root in drills well dunged, and twenty-eight inches calves; give the former an ample allowance of apart; steep the seeds in weak solutions, and try juicy food, natural or prepared; to the latter as with quicklime. Plant potatoes in drills thirty much milk as the animals can drink. When begun inches apart, and well dunged with farm-yard to be weaned, at the end of sixteen weeks, give manure in a half-putrescent state; use strong sets them in racks in the calf-pens young vetches, of tubers newly cut, very raoist manure, and in a bruised cake, bean and barley meals boiled, and large quantity; cover the drills quickly, and roll linseed jellies. Place a lump of chalk and rock salt them down. Before the land is drilled, spread pul- to be licked; the latter substance will quicken the verized lime evenly on the surface, in two hundred action of the digestive organs, and the former will bushels to an acre, and harrow it immediately, or correct the crude acidities of the stomach. strew the cinders evenly over the ground, and the The last remaining fatting bullocks will be sold subsequent workings of the land will mix the lime, during this month; use oil-cake in finishing off which will be powdered by the dampness of the the animals: the most backward in condition must soil. This mode requires an earlier application go to grass. than the old way; but it must be more beneficial The season of curing bacon being over, all pigs by reason of the damp and moist exhalations that on hand must go on for summer stores, and come will be evolved during the dissolution of the hot in for early winter fattening. The earliest fat cinders of lime.

lambs will now come in for sale. Early crops will now require both horse and During wet weather, carry all the dung from the hand-hoeing, as carrots, lucerne, wheat, beans, and cattle yard to the heaps in the fields, and litter peas.

the yards afresh for the summer soiling of cattle Paring and burning of lands will now proceed and horses. vigorously. Burn the curfs moderately in a black Prepare by ploughing, harrowing, and rolling, scorched mass, as in that state carbonaceous mat- the fallows for green crops, keeping most forward ter most largely abounds. It is the best method the portion to be sown with Swedish turnips next yet known for bringing into cultivation all lands month. Plough clay lands for wheat fallows, and that contain much fibrous, inert, and ligneous mato dung across the winter furrows with narrow slices. ters.

Burn, for application by the drop drill, rough, earthy, and vegetable substances, found on roadsides and on ditch banks; also peat, and all com

SOAPSUDS.—In days that once were, the soapsuds bustible matters; the ashes will raise crops of went to the gutter as regularly as the washing-day was turnips.

ended; and there are too many who allow the plan to be Rye, and watered meadows, winter vetches and followed in the present day. All do not yet seem to have barley, will now be ready for soiling cattle in the learned that a tub’ull of strong soapsuds is worth as much, yards, and for being consumed on the ground by as a fertilizer, as a wheelbarrow of good manure. Now ewes and lambs. The food is best used by being every bucket of soapsuds should be thrown where it will cut and placed in racks, which are regularly moved not be lost. The garden is a good and convenient place in over the ground. Fold the sheep nightly on the which to dispose of it; but the roots of grape-vines, young cleared space, allowing in the fold two square trees, or anything of the sort, will do as well.



THE AGRICULTURE OF INDIA. Removing my camp-stool to the opening of my little hillruins himself by the act, leaving his debts to be paid by his tent, I looked out into the fields, where I saw some men descendants, and the well, tank, or grove mortgaged to the ploughing. For the first time, during my travels, I was struck banker, for the extra expenses incurred in its establishment ! with the appearance of the instrument which the natives use It behores an enlightened government to do for the people for tilling the soil; an instrument which, in fact, closely re- and the country, wbat they are unable to do for themselves. sembles that used by the Romans, according to the directions An inquiry, properly set on foot, and undertaken by competent laid down in the Georgics :

persous on the part of the Government, to investigate all par" Curvi formam adcipit ulmus aratri," &c., &c.

