« PoprzedniaDalej »
“ bestial dung, road-scrapings, or street-sweepings, other matter moistened with dilute sulphuric acid. marl, fæcal substances, the residuum from the manu- The sewage-matter, suspended by this agency from the facture of schistus, or of peat, or wood-charcoal ground sewage-water, is to be mixed with other matters, suitable to powder, or of soot, marine salt, saltpetre, alumina, for making manures [29, 8 d.) sulphate of zinc, and water," intimately mixed together, Jacques Francisque Pinel obtained a patent, dated moulded into bricks, and dried; after which it is re- March 8, 1853, for deodorizing sewage-water by adding, duced to powder, and spread upon the ground when it in certain manner and proportions, sulphate of zinc, rains. [12,869, 4s. 82.]
tass, alum, chloride of sodium, and sand. The solid A patent for “deodorizing every species of excre- matter thus obtained is again to be mixed with waste tive fæcal matter or urine, at the moment when it falls tan, pulverized chloride of sodium, nitrate of potass, from the body," was granted, June 4, 1850, to Paul 800t, ashes, slacked lime, and muriate of ammonia (581, D'Angely. The deodorizing substance employed was 21d). composed of fresh bark, rue, or wild mint, sulphate of On March 15, 1853, John Thornton Herapath obiron, and pyrolignite of iron. The fæcal matter of the tained a patent for precipitating the phosphoric acid deodorization was converted into manure by being dried and ammonia of sewage, in a comparatively insoluble in a chamber peculiarly constructed, and reduced to state, by adding to it magnesia, or a magnesian compowder, and finally mixed with “ dried or burnt peat pound. This addition is to be made at or about the in powder, or with dried beasts' blood also in powder." time when the deodorization of the sewage is effeeted, [13,097, 5d.]
through the addition of some chensical agent which will To Thomas Wicksteed, on Feb. 24, 1851, a patent not decompose ammonia or its salts; but which, on the was granted for manufacturing “ manure from sewage contrary, will combine with or absorb hydro-sulphuric water.” This he effected by mixing it with milk of acid, such as metallic sulphates, or metallic chlorides, Jime, and drying the precipitated matter by centrifugal or vegetable carbon (643, 21d.] drying machinery; by which the whole, or nearly the To George Edward Doring a patent was granted, whole of the moisture was driven off, and the manure March 28, 1853, for “applying the salts and matter remained in a state fit for transport.” [13,526, 9d.] produced in the working of galvanic batteries"-gene.
Oct. 16, 185), is the date of the patent granted to rally treated as refuse, and thrown away—for disinfectRichard Dover for deodorizing sewage with an acid or ing and deoderizing fæcal matters, and to render them acids, and for obtaining certain products therefrom. available as manures (740, 3}d.] Amongst other substances, hydrochloric or some other In the patent dated May 20, 1853, granted to Thomas mineral acid, iron filings, and chloride of sodium, are Isaac Dimsdale, a claim is made for disinfecting sewage employed. After deodorization the sewage is filtered and absorbing its noxious exhalations, by the employthrough charcoal, clay, gypsum, or peat, and is alone, or ment of “a peculiar kind of peat-earth containing & together with the following material, mixed with refuse salt or salts of iron or oxide of iron.” Although no furanimal mattors, shale, marl, &c., to form
ther claim is made specifying the peculiar kind of peatuseful manures for fertilizing land.” [13,755, 5d.] earth, it is stated in the specification that “this know
Henry Stothert, in April 17, 1852, obtained a patent ledge of peat or bog-earth possessing those properties for applying a combination of materials to precipitate has led to this substance being very generally employed, the solid parts of sewage to obtain a manure; and also particularly in Ireland, where it is a common practice to for converting night-soil into charcoal, to be used as use peat in its raw state, or air-dried peat combined one of the precipitatory agents. The materials pro- with ashes and peat-charcoal, to mix with manures, for posed were “fresh-made caustic lime, sulphate of the purpose of fixing ammonia and other volatile gases alumina, sulphate or protoxide of zinc, compound ani- wbich are evolved from them" (1,252, 3d.). mal and vegetable charcoal, obtained by distilling the
James Alexander Manning on November 29th, 1853, precipitated matters of sewage waters, or by distilling obtained a patent for “ defecating and separating certain night-soil, creosote oil of peat, peat-mould, tanner's matters from sewage.” For these purposes he employed spent bark, burnt clay, old mortar, or mixtures of “ animal charcoal, alum, and carbonate of soda and such matters or other matters." [14,073, 3d.]
