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with such a keen destructive edge, during the last three intrusion of dogs ; any cause likely to startle a ewe at or four years, throughout the month of March, many of this period must be guarded against. Unless the shepthe breeders in those districts have turned the tups to herd's dog is a very silent reliable animal, I advise that the ewes at the end of October, or the commencement of he should be tied up at this season. November. I very much question, however, the bene. The shepherd must now look out for cast ewes ; for a fit received from the change. One early lamb is gene- ewe to be long in this position may endanger her life, rally worth two late ones.

or cause an awkward presentation at delivery. Where high-prized sheep are employed, as in the PREPARATIONS FOR LAMBING.-The Shepherd.case of a ram-breeder, another plan is sometimes adopted, It may be thought curious that I start off, under this for the purpose of obtaining the greatest amount of ser- head, with the shepherd; but as upon his qualifications vice from the ram, and more regularity of procedure. depend so entirely the welfare of the flock, it is of the The rams are kept in pens, while a teazer, or imper- greatest consequence that we have the right man in the fectly castrated sheep, is turned amongst the flock, and right place. There is no season like the lambing season those ewes seen to be in heat are brought up to the for trying a man's tact, knowledge, and patience. rams selected for them. They are then numbered with During that season only, the skilful attentive servant a brand, and a note is made of the date, &c.

may save his year's wages ; and the comparative results Ruddling. It is well, that the shepherd may know between the skill and attention, and inattention or blanwhat the tups are about, to mark their breasts with rud- dering assiduity, during a precarious time, are truly asdle for the first 17 days they are among the ewes, that tounding. Mr. Price and Mr. Youatt, both writers on being the time of the periodical recurrence of heat, and sheep, seem to regard as natural and proper treatment then to use soot. At lambing time the red-rumped ewes, on the shepherd's part many things that would display or those that conceived from the first copulation, are a lamentable amount of ignorance and incapacity quite brought into the fold, and the black-rumped ones after incompatible with the burden of such a responsibility: the proper lapse of time.

One instance is given by Mr. Price, of a flock of 800 Choice of Food.--About a fortnight before ewes are ewes out of which only 100 pairs were saved; but that put to tup, they are removed from the stubbles and bare with more skill the number of pairs afterwards increased pastures, and put upon the freshest pastures the to 200. The improved skill of one man then saved farm affords, or better still on rape. Failing rape or

200 lambs, which would come to be worth £200, coleseed they may be folded upon white turnips, or equalling the wages of at least four good shepherds ! turnips may be carted to them upon grass. Mixtures The shepherd's duties are no sinecure, and can be perof white mustard and coleseed, or white mustard | formed by no ordinary man. Supposing him to have alone, are found very advantageous at this season. attentively observed the tapping and registered the ewes, When this better fare has begun to tell in their improved and in conjunction with his master so regulated the condition, the tups are turned amongst them ; for under food as to have kept them in a healthy progressive state, such circumstances the ewes come to heat quickly, and he has now to make all his preparations with a wise are more likely to conceive twins. And this quickness foresight only to be gained by experience. The place to to receive the male is more important than at first sight lamb in is to be selected, and the time attended to. appears, since the ram should be removed in three or Further, the requisite assistance, and no more, has to four weeks from the date of his admission, because be rendered at the proper instant of lambing, and the lambs begotten so long after the rest will not coincide lamb and the mother both assiduously watched for days with them, are often sickly, and suffer from neglect. afterwards. Milk has to be given to lambs when For this reason poppy-cake, bruised and served in mothers are unkind or destitute of milk ; sickness of troughs, is used by some, and other stimulants are various kinds has to be watchfully dealt with, and great adopted.

