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of evaporation to escape. In the neighbourhood of a factory whole fields may be seen covered with clamps, the reserve stock of the manufacturers. There are many sorts of betteraves, but the two sorts in general growth are the white Silesian, and a variety of the Silesian with a red skin and white interior. It exhausts the land more than potatoes; but though sold off the farm it has the good quality of returning to it as much manure, perhaps, as if wholly consumed on it (indeed the latter would be impossible, as in its raw state it is a dreadful scourer), as all the refuse after pressing-that is the farinaceous part of the root-is eagerly bought by the farmer at from 8s. 4d. to 13s. per ton for his fattening bullocks, cows, and sheep; to the first named he gives 100 lbs. weight per day. Now, as we know a bullock will eat 4 bushels of swedes in twenty-four hours, we may calculate at all events that it stands as 2 to 5 superior in quality to raw roots. This refuse, which looks like pressed rags, and is in flat pieces about as large as the palm of the hand, has also the peculiar quality of improving by keeping in clumps (well trod) for two or three years, enabling the farmer to lay in a store when a drop occurs in price. A great comfort to a stock-keeper to know he has always a reserve of food for all weathers and bad seasons. The crop that follows is wheat; hot summers suit it best.
It was a long time known to be a saccharine root in France, but its usefulness was not developed till 1812, when the Government passed a decree permitting the growth to the extent of 250,000 acres, and exempted it from all duties; in three years it ceased to give this encouragement to the growth, but its prosperity progressed; in 1827 there were 89 factories, producing 8 million pounds of sugar; in 1836 more than 500, making nearly 50 millions; in 1837 they put a duty on it of a half-penny per lb., and added another farthing in 1839. From thence to now it has continually advanced.
I introduced myself, one fine morning, at a factory about a league from Lille, as an English stranger, asking the favour of an inspection of it. The owner most politely acceded to my wish, first making me partake of his, déjeuner, the usual eleven o'clock breakfast of chops, coffee, and wine. This hospitality I felt the more, as it was only the second time during my three months stay I had the opportunity of enjoying it, as all classes are alike unfortunate in their ignorance of our truly English custom of inviting all who cross our threshold to take something, from a glass of beer to a seat at dinHe then showed me his sugar and his distilling processes; it took three hours to go over it, and a most interesting mass of machinery it was.
The commencement of the process is as follows: The loaded waggons are weighed, as they enter, on a weighbridge, and the empty vehicle deducted; the roots then well-washed by steam-power, and drawn into the macerating machine by an archimedian-screw; after this is very minutely performed, the pulp is pressed in hydraulic presses, and the remains in the press bags are instantly ready for sale to the farmer. 180 pints of juice are extracted from 2 cwt. betteraves, which goes into a reservoir tolerably impervious to air (which is detrimental) till wanted. It is then heated in boilingpans to 60 degrees (I am not sure if this means the same as 60 degrees in England); and a solution of lime is thrown in at the rate of 1 part to 20 parts of juice, and a little sulphuric acid to neutralize any excess of lime. It is then filtered with animal charcoal, which also reduces the colour, and then passes into boiling-pans to evaporate; then a second evaporation and another concentration; and then a third filtration with charcoal; then boiling, and at this stage it passes into coolers and begins to crystallize. The remaining processes it would be tedious to your readers to have described.
is fair to suppose we can in sugar, if we please. We We undersell the French in most manufactures; so it were told we were to have free trade, to be totally unshackled, whether it was sugar or tobacco we wished to grow.
The molasses are distilled, of course, and some potass made from the refuse.
from the root itself: a ton is expected to make 10 gallons. Many distilleries are expressly for extracting spirit The whole of the refuse from this is useless.
Beet-root sugar-refining is also carried on to a great extent; the decrease in weight by the process is one-fifth.
White sugar is retailed by the grocers now at 8d. to 9d. per lb. Remember I always write in English measures and weights.
It is allowed to be a most lucrative trade in all its branches. It is carried on over the whole of this northern department. Valenciennes is the very heart of it; but much is also done near Paris, Marseilles, and on the frontier near Switzerland.