gypsum.” With the sewage precipitated thus, he mixed We conclude the subject by giving some mention “ waste charcoal or carbonaceous matter of various of the peculiarities of those granted under the Pa- kinds, kelp, fuctory waste, common salt, or the refuse tent Law Amendment Act of 1852. Under this act the brine derived from the curing of provisions--gypsum, first patent, relating to town sewaye, is under date Oct. or phosphate of lime and horn-dust riddlings.” In 6th, 1852, the patentee being William Armand Gilvee, these operations the patentee used a peculiar form of the object of the patent a deodorizing powder, and the precipitating vessel, and tanks with inclined bottoms machinery or apparatus employed in manufacturing [2,780, 6 d.]. the same. The deodorizing powder is stated by the
A patent was granted, Dec. 10, 1853, to Allan Macpatentec to be prepared by the combustion of the pherson, for purifying sewage and other fæcal matters detritus of forests, lignites, vegetables, marine plants, or by using combinations of substances, such as peats of any ligneous substance, rays, and refuse of wool.” The
any description, whether in a high-dried natural carbonized matters thus prepared are reduced to pow- state, or carbonized, in lumps or coarsely granulated, der, and mixed with wool shearings in certain propor- or finely powdered. Charcoal prepared from sawdust tions. The fæcal matter is converted into manure by
or refuse wood is also named; but peat charcoal is treating them with “ decomposing powder, composed preferred by the patentee. A claim is also made for of the following substances, mixed together in certain arresting, purifying, and deodorizing noxious gases in proportions : molasses of sugar or tho residuum thereof, sewers, by placing in chambers made in the sewers, per. slacked lime reduced to powder, sulphate of iron or forated trays or basket-work trays, with a mixture of zinc, and clayish magnesian earth” (No. 250, price peat charcoal. Where the sewage is discharged into a 9 d.)
river, it is to pass through a barge, placed near the January 5th, 1853, is the date of the patent mouth of the sewer, and provided with deodorizing granted to William Bardwell, for constructing build- materials placed on gratings. The aqueous portion ings, in a close chamber, on the basement of which passes off to the river much purified, while "the cona filter-bed is to be placed; in this chamber tents of these lighters will be found to be a rich and trays or shelves are suspended, containing sawdust or powerful manure” [2,876, 41d.].