judgment is required in the breaking of pains and Ewes are then put upon moderate fare, care being mothering of ewes. Beyond this the operation of castrataken to avoid the extremes of fatness and poverty. tion has to be performed at the proper state of the The poor ewe, if she lives through the season of parturi. animal's strength, in the proper state of the weather. tion, dies with her lamb, from exhaustion subsequently, Attention to these duties rests almost entirely, while the fat ewe rarely escapes atacks of fever and in and in many cases entirely so, with the shepflammation, from which cause she sheds her wool, and herd. Supposing then that by performing his part in fails to nourish her lamb either before its birth or after- a skilful manner night and day, until the lambing is not wards. They do well run thinly on grass land, 1 or 11 only entirely completed, but the lambs are beyond to an acre, with, when the frost sets in, a few turnips or danger, he saves the lives of ten ewes worth 40s. each mangolds carted to them, and a rack filled with hay, and of twenty lambs that would shortly be worth 20s. pea or barley straw, to run to. When the four-course each -no extravagant supposition in a large standing system is adopted, there is generally a necessity for flock of fifteen score ewes - it is clear that in so doing feeding ewes upon turnips, and they then follow the he will save the amount of his wages. fatting sheep, to eat up their scraps and shells. This It is found that skill is better worth having, in a sheparrangement suits both lots, for Swedish turnips pro- herd, even though, as is commonly the case, it is comduce fatness on ewes more readily than other kinds. | bined with indolence, than the most conscientious and As the lambing time approaches, the ewes should be re- untiring exertion without skill. Under the latter the moved from the turnips to the grass or seed, receiving condition of ewes not unfrequently becomes too high, and there mangold wurtzel and a little oilcake or oats. It | inflammation induced, or undue anxiety to help in time may be remarked here that too much care cannot be of labour, increases the danger to the ewe, and the loss observed throughout the month of February, as to the to the master. Mr. Stephens acutely remarks—"Evils regularity in time of feeding, quantity and kind of food will be prevented by skilful attention, and cured by given.

attentive skill." A scant supply for a day or two, or a total and sudden The man whose duty it is to shepherd a flock of Leichange from turnips to mangolds, for instance, would cester sheep or a flock nearly crossed with Leicesters, be likely to produce serious results in the crop of lambs. will have more work than he who tends a flock of Sufficient attention is not paid to this foct. The wool Downs or Cheviots, simply because the exes from more suffers as well as the lambs.

frequently lambing pairs, or producing square-built, Great care at this time should be taken to prevent the big lambs, require more assistance than the sheep of the

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hill country. However well he has contrived to bring head, its tail is put in her mouth, and if she attempts the flock within easy range, his eye and hand are con- to run away, as many will do from their first lamb, she is stantly in action, and the master will do well to render penned with her lamb, and if necessary penned in very him frequent assistance. At night, during a busy time, close quarters, so as to prevent her butting it. an extra pair of hands may save many lambs.

If the ewe continues to lie and strain after the deli. Every breeding farm should have a paddock consisting of two or three acres, well protected with a high lamb, which may be delivered in the same fashion. It bedge, and situated near the shepherd's or the farm- not unfrequently occurs, however, that one of these two house. In lieu of such a permanent lambing fold, a lambs is dead, or misplaced. In case it is dead, and row of faggots, obliquely laid upon the sward, and has been so for a fortnight, it will be sufficiently rotted staked down, or a line of hurdles, wattled with straw, to allow of being pulled away peacemeal. If it is not cutting off a bit of the most convenient grass-field, can so far decomposed, it must be cut away. When a false be made to answer the purpose. Indeed the stack presentation does occur, the shepherd must gently enyard is often used, and with less expense.

deavour to rectify it, by introducing his hand, well within the enclosure, in some warm situation against a lubricated with fresh lard. And the less dogging and wall or hedge, roofed with straw, a row of pens, con- disturbance of any kind the ewes receive during pregstructed of wattled hurdles stubble. They nancy, the less risk is there of unnatural presentations. serve as a refuge for ewes that lamb in the night, In case of twins there is danger of mistaking the legs. or at any other time of day, and require temporary pro- Supposing the head to be bent back, it must be tection from cold, wind, and rain. If possible the pas brought forward; and the legs, if bent, must be pushed tures into which the lambed ewes are turned are pro- back and straightened. The presentation of a breech vided with triangular shelters, or pens made of three gives rise to a difficult case, and renders the delivery wattled hurdles.

tedious and painful. The hind legs must first be brought The fold is intended to hold either the whole flock, or out, and the rest of the body must quickly follow, or the those who by their marks are expected to lamb first, lamb will be drowned in the liquor amni. and they are driven in at night-fall.