The alcohol is sold for mixing with the Geneva cognac, and also for making eau-de-vie; also for varnish, and many descriptions of manufactures requiring cheap spirit. It has been sometimes exported to England,
but is not allowed at this time.
QUICKS (CRATGÆUS OXYCANTHA) Common Hawthorn-for general, or, more particularly, for agricultural purposes, are not to be excelled. Their culture is too well known to require any particular comment, did we not see so often erroneous practices carried out; for instance, the planting upon high banks, which dries them up, and, when crumbled down, leaves them exposed to the inroads of cattle, &c. No better example is taught us than those planted by the sides of railwaysthe Great Western, for instance. There you see them properly planted, well cleaned, and properly sheared-in fact, hedges worthy our best attention. We have often heard Mr. Sharp complain to the unfortunate nurseryman from whom he purchased his few thousand Quicks, that many of them died, when perhaps, as is very often the case, no care was taken in the first place to give them proper accommodation. First, then, the soil certainly, in every instance, should be trenched; and if manured, the plants will repay it. Always plant, if the nature of the soil will permit, upon the same level as the field, not upon elevated banks. Place a fence-constructed with piles about eight or nine feet apart, with two horizontal rails-for protection. Then select
two or three years' transplanted plants; and when the plants are well established, say the second year, cut them down within six or eight inches of the ground. The following year cut them to about two or three feet, according to their strength; then the hedge is made. Establishing a good bushy bottom is the principle to It is a very bad practice to thrust large bundles of bushes into decayed places or gaps it makes the place larger. It is far better to select strong transplanted three or four-feet trees to fill up with, and give them temporary protection, and thus make up the slight deficiency. Never allow the hedge to produce timber, as you very often see; for after it is cut down, besides the sacrifice for one or two seasons, the old shoots generally throw up strong luxuriant thorny shoots, and form a bad bottom in return. Should the above fence not be practicable, a low bank might be made, putting in plenty of plants between each layer of turf and soil; this last suggestion does not make so perfect a hedge as the former described plan.
of maize. But for those who object to the maize flavour it is to be corrected with rice.
To 14 lbs. of maize meal add a gallon of cold water (soft) and stir it up well; let it settle, and skim off the husk which floats on the top. It should then be boiled for three or four hours, if possible by steam, or the pan inserted in another containing water, boiling, which will prevent its burning to the bottom; and covered, to prevent drying away. If the meal be good, it will have absorbed all the water that has not evaporated, and have become a thick porridge; the produce of the Southern states of America will take one fourth more water than the produce of Europe. This may be made up into dough with 14 lbs. wheat flour as the rice in our last-yeast and salt added-and divided into loaves as usual.
This has been tried here, but did not please so well as that with Carolina rice. On the other hand, the Americans themselves are very fond of " Mush," a sort of maize porridge, made as follows:
"This is made in different ways; but the easiest mode is that which resembles the making of starch or arrow-root. Put five pints of water over the fire, in a pot or skillet; then take one pound of Indian meal, well sifted from the bran, and mix with a little cold water so as to make a thick batter; add salt. As soon as the water boils, add the batter, stir it well, and keep it stirred and boiling for at least twenty minutes.
"It should be about the consistence of hasty pudding, porridge, or stir-about; and may indeed be made in the same way. Take it up, and eat it with milk, butter, sugar,
Maize bread with rice, and the compound of the two with M. Mege Mouries' improvement, to obtain the maximum excellent loaf at the minimum cost, the object of all these letters, are intended to form the subjects of our next. 1. PRIDEAUX.
BUTTER-MAKING IN WINTER.
"Winter butter" has no very enviable reputation anywhere, and compared with that made in June, seems an entirely different article. Of course there are reasons for this-let us enumerate some of them.
"This is the most manageable and convenient of all the preparations of maize; it is used daily in a large number of American families, and considered a most wholesome diet. What is not used at one meal, is cut into slices and fried or heated upon the gridiron at the next meal, and eaten with butter or treacle."