'To Robert Angus Smith and Alexander McDougall | sewage is to be mixed with the soft sludge" from the a patent was granted, Jan. 20, 1854, for improvements alum works : the contents of the reservoir are to be in deodorizing and disinfecting sewage hy employing, agitated, and during agitation powdered caustic or unalone or together, a combination of magnesia and lime, slacked lime and animal charcoal are to be thrown in. with sulphurous acid and carbonic acid, “either in an This alum "sludge” is the deposit during the first acid or alkaline state” [142, 3d. ]
boiling down of the rough liquor obtained from alum The date of the (second, third, and fourth) patents shales in the manufacture of alum, and which deposit granted to Thomas Wicksteed, is January 26th, 1854. consists essentially of basic and other sulphates of iro The first of these is for moulding the fertilized matter and alumina" [709, 3d.]. of precipitated sewage into perforated bricks or blocks, in manner similar to that employed in ordinary a patent for purifying sewers from noxious exhalations;
George Anderson, on December 23rd, 1854, obtained brick-making-the hollow perforations facilitating the and this he proposed to effect by using a pump, fan, or drying of the bricks. The second of these three other exhausting apparatus, to force the vapours in conpatents refers to a method of precipitating the fer, tact with deodorising materials. The materials named by tilizing matter of sewage by mixing it with lime and the patentee are,“lime as used in the gas works, peroxide finely-divided charcoal : the two substances are mixed of iron or other metallic salts, or dilute acids, or acids in water, and a stream of it is made to flow into the held by peat, coko, gravel, charcoal, sawdust, or other sewage-water, by means of a pump-another pump matter." The product obtained to be used as a manure, supplying the sewage-water. The third of these patents
or applied to other useful purposes [2,715, 3d.]. refers to the construction of reservoirs for the deposition of the precipitate from sewage-water. These are
The date of the (third) patent granted to James Alerarranged so as to cause an equal fow from all parts, der Manning is August 7, 1855, and is for the employ. with the exception of a portion at the bottom which ment of “ alum slate, alum shale, alum schist, alum receives the precipitated matter. The velocity is regu- ore, and other aluminous minerals and earths, as a lated so as not to prevent the subsidence of the preci- precipitatory and clarifying agent for cleansing sewage pitate. The water is thrown off the precipitate from matters. The method to be employed in preparing the the bottom of the reservoir into a well by means of an
shales is described. In addition to this alumn liquor, endless screw. The precipitate is raised by means of powdered lime and charcoal are employed. The sev. an elevator or Jacob's ladder, in such a way that the age is stated to be greatly improved in value for agri. precipitate is raised without contact with the super- cultural purposes by the addition of the alumn shales." natant liquid [192, 3d. ; 193, 3d.; 194, ls. 1d.] [1,786, 3d.]
The date of the (second) patent granted to John Having thus reviewed very briefly, the various Thornton Hera path is March 17th, 1854, and it claims patents taken out for the deodorization and utilizathe employment of coke obtained from the so-called tion of our town sewage, we shall be prepared to enter Boghead coal or Torbanc-hill mineral, “ either before into the consideration of the relative values of manures or after the aluminous ingredients of the coke shall prepared by some of the processes described, and the have been extracted by an acid or other chemical.” chances-favourable or otherwise-of their being emThis coke to be used either for drying up precipitated ployed on the large scale. This consideration we prosewage, or using a stratum of it, through which sewage, pose to take up, in conjunction with the future pros&c., is allowed to pars or percolate [638, 3d.]
pects of the application of town sewage to agricultural The date of the (second) patent granted to James purposes, in noticing two important reports recently Alexander Manning is March 27th, 1854; and is for published, and to which we referred at the commence“improvements in the treatment of sewage." The I ment of the present papers,
Lois-Weedon wheat-growing! How many years has who sows new seeds in hope, to wait ere the fruits of his it been known to the public, and how many agricultu- thoughtful ingenuities in preparing the soil, and his prurists have adopted its advantages ? In seeking answers dent nurture of the rising plants, reward him with more to these inquiries, we have been compelled to reflect that than promise! The first harvest was not measured ; one of the farmer's chief faults is a scepticism in regard the second and third gave each thirty-four bushels per to offered improvements, when they involve fundamental acre. With wheat at forty shillings a quarter, and changes in his practice; and pioneers in farm mechanics, straw at forty sbillings a ton (for being grown without or discoverers of new systems of husbandry, should have manure the straw was sold), the tenant's profit was fortitude, almost like that of brave Bonnevard, of found and proved to be at least four pounds per acre. Geneva, in order to " possess their souls in patience," Now, it will be remembered that, in 1849, the genethrough years of distrust, neglect, or opposition. Why, ral feeling among farmers was that, under the circumcan it be believed, the reverend Mr. Smith's pamphlet, stances of the times, it was impossible to grow wheat detailing his practice, its cost and profit, appeared eight crops that would pay; and, again, there were a great years ago ! and he had then sufficient experience to war. many unemployed labourers dependent on parish susrant his recommendation of the plan to others; for he tenance; and the new method of wheat culture by the had thrashed his third harvest, grown year after year on spade offered not only profit to the farmer, but to the the same acre of land.