Or it may be necessary to rest the ewe on her Those ewes that have no lamb, termed generally shoulder, raise her rump, and turn the lamb with the "guile," must about this time be selected and put with hand in the womb, to its proper position. the fattening sheep. Their blooming fleece and active There are many curious operations rendered neces. motions betray them; and if a doubt exists, the shepherd sary by the delivery of malformations; but it is not neshould examine the udder. If the teat upon pressure cessary to dwell upon them here. Before I pass on, yields no dark, thick viscid substance, the fact of no however, I will remind you that in case of twins the ewe lamb may be considered proved. Before the lambing may be so employed with and fond of the first-born, as commences the shepherd must be supplied with brandy, to cause the pains of labour to cease for the second. castor oil, Epsom salts, ginger, peppermint, spirits of The uaskilful shepherd may be misled by this fact, and nitre, laudanum, one or two bottles for milk, a cord, keen observation alone detects her true state. knife and hook ; with the most important of these he To reproduce pains in such a case, or where fruitless must fill his budget, and the rest must be at hand. For pains have been succeeded by apathy, two table spoonshis nightly rounds he will need a lantern, and to facili- ful of ergot of rye, repeated as a second dose in a tate the capture of individuals of his flock without run. quarter of an hour, will be efficient. ning any, a crook is necessary.

From the after-pains or reaction of the womb after Symptoms of Labour.-These are enlargement, and birth, great loss is often sustained. This malady manireddening of the parts beneath the tail, drooping of the fests itself sometimes immediately after parturition, or flanks, impatient stamping, isolation, frequent stretch- not until the first, second, or third day. It seems to ing, shifting from place to pluce, lying down and rising be the effect of the great exhaustion of the nervous almost immediately.

system. If it continues twelve hours, the life of the ewe Labour and its Phases.-The immediate preliminary may be given up. In severe cases a dose of two ounces of labour is the expulsion of the bag of water from the

of laudanum may be given three times a day. Inflammavagina, subsequent to which ensue violent pains, and tion of the womb after lambing is usually seen between seeming desire- of relief. But until the yellow hoofs the first and fourth day. Its course is very rapid and appear in the passage, with the mouth lying upon them, fatal. Bleedings, and purgatives of Epsom salts, are the the ewe should be left entirely to itself.

usual remedies. The true preventive is care not to In case the ewe proves too weak to deliver herself, overfeed previous to lambing. the shepherd must deliver her, with the remembrance

A little trouble is likely to be occasioned to the shepthat a hasty parturition superinduces inflammation, herd by a protrusion of the uterus in some of the ewes. Experience must guide him as to the proper time to

A stitch or two with a needle-and-thread to keep it in, wait between the appearance mentioned and the assist

and a little laudanum to prevent paining, will generally ance rendered.

suffice; but the ewe should never again be used for Where the shepherd is alone, the most sensible mode breeding purposes. of delivering a ewe is by gently laying her on her left It may be as well to mention here that the placenta side. He then bestrides her body, kneeling, with his drops soon after delivery. It should on no account be right knee against her loin, his left heel against the lower allowed to lie upon the lambing-ground. Indeed, the part of her abdomen, and, of course, bis face to the pens and paddock cannot be kept too clean, or too fretail. Thus with both hands free, he proceeds to push quently bedded, as many losses occur to the slovenly out from him, with both hands, one leg of the lamb, | manager from the contact of rotting and impure suband then the other, and seizing both legs above the fet- stances, at this time, with the inflamed and lacerated locks with his left hand, he pushes them downwards parts of the ewes. from the ewe's back. With his right hand he endeavours Suckling, &C.It is well for ewes producing twins to free the head of the lamb from the vulva of the ewe ; to be separated ; for if, left in the crowd, they lose sight which doné, the action of the hands being simultaneous of one lamb, they often refuse to recognize it again, with the strainings of the ewe, only helping not tearing, even if the separation has not existed three hours. There the operation is completed. Pains are taken to induce are endless repudiations and capricious partialities now tho ewe to recognize the lamb; it is placed near her shown by the ewes, which try the patience of the shepherd. But, as a rule, the maternal affections seem to CASTRATION AND DOCKING.-Ten days to a month be much dependent vpon the flow of milk; and the after birth, all lambs not reserved for tups are to be casshepherd, seeing that the well-filled udder is his best trated. The parts have not at this age attained too friend, never ceases to tease the farmer into large grants much rigidity, nor is the lamb so fat as to render fever of cake and corn for the sucklers. Care should have imminent from the operation. been previously taken to divest the region of the udder Authority says “it is best done early in the morning, of all wool; for its presence in the stomach of the lamb in a fresh breeze, and by no means should the lambs be is a certain cause of death. Having exercised even over-driven and heated previously.” The modus operandi great care in this particular, I have lost many lambs. is as follows: The captured lambs are one by one placed The symptoms are, violent working in the body, with with their backs upon the right shoulder of a stout lad, frothing at the mouth.