1. The character of the food is changed from green and succulent herbage to dry hay, or, more generally, cornstalks and straw. There is really very little butter in the latter.
2. The season is changed from mild and warm to cold, bleak, and uncomfortable. There is a constant demand for fuel to keep up the animal heat; this is partly at the expense of the butter product.
This worked up into dough with flour would be much like the maize bread given above, requiring, of course, more water to work in the wheat flour. And the proportion of maize may be much increased for those who like it. I have a statement of 38lbs. of bread from 14lbs. of flour with 7lbs.
3. The management of the milk becomes difficult. If kept in a cellar, and a little above freezing, the milk becomes bitter before the cream rises; if allowed to freeze, the cream rises at once, but is injured in quality, and will produce very white butter; if kept in the kitchen pantry, when very warm during the day and cold at night, it does not rise well, and is apt to be bitter and acid.
Other reasons might be mentioned, but they will readily suggest themselves to the reader. Let us see what can be proposed to remedy the difficulties.
1. Feed well-not dry food alone-but grain and roots, as a substitute for grass. Carrots, turnips, beets, cabbages, etc., are all useful in keeping up the quality of the milk, Let their fodder be cut, and some nutritious slops be provided, if roots are not to be had; and it is well to cut the fodder in any case.
2. The comfort of cows should be carefully attended to. While they suffer from cold and filth, or foul air, they cannot yield as good milk as when in warm, clean stables, or in welllittered and sheltered yards. Water should also be provided— it is the more needed when dry forage is consumed-and it should be so arranged that every animal could drink at will. A supply of salt is also necessary.
3. It is difficult to get a proper temperature for raising cream perfectly in winter. Some butter-makers scald their milk when first drawn from the cow; others let it stand twelve hours, and then place the pan containing the milk in a larger one filled with boiling water, and allowing it to stand twelve hours longer, find the cream raised perfectly. It is said that more and better butter can be made in this way than in any other.
Churning in winter, as usually managed, is often a serious operation. The cream stands too long generally, becoming very sour and bitter; or, it is too cold and froths up, filling the churn, but producing no butter though churned for hours. Let the cream-pot sit near the fire for a few hours before churning, stirring it occasionally that all may get warm alike, and when it is at a proper temperature, 550-feeling a little warm to the finger-the churning will be an easy half-hour's job, and the butter as yellow and hard as the season will admit of.
We have found that cows generally gave better milk when fed on well-cured corn-fodder, than on second-rate hay, and with "a mess" of roots, apples, or pumpkins, would yield milk of very fair quality. Attention to securing a supply of proper food for cows, and better care of them, would go far to redeem the name of winter-butter from its present character. J. H. B.
MANURING ON THE
Surface manuring is no new idea; yet if our, memory serves us, the practice is almost universally ignored by agricultural writers of the present day, as a method of manuring. It is acknowledged as a very good thing to preserve favourite plants or newly-set-out trees from the effect of drought; but very little beyond this. "Those who imagine," says the editor of the Working Farmer, "they find good results from spreading of manure on the surface, and leaving it for days, weeks, or months before it is ploughed under, mistake the action of the litter or longer portions of the manure as a mulch, for the action of the manure on the soil." We so far differ from this and kindred opinions on the subject, that we think manuring on the surface, for ninety-nine farmers in a hun. dred, the best general method of application. We except all cases where the drill application of compost is found desirable, and garden and lot culture. Nor do we maintain that there is not a more perfect method of preserving and preparing all the elements of the manure heap, by its careful husbandry under sheds, an occasional treatment with diluted sulphuric acid, or some other "fixer," a cistern to catch the drainings, and a pump to pump them back upon the heap, and patience and perseverance and constant watchfulness. A more perfect method still is that of Mr. Mechi, who applies his manure only in a liquid state, and for this purpose has his farm traversed with iron pipes, to convey the fluid to the different fields. He says it pays in England, and it may be so, though his neighbours doubt it very much. But on a Virginia farm, we think sensible men would account the Sheriff of London stark mad, We maintain that this mode of manuring (viz., on the surface) is in itself so little inferior to the most perfect methods, that taking into consideration the circumstances of our farming popluation, the extent of surface and high price of labour. the attention, and time and management that the mass of farmers can give to this branch of their operations, it is for them the most economical and the best. It will pay better.