workmen employment and support. These considera. The first wheat crop on the now world-renowned tions prevailed upon Mr. Smith to break silence with his " clay piece” was sown in 1846 ; yet it was not until simple and attractive “Word in Season ;" “ impelled," November, 1849, that the talented and assiduous culti- as he says, "in fulfilment of a duty which all owe to vator felt (with that modesty characterizing all his their fellows, to make known, I trust not presumptuworks) that he would be justified in publishing his suc- ously, what is no longer experiment, but experience, of a cess. Thus prolonged and tedious must agricultural ex- most profitable system of growing cory." When we periments necessarily be! So long has the husbandman, infer a hasty conclusion from a single experiment, and
úrge it as a settled truth, we must expect to meet with each interval; but this was too troublesome in cleaning incredulous and closed ears ; but when you have quietly of couch, &c. His crops of wheat, with intervals fallowed tested a system for three long years, accurately booked, for bearing wheat the next year, have been very heavy weighed, and measured, and calculated your profit with and productive; and there is no doubt they are abunthe certainty of demonstration, it is natural to suppose dantly profitable. He applies manure besides tilling the that the proposal of a simple though novel series of til- intervals; and is so satisfied with the practice (having lage operations, promising so handsomely in a time of de tried it in portions of many different fields), that this spondency and bad prices, would be eagerly caught up, year, we understand, he has sown nearly all his wheat and (with the best kind of gratitude, appropriation, and land in three-row stripes. Accurate accounts of work imitation) at once tried in every province of the king- done, and other items of expense, he has not been at the dom, and applied with ready and clever adaptations to trouble to keep faithfully ; but the produce has been so all soils and varying circumstances. Now, Mr. Smith large and obviously remunerative, that his experience has no "interest" in the extension of his husbandry : and management ought to be described in detail for the he has never pushed it before public attention by any example of others. Let us hope he will come forward form of advertising, but simply given us annually bis with a letter or address on the subject. most telling, because most truthful, statement of the facts of his management and success; and it must seem
No doubt many cases of Lois-Weedon husbandry are
known to Mr. Smith ; but the above list, together with hard to him to find only a few instances of Lois-Weedon
six acres in France, which alluded to below includes all husbandry here and there, after all these years of advising agriculturists for their own good. However, he piece begun last year by ourselves.
we have yet heard of, with the exception, indeed, of a has persevered with his own cultivation with the happiest success, and an ample profit; and if others do not
In the following extract, hare we lighted upon a cboose to venture on the practice, they themselves are
foreign disciple of the Rev. Mr. Smith, of Lois. the losers. Mr. Smith has not been obliged to dig of Tull's principles applied in the same manner to the
Weedon? or a contemporary and independent expounder deeper for every succeeding crop ; but the last two
In Mr. Musgrave's “Ramble years' crops have been much greater than the previous culture of wheat ? average, though the double digging had been discon- through Normandy,” published in 1855, and describing tinued, and the fork worked only 10 inches deep. In
a tour made in the autumn of 1854, occurs this pasfact, there is not one of the numberless objections, sci
“ While on the subject of foreign husbandry, it entific as well as practical, raised against the system, is worth noticing the fact that in the heart of Northat has not been proved untenable. It remains true, mandy I saw upon land of no very rich quality a that wherever the plan has been found to fail, the rules heavy, crop of wheat grown upon a tract of six acres have been violated-unless we except Mr. Piper's case,
that had not been ‘ mended' for nearly as many years. about which more particulars are desirable; and we have
The owner himself occupied it. He was not a needy instances of success to corroborate the original testi
man; but being a breeder of sheep and a grower of mony. Mr. Jones, of Lois-Wecdon, published the sa
fruit, he laid no great stress upon arable land, and cul. tisfactory results of his practice; and Lieutenant
tivated his grain crop scientifiquement. The science Goodiff, of Granard, in Ireland, also made known the lay in the preservation of a width of well-tilled unsown success of bis trials on a small scale. In the winter intervals of three feet, marking out the corn ; and in of 1854-5, Mr. H. Dixon, of Witham, Essex, was
constant resort to spade labour, which, the wages being double-trenching five acres for the purpose; but whether low, had, in this instance, superseded the customary his wheat-growing answered, the world has not yet employment of horses and ploughs. The horse-hoe, heard. R. Calwell, Esq., of Belvedere, county Down,