who doubling the corresponding fore and hind legs toThe first aim of the shepherd is to ensure for every gether in either hand, holds them steady in that position lamb, as soon as possible after birth, a good drink of for the shepherd, who simply forces up the testicle with warm milk : this once accomplished, be rapidly increases bis finger and thumb, slits the purse, seizes the testicle in strength and ability to bear cold weather.

between his teeth, and draws it out till the spermatic In the case of shearling ewes, who usually have a

cord is broken, and so on. There are other plans, but scant supply of milk, cows' milk is resorted to. New

none so simple as these. When the parts get too rigid milk is supplied to them by means of bottles fitted with

to allow of the operation being performed with safety, a mouth-piece, through which the lambs suck; or there

silk thread is tied very tightly round the testicle, and are other modes of administering the lacteal stream of circulation being cut off, they drop off in process of life: but the chemical constituents of cows' milk and

time. This seems a less barbarous, but more trouble. ewes' milk, meeting in the stomachs of lambs, certainly

some mode than the former. do not agree well. Particularly they do not where the

The opportunity is now taken to dock the tail, dividing cow from which the milk is obtained has calved recently against the third joint. The object of this operation is Ewe-milk is poor in butter, but rich in curd; which is to keep the sheep clean bebind, which cannot be done known to be the character of that of cows calved six when they wear long tails. months, and not again pregnant.

The lambs, after castration and docking, should not Should a ewe show indisposition to allow her lamb to

be placed in high lank grass, or on stubble, where the suck, her udder should be examined. If it is hot and parts can be irritated. Having surmounted these difihard, exhibiting tumorization, fomentations, with the

culties and risks, the shepherd may now begin to cal. internal administration of Epsom salts, will be useful,

culate his successes. Stephens says, “ He should not followed by the vigorous thumps of the lamb, dispers-one-half the number of ewes with twin lambs; nor

be satisfied with his exertions unless he has preserved ing the tumour and promoting the flow of milk. Camphor and spirits of wine and Castile soap are a stronger should be congratulate himself if he has lost a single remedy.

ewe in lambing." “ In regard,” says the same writer, There is another troublesome piece of business for

to the yield of lambs of the Cheviot breed, it is conthe shepherd at this time-I mean the Mothering of sidered a favourable result to rear a lamb to each ewe; Lambs. This has to be done when a ewe dies, leaving

with Southdowns a little more; with black-faced ewes lambs ; when the lambs die, leaving a good flow of milk

18 lambs out of the score of ewes is perhaps as favourbehind them, for the benefit of the wee things that are

able. Cheviots yield a few pairs, Southdowns more, left destitute; or when a fine ewe, with abundance of

black-faced ewes very few, while half the number of milk, has but a single lamb, while a poor or young ewe