We ask now the reader's attention to the ammonia theory. That ammonia is the element of greatest value in stable manures, we do not question. That it is very volatile, flies off and escapes by exposure to the atmosphere, everybody knows. Upon these principles is based the recommendation to plough under, immediately, manures which yield ammonia, that the earth may absorb and preserve it. Now let it be distinctly borne in mind, that fresh manure of any sort does not contain this volatile ammonia, but only nitrogen, which is not volatile, out of which the ammonia is formed; and that ammonia is generated only as the nitrogen putrefies in the rotting manures. the manure accumulates in the stable, the warmth If and moisture of the daily additions soon bring on active fermentation, and the pungent ammonia
which assails us is the result of the putrefaction thus caused. Until this process of rotting commences, ammonia is not formed, and the manure not liable to waste, and it ceases to be generated when the rotting is checked. Now, when we are ready to remove our manure-heaps in the spring, we find them usually rotting to some extent. Let us follow, and observe the whole process. It is taken up first, forkful by forkful, and pitched into the cart; the ammonia, of course, all the time seeking its freedom; it is hauled, reeking and smoking, a long distance perhaps, to the field; now it is dropped into small heaps, where it remains a week or so, until you are ready to plough the land. It you are ready, or when you are ready, these heaps are carefully spread out on the ground, the more perfectly the better, and then ploughed under-not immediately, even under the most careful management, but as soon as it can be done-with a delay, ordinarily, of an average of some hours. Now, with all this necessary opening and forking, and tossing and spreading, our impression is that the free ammonia is very much like the Frenchman's flea, which when he put his finger upon it wasn't there; the point of time when we are ready to lay hold of it, is just when we may as well save ourselves the trouble: it is not there. But let it be borne in mind that the ammonia we have been dealing with, is that only which was generated in the rotting heap before its removal. When the heap was opened to the air, the process of rotting ceased, and ammonia was no longer formed. Supposing, then, this free ammonia is pretty well gone, with its unchanged nitrogen (not ammonia) to deal at any rate we have the remainder of the manure, with. Plough this under to the depth of eight inches, and for want of the proper temperature to cause its putrefaction, it may remain unchanged and unavailable until another ploughing shall bring it up again to the influence of heat and mois ture, which will disengage the ammonia. It is a frequent experience, that we plough under deeply, for a spring crop, fresh stable manure, and receive again to the surface, and the wheat crop following no benefit from it whatever until it is brought up reaps the advantage.
weeks' heavy labour of hauling out manure in the But suppose, instead of making a week or two spring, when the teams are at best not strong, and there is a press of hard work on hand, you get rid of this necessity of hauling cut and ploughing under simultaneously, and hauling at your convenience, you throw the manure upon the surface of the grass field, what is the result? At the worst, as we have shown above, there is equal loss of the free ammonia when the manure is ploughed under. In both cases, that is about all gone, beby any process. The mass remaining on the surfore it can be with certainty taken possession of, face, however, the work of putrefaction, which made the free aminonia, and which was stopped by
the opening and exposure of the heaps, is now recommenced and very slowly carried on by the warmth and moisture at the surface. The ammonia thus formed is absorbed by the litter above it, and washed down by every shower into contact, and combines chemically with the humus at the surface, or with the soil itself. But bear in mind, that when these frequent removals are made, we never find the heaps in such a state of putrefaction as when we postpone to some one allotted time, and therefore never have so much free ammonia to deal with. A very large proportion of
CALENDAR OF AGRICULTURE.
The sowing of all grain crops must now be finished as fast as possible, and also lucerne and flax-seed. Finish the preparation of grass meadow lands; sow vetches and grass seeds on wheat and barley tilths. The surface of wheat lands will be rough and stale; harrow it before sowing the grass seeds, and again after the seeds are sown, and roll with a heavy weight.