spade, fork, and presser, turning up the clods to tried 14 acres in the year 1854, and extended the crumble, year after year, under the action of winter's breadth to 29 acres in 1855, the first year's crop leaving wind, rain, and frost, had been followed up by supernal about £3 10s. per acre over and above the expenses,
aids in spring and summer ; for man having found rent, profit, &c. In 1854-5-6-7 an acre of dry gravelly
labour, his Maker had contributed softening dews and land near Reading was under a modified form of the
balmy breezes, charged, as they must have been, with Lois-Weedon system ; and, though found to yield three the treasures of nitrogen, and penetrating deeply the quarters annually, would not have been remunerative porous soil. Nothing but this winter and summer except for the high price of produce. One or two quarters fallow, under the advantages of depth and constant pulless than the land would grow in ordinary good culture verization, aud such aid from the stores of heaven, is of course unsatisfactory; but in this case, some of the could, in the absence of all manure, account for the most important conditions of management were ne
self-same breadth of land yielding successive white crops glected. Mr. Piper's lately-published results are very
in the abundance apparent in every part of it. unfavourable, as he got only five sacks of corn and half-a- “ I dare say the English tenantry would laugh at the ton of straw per acre; but the details of his manage- bare mention of land yielding abundantly without ment are not at present forthcoming. Lord Rayleigh manure ; and the proprietor's face would lengthen if he has grown two acres of Lois-Weedon wheat, near surmised his broad acres were held by an occupier that Witham, for five years successively, without inanure ; never sent a tumbril of dung into the stubbles. But the average yield being 44 bushels. Mr. Lawes has there is one party in the country who would be only too made the system fail at Rothamsted on a good loamy happy to see the system perpetuated; I mean the soil; but merely, we believe, in consequence of not ad labourers, who, being sent on to the ploughed field to hering to Mr. Smith's instructions. We remember to trench it with the spade, bury the exhausted top-soil, have seen a large field of three-row wheat in Kent, last and bring the lower stratum of fresh soil to the surface, year. In Lincolnshire we knew a cottage plot under the would throw all the worn-out loam to the bottom, and same system; and last spring passed a field by the road bring clean, fresh, vegetative mould to the surface; the side where the farmer was rolling his triple rows with depth and quality of the active soil being hereby wonthe wheels of a cart, the horse walking along the fallow derfully improved, and the number of bands employed intervals. A spirited agriculturist in Norfolk has for being triple of the average amount of labour. An aid several years grown wheat on a plan much resembling like this to ordinary tillage would reclaim the most unthat of Lois-Weedon. On a strong loamy soil he had promising pieces. But, in our variable climate, the wheat in triple rows, with a row of potatoes planted in process of cultivation must necessarily be expeditious,
and two horses can do in one day the work of twenty methods of growing wheat in rows, and trenching and
Hence the paramount obligation to use ploughs, horse-hoeing the fallow intervals ; for, though Mr. and not spades ; and to create, through the medium of Smith began operations in 1846, the methods and results nourishing agents, the principles of new vegetalion : were not made public until the winter of 1849-50. It for, as we cannot replace every year as much as we re- may be, however, that bad the above account been move from our fields, in the form of produce, and since more explicit as to dates, costs, and quantities, we we exhaust the finest soil by repeated cropping, we are should have found that the “ Word in Season," so little bound to replenish with fertilizing substances, and to heeded in our own land, crossed the Channel and went bring into operation, by artificial applications, those at once to the heart of this Normandy husbandman, active elements (hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, and nitro- who "cultivates his grain crop scientifiquement." gen) which the Divine husbandry above-mentioned At any rate, we have here a capital corroborative would employ, were large and little farms exclusively experiment in the Lois Weedon system ; and we by no cultivated on the principle I have described. The means share in the author's opinion as to the impossitheory is most truthful, and for that reason I have ad-bility of carrying out the principle, owing to the great verted to it; but the practice is impossible, not only in cost of labour involved, and the want of time in our respect of cost, but of the climate ; and therefore the climate to accomplish the digging. Mr. Smith has healthful and refreshing ammoniacal aroma sent forth already progressed a long way towards rendering himfrom a field well ploughed, harrowed, and manured, in self independent of manual spade-work, by his inventhe most approved fashion, will be as acceptable to my tion of a rotary digger, used in connection with the critical nostrils as ever."