ticulars regarding the state of agriculture, would bring to

light many facts, which, if made fitting use of, would not ouly -and, at first, I felt some surprise that an implement so apps, greatly redouud to the honour, but adduce greatly to the adrently ill-fitted for the purpose for which it is designed, should vantage and profit of the state. The information thus acanswer all the requirements of the cultivator. The substitu- quired, and not founded on the reports of native (government) tion of the English plough for this native bùr, has been several collectors, police officers, and peaons (messengers), but ascer; times projected by gentlemen who were zealous in the cause tained by the personal inspection of European officials, and of agriculture, but without any success, or reasonable hope from the opinions of the zemindars and cultivators themselves, thereof ; for when we consider the cheapness, and the great would enable the Goveroment to know and devise remedies to amount of labour always available, the general lightness of obviate the evils arising out of the gradual decline of the agrithe soil, the inaptitude of the ratives of India for great or cultural classes in our earliest occupied territories. It would continued physical exertion, the inferiority of the cattle, all of show the Government msuy places where the expenditure of which are the marked characteristics of India, it would net four or five thousand rupees (four or five hundred pounds) is only be undesirable, but impossible to introduce the English the repairs or erection of a dam, for the obstruction of some plough, generally, as an implement of husbandry — an raio-filled nullab (a wide and deep ditch), would yield a return implement requiring physical strength, manual dexterity, nearly of equal amount, besides affording employment, and and a superior breed of cattle for draught. Rude and the means of livelihood to hundreds of persons. It would simple as the native hùr is, or as it may seem to the show where the opening of a road, or the building of a bridge, casual observer, cursorily viewing the operation of ploughing, involving but a small expenditure, would give a new lile to a it has still many good qualities which render it peculiarly part of the country hitherto forgotten, aud render the iubebuited to the genius of the Indian cultivator; and it is not in bitants flourishing and happy, by throwing open to them. any immediate endeavour to improve it, or alter it, that any market for their produce market at present out of their real benefit cau be conferred on the cause of Indian agricul- resch. It would prove incontestably that the meaus of irri

All the efforts, therefore, that have been made in that gation-the true water-power of India-has been even more direction, have been time and trouble expended to no purpose. neglected than the water-power of that (in comparison with It has been said, that all improvemeut to be real, must be the United States) sluggish colony, Canada. The initial step spontaneous, or take rise within itself; and it would seem to

once taken the march of improvement once fairly set on foot be more reasonable to improve such means and appliances as -private enterprise, duly encouraged, will follow in the wake the natives use and understand, without running counter to of the Government; and capital once invested, land in ladie the ideas, and shocking the prejudices, which they entertain, will become intrinsically valuable, and thus obtain the attenby endeavouring to compel their adoption of European modes tion it merits. Agricultural improvement would induce lastof coiture, which, however well suited to the land of their ing and increasing prosperity of the cultivating classes (the origio, have not the quality most necessary to their practica- bulk of the population) and of the country itsell.--Household bility, that of being con prebensible to the people of ludia. Words. The true end of agriculture :

“ With artful toil To meliorate and tame the stubborn soil,

AN AGRICULTURAL ODE. To give dissimilar yet fruitful lauda

BY WM. C. BRYANT. The grain, or herb, or plant that each demands," is best to be attained by aiding and assisting the development

Far back in ages of those resources of the soil, which have already been made

The plough with wreathes was crowned,

The hands of kings and sages visible by the people themselves. Here it is that i he duty of the Government begins. The

Entwined the chaplets round, precariousness of the laud tenure is one of the greatest impe

Till men of spoil diments to the outlay of capital hy the tenant in the improve

Disdained the toil ment of the land; and as there is but little prospect of the

By which the world was nourished, removal of this objection, the Government should fulll what

And blood and pillage were the soil would, were the case different, be the obvious plans of the

In which their laurels fourished. landholder, in developing the resources of the soil. Irrigation

Now the world her fault despairs end mauure are the two great points most deserving of atten

The guilt that stains her story, tion. On both points the resources of the country are incal

And weeps her crimes amid the cares culable; the advantages evident and immediate; both require

That form her earliest glory. system and an outiay of capital, which the zemindar (native The throne sball crumble, landbolder) is often upable, and oftener unwilling to adopt and

The diadem shall wsne, incur-from want of confidence in the administration of the

The tribes of earth shall humble law, and the law itself. With the ryot, or cultivator, the case

The pride of those who reign; is very different. The law, or the administration thereof,

And war shall lay affects him in a very slight degree, compared with the zemin.

His pomp away ; dar. The laud tenure matters very little to him; his rights

The same that heroes cherish, have been secured; be profits by the outlay of capital on the The glory earned in deadly fray land. Risk, be has none. His advantage is immediate. But

Shall fade, decay and perish. he does int possess the means of improvement in any way. Honour waits o'er all the earth, He may build a well, dig a tank, or plant a grove to the me

Through endless generations, mory of d parted ancestor, and, by so doing, enhance the The art that calls the harvest forth, value of the lani to the zemiadar; but he almost always

And feeds the expectant nations.

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