Prepare as quickly as possible the green crop lands, and towards the end of the month sow beetroot in drills well dunged, and twenty-eight inches apart; steep the seeds in weak solutions, and dry with quicklime. Plant potatoes in drills thirty inches apart, and well dunged with farm-yard manure in a half-putrescent state; use strong sets of tubers newly cut, very moist manure, and in a large quantity; cover the drills quickly, and roll them down. Before the land is drilled, spread pulverized lime evenly on the surface, in two hundred bushels to an acre, and harrow it immediately, or strew the cinders evenly over the ground, and the subsequent workings of the land will mix the lime, which will be powdered by the dampness of the soil. This mode requires an earlier application than the old way; but it must be more beneficial by reason of the damp and moist exhalations that will be evolved during the dissolution of the hot cinders of lime.
Early crops will now require both horse and hand-hoeing, as carrots, lucerne, wheat, beans, and
Paring and burning of lands will now proceed vigorously. Burn the turfs moderately in a black scorched mass, as in that state carbonaceous matter most largely abounds. It is the best method yet known for bringing into cultivation all lands that contain much fibrous, inert, and ligneous mat
the manure never begins to rot before it is removed. By this plan, moreover, we take favourable opportunities for hauling, and may carry out much of the manure in damp or moderately rainy weather, when the showers will wash the readyformed ammonia immediately into the soil.
We have thus undertaken to show that the practice of manuring on the surface is not inconsistent with admitted chemical principles, when properly applied; and we submit the explanation to the judgment of practical men, familiar with the processes of farm management.-American Farmer.
yards to each animal, and two nights in one place. All bare grounds and inferior grass lands may be much improved by the folding of sheep upon them.
The lambing season will now draw to a close. When beet-root and cabbages fail as food for the ewes, give oats, and bruised oilcake mixed, and with a portion of salt. Remove the strong lambs to the pasture fields.
Attend to the milch cows and to the suckling of calves; give the former an ample allowance of juicy food, natural or prepared; to the latter as much milk as the animals can drink. When begun to be weaned, at the end of sixteen weeks, give them in racks in the calf-pens young vetches, bruised cake, bean and barley meals boiled, and linseed jellies. Place a lump of chalk and rock salt to be licked; the latter substance will quicken the action of the digestive organs, and the former will correct the crude acidities of the stomach.
The last remaining fatting bullocks will be sold during this month; use oil-cake in finishing off the animals: the most backward in condition must go to grass.
The season of curing bacon being over, all pigs on hand must go on for summer stores, and come in for early winter fattening. The earliest fat lambs will now come in for sale.
SOAPSUDS.-In days that once were, the soapsuds went to the gutter as regularly as the washing-day was ended; and there are too many who allow the plan to be followed in the present day. All do not yet seem to have learned that a tubfull of strong soapsuds is worth as much, as a fertilizer, as a wheelbarrow of good manure. every bucket of soapsuds should be thrown where it will not be lost. The garden is a good and convenient place in which to dispose of it; but the roots of grape-vines, young trees, or anything of the sort, will do as well.
THE AGRICULTURE OF INDIA.