ordinary plough; and, as we shall relate in another The author appears to be unaware of Mr. Smith's paper, there are other methods of endeavouring to perdoings at Lois Weedon, and he seems to imply that this form the requisite tillage by horse-labour. Let us try Normandy farmer had practised the system ever since to make traction-implements suffice; and then we sball the year 1848 or '9. If so, it will be exceedingly in- not only cultivate with the greatest economy, but slean teresting to find that two scientific cultivators, so far may be employed as the motive power, and machinery apart, should have independently evolved identical' be more largely our fertilizer instead of manure.
AN ENGLISH FARMER IN FRANCE. SIR,—According to promise I will give you my im-, our Quakers ; the Sisters of Charity; the gendarmes pressions on all here that is novel and interesting to an in their most picturesque dresses and cocked hats, Englishman. As a farmer of 30 years, perhaps some looking like the soldiers of Frederic the Great ; and account of the agriculture may be acceptable to your all the women, except the highest classes, without bonreaders; but I will not confine myself to that alone. Inets ; all these odd costumes make the streets appear to hope I am unprejudiced, and can I possibly find any. a stranger almost like a carnival. The overhauling of thing worthy of adoption I will not fail to note it. in your baggage is soon over, and you go to your hotel. many parts of England there are many things agricultu- The two best in town charge 1š. 8d. per day for your ral, which appear strange to a visitor from a distance, chamber, 1s. 8d. for the table d'hote, and ls. 3d. for but I make it a rule never to condemn too quickly breakfast ; so your expenses you know at once; if you The more ridiculous a custom appears the more certain like to stay a month ihey will do it cheaper. Every: you may be there is some reason in it. In this frame of thing is clean, people attentive, and the beds the best I mind will I view here all I sec, and if any of my brother ever slept in; they are differently stuffed to any in farmers at home find amusement in my homely lucu- England; even the poorest have good beds of dried brations, I shall feel repaid.