Leicester ewes should have twin lambs." has twins ; the shepherd seeing it best to break the poor AFTER-MANAGEMENT.-So soon as the lambs are ewe's couple, giving twins to her that has the best fairly a-foot, their dams are turned with them into the supply for them. If this is done when the lambs are most forward piece of seeds, or to rape, rye, winter wet, there is no trouble involved; but the effort to in- oats, or water meadow; the great point being to bave duce a ewe to recognize a lamb that has been dropped abundance of succulent green food for the ewes as soon some days, is very trying to the patience. Various as they lamb. The ewes bite very closely, and eat con. methods are adopted to cheat the mothers, the shepherd stantly while lambs are with them, so that they shortly rubbing the body of the lamb to be received with the trim-off the grass or seed in a season unfavourable to body of the dead lamb; or (if in the case supposed last) | vegetation. This fact renders the farmer much unessi. with the body of the live lamb. If this will not do, the ness; for when the pasture looks brown, he knows that dead lamb is skinned; and the stranger, invested in its he must either remove the flock, or, by keeping it where tegument, deceitfully obtains, like another Esau, the it is, impoverish the lambs, and so bite into the beart parental blessing. Close confinement is usually neces- of the grass or seed, that the summer will pass before sary to render these arts effective.

it recovers from the treatment. Those lambs unsuccessful in this line of deception, The addition of a water-meadow to a farm is most or, may-be, supernumeraries, depend upon the kind valuable at this season, for these will always have a supattentions of the shepherd or the dairymaid.

ply of food when other pastures are bare. Matters Before I pass from this portion of the subject, I must should so be arranged that there should be a succession remember to say that, if the shepherd's house is not near, of fields for the ewes and lainbs, passing them on from one he should have access to some outhouse or moveable to another, and so resting each piece alternately, which shepherd's house, with a fire, before which, wrapped in will be found a more effectual method than that of flannel, he may put such lambs as require this attention, stocking all lightly, but continuously. In removing as many do, during those cold stormy nights when lambs from a short to a full bite, caution is needed. It lambs usually arrive in greatest abundance.

should be accomplished, old hands say in dry weather I must also remark that, should a case of puerperal in the afternoon : else we have a flush of that fever occur, the shepherd must avoid touching the ewe quality of milk which produces green-skit in lambs, so affected. If he has done so, some other person must The premonitory symptoms of this malady are, general take his accoucheur-duties for a few days, as the malady dulness, watery eyes, and stiff joints ; half-an ounce may be communicated to numbers of the flock by the Epsom salts with half a drachm of ginger is the best shepherd's hand. Same one else, too, must do all the aperient remedy, to which may be added a table-spoonskinning, &c., during the lambing time.

ful of cordial, consisting of equal parts of brandy and

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sweet spirits of nitre. When the action of the stomach be killed ; for being the only harbours for them now shall have been stopped by the carding or coagulation of their mothers have lost their wool, the lambs would be milk, an alkali should be employed to dissolve the co- so irritated as to render all improvement impossible. agulum. The best to be so used is magnesia. Painful In conclusion, to be really successful as a breeder of heaving of the body indicates the cause of disease. With sheep, the farmer must not be satisfied with a knowrespect to costiveness, half ounce doses of Epsom salts ledge of his flock in the aggregate, but he must be intirepeated every six hours until relief is afforded, and mate with the members of that flock individually, and removal to a more succulent pasture, are the proper their antecedents. This can only be obtained by going remedies. Epsom salts will, too, generally relieve fever down thoroughly and personally into the practical dein lambs at its commencement. This malady is indi. tails, as very few breeders care to do. None know the cated by quick breathing.

trouble, care, pleasure, and profit of such a course, but Medicine can only be resorted to in individual cases. such as practise it. Not a day should go by, without Where a malady prevails throughout a flock, it is best the farmer passing in review every sheep beneath his generally to meet it by judicious dieting.

eye ; and at least once a fortnight they should all come The ewes must be kept in a thriving condition, that beneath his hand, as the touch is the best test of condition is, progressing all summer, and on the 20th of July or and comparative improvement that can be employed. thereabouts, the lambs should be removed to a good Such constant attention will give a power of discernment clover eddish, at a sufficient distance from their mothers to be obtained in no other way; and it is the possession to prevent the one lot hearing the bleating of the other. of this power alone which constitutes the profit of the I say that the lambs should be removed ; but it will be flock; for the unobservant and careless master will only better to say that the ewes should be removed, leaving discover a malady when it has gone too far to be remethe lambs where they were, for a day or two before the died, while the observant master will detect by a species change is made. So that if they are to go upon clover of anticipation, and prevent rather than attempt to cure. eddish, it would be well for ewes and lambs to go there To this homily I will append a remark made by that intogether for a day or two before the separation takes defatigable general, the late Sir Charles Napier, when at place. Experience will show that too much attention Cephalonia, and leave my readers to draw their own decannot be paid to such apparently trifling matters. It ductions therefrom :-"How entirely all things depend is in assiduous attention to such trifling circumstances on the mode of executing them! How ridiculous mere that a farmer's profit consists.