Removing my camp-stool to the opening of my little hill tent, I looked out into the fields, where I saw some men ploughing. For the first time, during my travels, I was struck with the appearance of the instrument which the natives use for tilling the soil; an instrument which, in fact, closely resembles that used by the Romans, according to the directions laid down in the Georgics:
"Curvi formam adcipit ulmus aratri," &c., &c. -and, at first, I felt some surprise that an implement so apparently ill-fitted for the purpose for which it is designed, should answer all the requirements of the cultivator. The substitution of the English plough for this native hùr, has been several times projected by gentlemen who were zealous in the cause of agriculture, but without any success, or reasonable hope thereof; for when we consider the cheapness, and the great amount of labour always available, the general lightness of the soil, the inaptitude of the natives of India for great or continued physical exertion, the inferiority of the cattle, all of which are the marked characteristics of India, it would net only be undesirable, but impossible to introduce the English plough, generally, as an implement of husbandry -an implement requiring physical strength, manual dexterity, and a superior breed of cattle for draught. Rude and simple as the native hùr is, or as it may seem to the casual observer, cursorily viewing the operation of ploughing, it has still many good qualities which render it peculiarly Buited to the genius of the Indian cultivator; and it is not in any immediate endeavour to improve it, or alter it, that any real benefit can be conferred on the cause of Indian agriculture. All the efforts, therefore, that have been made in that direction, have been time and trouble expended to no purpose. It has been said, that all improvement to be real, must be spontaneous, or take rise within itself; and it would seem to be more reasonable to improve such means and appliances as the natives use and understand, without running counter to the ideas, and shocking the prejudices, which they entertain, by endeavouring to compel their adoption of European modes of culture, which, however well suited to the land of their origin, have not the quality most necessary to their practicability, that of being coa prebensible to the people of India. The true end of agriculture:
"With artful toil
To meliorate and tame the stubborn soil,
The grain, or herb, or plant that each demands,"
is best to be attained by aiding and assisting the development of those resources of the soil, which have already been made visible by the people themselves.
Here it is that the duty of the Government begins. The precariousness of the land tenure is one of the greatest impediments to the outlay of capital by the tenant in the improvement of the land; and as there is but little prospect of the removal of this objection, the Government should fulfil what would, were the case different, be the obvious plans of the landholder, in developing the resources of the soil. Irrigation and manure are the two great points most deserving of attention. On both points the resources of the country are incalculable; the advantages evident and immediate; both require system and an outlay of capital, which the zemindar (native landholder) is often unable, and oftener unwilling to adopt and incur from want of confidence in the administration of the law, and the law itself. With the ryot, or cultivator, the case is very different. The law, or the administration thereof, affects him in a very slight degree, compared with the zemin. dar. The land tenure matters very little to him; his rights have been secured; be profits by the outlay of capital on the land. Risk, he has none. His advantage is immediate. But he does not possess the means of improvement in any way. He may build a well, dig a tank, or plant a grove to the memory of departed ancestor, and, by so doing, enhance the value of the land to the zemindar; but he almost always
ruins himself by the act, leaving his debts to be paid by his descendants, and the well, tank, or grove mortgaged to the banker, for the extra expenses incurred in its establishment! It behoves an enlightened government to do for the people and the country, what they are unable to do for themselves. An inquiry, properly set on foot, and undertaken by competent persous on the part of the Government, to investigate all particulars regarding the state of agriculture, would bring to light many facts, which, if made fitting use of, would not only greatly redound to the honour, but adduce greatly to the advantage and profit of the state. The information thus acquired, and not founded on the reports of native (government) collectors, police-officers, and peaons (messengers), but ascer tained by the personal inspection of European officials, and from the opinions of the zemindars and cultivators themselves, would enable the Government to know and devise remedies to obviate the evils arising out of the gradual decline of the agricultural classes in our earliest occupied territories. It would show the Government many places where the expenditure of four or five thousand rupees (four or five hundred pounds) in the repairs or erection of a dam, for the obstruction of some rain-filled nullah (a wide and deep ditch), would yield a return nearly of equal amount, besides affording employment, and the means of livelihood to hundreds of persons. It would show where the opening of a road, or the building of a bridge, involving but a small expenditure, would give a new life to a part of the country hitherto forgotten, and render the inhabitants flourishing and happy, by throwing open to them a market for their produce-a market at present out of their reach. It would prove incontestably that the means of irrigation-the true water-power of India-has been even more neglected than the water-power of that (in comparison with the United States) sluggish colony, Canada. The initial step once taken the march of improvement once fairly set on foot private enterprise, duly encouraged, will follow in the wake of the Government; and capital once invested, land in Iadia will become intrinsically valuable, and thus obtain the attention it merits. Agricultural improvement would induce lasting and increasing prosperity of the cultivating classes (the bulk of the population) and of the country itself.-Household Words.