leaves. On having arranged your room, you have a First, a few words to any who may like to do as I am cup of coffee and Cogniac, which always join company doing, viz., enjoying bealth, amusement, and I may add bere, and have a look at the town ; streets straight, information, at a small expense. By all means take houses high, rooms all lofty, roads and paths pared ayour passport first. I did not, and so had to go to our like, most unpleasant to the feet, plenty of public buildConsul here for it; the charge is 5s. ; but whatever ings, large churches, and last, though not least interestnumber form your party one passport is enough. I pre- ing, the fortifications, which, of course, now only are of fer entering France by Dunkirque, because it is its most use to enable a small duty to be collected on all eatables northern part; its richest in land, in population, and and drinkables that enter the town. You return in manufactures. I went on board the boat at the Tower to dinner at 5 o'clock, and find for your two franks at 12 at night, by 12 o'clock next day, Oct. 16, I was soup, fish, meat, poultry, and sweets and beer. Wine here. The sea was as smooth as a pond, and the sun is extra. Common red wine, not so good as our cider, as brilliant as summer ; the cost 10s. for the boat, and iš franc per bottle. Cogniac is about 12s. a gallon; 28. for the steward. The coast of France in this part is and eau de vie, which is principally the spirit of the not very interesting, as all the country is as level as beet-root, half the money. I like it, and it agrees with Romney Marsh; but still the first approach of a stran- me; but it is not considered wholesome. So far my ger to a foreign part must always excite and interest friends would have been here twenty-hours, and have him. The moment I arrived no doubt could possibly seen the town itself. They would now begin to look at exist that this was not my native land. The men, the other matters. The first thing that would strike the bouses, even the shipping was so unlike our Thames ; eye of a farmer is the extraordinary waggons, and mode one-third of all the men wear a uniform ; nothing pub- of attaching the horses to them. The waggons of the lic can be done without it. Our first acquaintance, of town are narrow, very long, and not a foot from the course, are the Custom-house people; there are 175 ground: very convenient for the merchandize here. The “ douaniers," all dressed like soldiers, with muskets, front wheels are not above 2 to 2 feet high, with a short &c. ; the police in green clothes and cocked hats ! ! and axle, to enable them to turn in a small space, as they swords ; then the 800 soldiers, as a whole regiment, is are altogether in front of the waggon-body. The horse here always; the priests in black gowns and hats, like is in shafts, and draws from a bar, like a chaise, to give
play to his shoulders ; and, except that we are astonished acountry-woman riding to market on her donkey. She to see one horse draw such heavy loads on such low has a saddle of sheepskin, with the wool on, reaching wheels, the whole thing works appropriate for its pur- from the withers to the tail. She sits sideways, and has pose. But the country waggons are what excited my behind her, as on a pillion, a tub of butter, &c., most surprise : long, narrow, and clumsy ; as they are liberal beautifully clean ; and herself without a bonnet, but inof wood, but careful in use of iron. Small lock under stead a large cap as white as snow, completes as rural a front wheels, with axle two feet shorter than the hind subject as artist would wish to sketch. The barges of one. Never painted, and loaded occasionally with six 200 tons on the canals which traverse Belgium and or seven of our tons to three horses abreast. Two tons France I think complete the objects of greatest interest per horse is considered a fair load; but the horses and in the town. roads are both excellent, and the latter without a hill I should fancy no foreign agricultural subject can for many miles. In lieu of shafts, this waggon has a be more interesting to your readers than an account of pole half the length of a coach-pole, at the end of which the bette-raves, and the manufacture of them into sugar the horses are hooked on to whipple trees—three for and alcohol, as sugar and spirits we all consume. The two horses, and five for three, as we have at plough former, it is often said, is unprofitable to produce in our in some parts of England. So that no one borse can West India colonies, and ought to be supplanted by draw more than the others, the driver walks at their cotton. To say nothing about much of our imported heels with one rein in his left hand, and his right on the sugar being the result of slave labour, the spirit is doubly pole, as he has to guide it and assist in stopping it; but a matter of anxiety now that the vines (though better) in passing bridges or other descents he screws up a are more or less affected by disease. It is a root well wooden bar, which catches both hind-wheels. The adapted to our land ; and it does seem extraordinary to horses are the most docile I ever saw, and certainly me we have nothing of the kind. Whether we are prethese ungainly waggons follow well. The harness is as vented by law I know not; and if some of your corres. simple as our plough-barness. I have endeavoured, but pondents would inform me the reason, I would feel obliged uselessly, to find out the reason for this placing the It is the main paying crop of the farmer here; and a horses so far from their work. I believe it is that all most profitable one too, producing great weight, bearing bere are Flemish, staid, sober, money-making people, an unlimited demand (except at this moment), and fetchwho are satisfied to do as their forefathers did; and the ing always a remunerating price. Just now there is a only other reason is, that, the harness being all alike, they complete panic in the trade, sugars having dropped in are momentarily detached from one job to another, or price, but more particularly spirits, which have fallen an extra horse added over a bad bit of road in their nearly half during the last six months, caused by the fields. But from this strange combination of horses and great crop of beet, the bad quality of them, and the inwaggons two hints may be taken. Decidedly three creased supply of alcohol from the vine districts; con. horses with whippletrees more equally divide their work sequently the roots, which for the last four years have than with us, and more easily start a dead pull. I have fetched from 14s. to 188., and in October 21s. per ton, not seen one horse fret, and another hang back, as com- are now a drug at 28. 6d., and, after March, will be mon at home; and I see no reason why we should not worth nothing, as every month after Christmas they lose attach them in the same way. Some may think one. some saccharine. So you may imagine the state of the horse might pull the other back till his hocks were on trade and the feelings of the producers. the front wheel; but if we had a pole (or two poles for But, first, as regards the cultivation. The land here three horses), the pole pieces would prevent this. How being all a splendid loam, is extremely applicable to the admirably these bars are adapted to the three-horse production of these roots; but, like our mangel wurzel, omnibuses of London, as they must all draw alike. As they are suitable to clays. Indeed, French chemists tell regards the men, ours might imitate their sobriety, us that the most sugary roots are produced on clay with a cleanliness, and kindness to their horses. I have not deep top-soil, and containing flint. I need not say, the seen one horse struck; they all (gentlemen's coachmen land requires to be clean : all here is always so. It is too) crack their whips backwards and forwards, that is, ploughed very deeply in autumn, well dunged, and sown twice to our once, and are quite proud of the horrid from the middle of April to the end of May. The quannoise. Fancy a nobleman's coachman doing this in tity of seed required is about 8lbs. to the acre, as it is Hyde Park! The other hint we may take from their either drilled or dibbled, with the thumb, one foot apart. collars: The hames are attached to them, and go all The cost of it is about 5d. per lb. It is not liable round. They open at bottom, with a hinge at top, so to be attacked by the fly; and a plant is nearly have no occasion to be thrust over the head. They are certain. When the leaves are as long as the little quickly put over the neck. At the bottom each hame finger, it is singled out, so that each plant stands exactly has what I can only describe as half of a door-hinge ; one foot apart each way; as if thinner, they grow too these are pressed together, and a pin inserted, and all is large. The smaller ones producing the most sugar, they done is most quickly. We all know the trouble in Eng- are refused by the manufacturer if weighing much more land with colts and bad-tempered horses to get the than 4lbs. each. During the summer of course it is collar over the head. I must think theirs the better way. frequently hoed. The leaves are not taken off for cattle All collars, whether nags or cart-horses, are the same. during the progress of its growth, as is sometimes done
The next attraction is the splendid asses; I did not in England with the wurzel; and in September, when know there was such a breed out of Spain---the Flem- the tops droop and turn brown, it is time to lift them. ish ass, over twelve hands high, fat, handsome, and good This is often done by the acre, at 16s. I mention this workers. They never are shod, though they work on to show how well the farm-labourers are paid here ; but the roads, and are of the value of £12 to £14. I could it requires to be most particularly well cleaned, which not believe it, till all told me the same. The environs | they do for this money, as also cut off the tops and of Dunkirque for three or four miles are devoted to crowns (which contain no sugar), and throw the roots market-gardening, and principally managed by women, into the waggons (carts are very seldom used here). The who come into the town with enormous carts of vege- crop is about 22 tons per acre ; often more. If not sold tables drawn by these donkeys. They think nothing of at once, it is clamped, and well covered with earth. half a ton weight being drawn by one; and I saw a man Barns, cellars, and walls have been tried, but none do so riding on one with a barrel slung on each side of his well as the clamps, which are left open for some saddle. But the most picturesque ibing is the sight of time along the whole ridge, to permit every particle