theories are! My successor thought, as half the world I must not forget to state that when the ewes are always thinks, that a man in command has only to order, shorn, the lambs should be dipped in a composition of and obedience will follow. Hence they are baffled not arsenic: easily pre pared by boiling soft-soap, arsenic, from want of talent, but from inactivity ; vainly thinkand sulphur together.

ing that while they spare themselves, everyone under This is done that the “ticks" they possess may them will work like horses."


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WINTER FOOD FOR CATTLE. Sir,- The importance of winter food for either to know what tenants would suit our waste lands, bleak horses, neat cattle, or sheep, is so generally acknowledged, and dreary as they may be, we should consult the plants that there can be no need for any apology in offering a that have skirted the line of perpetual snow, and we few hints as to the likeliest methods of getting up a shall find them ready to volunteer into a better country, supply. The turnip, the carrot, and the beet, formerly and as we have no place so bad as the place they have garden stuff, have all been long ago pressed into the left, it will be seen that they are decidedly bettering their service of agriculture : even the tender exotics have condition, and thus all danger of growing them is at an been forcibly taken possession of, and the cucumber end. I need not enumerate the plants that do not confamily itself has been taxed to feed the cows, in the cern the farmer, for the lichens and other cryptogamous shape of gourds, &c. After such examples as these, let plants are not to be cultivated by any ordinary tillage, no one be surprised at any botanical extravagance that but the birch and the willow have their representatives may hereafter be perpetrated.

in the high hill-tops bordering the boundary line where The gourd, beet, carrot, and turnip require delicate all vegetable life is wanting ; it is to families like these, handling and a fine tilth, besides skill and capital, and then, that we must look for the support we so much necessarily imply a considerable advance in shelter, want of winter fodder. The tops of the heather may drainage, levelling, &c; but there are situations of give a bite of green food for the hill wether" to keep mountain, moor, morass, crag, cliff, &c., where cul- in life till the return of spring, but the plant is not tivation of the above-named herbaceous plants is entirely adapted for a better place, and its rate of growth will out of the question ; and as there are some thousands of for ever fix it to the mountain. It is far otherwise with acres of waste that receive rain and sunshine in Eng- the willow family. "Growing like a willow" is an idiom land, and yet produce little return, it is time to try if of our language ; and when we see shoots of this tree these unprofitable servants could not be set to work. (for it has both shrubs and trees) six feet long in one Most farms have some waste lands, and the following season, we cannot fail to appreciate the willow as a experiments might be tried on a small scale on these valuable fodder plant as far as bulk is concerned. smaller wastes first, before attempting them on a larger Some years ago I bought a goat and a kid, to try scale. To propose anything tender as a tenant of the bow many species of trees produced leaves and twigs waste would be quite out of the question, therefore I that the goat would eat. Suffice it to state, bere, that she shall proceed at once to lay before the readers of the ate the willow greedily; and when I was showing the experiMark-Lane Express my reasons for suggesting the ment to an English nobleman who had travelled a great adoption of shrubs instead of herbaceous plants into deal in the North of Europe, he told me that he had the agricultural service.

seen hay made of willow, and that it made good winter There is a limit set by Nature to the culture of hardy food. The willow has a great spread of foliage, and the plants, viz., the line of perpetual snow ; and if we wish 'amount of cellular tissue in the leaves and bark bears a very large per-centage indeed to the woody fibre of the the black sallow particularly excelling as a screen against green shoot. All immature leaves, by a law of nature, the sea-breeze. My father showed me large willow-trees, adhere firmly to their shoots : when the leaf is ripe, it that were once the twigs used for tying up the bundles of cuts itself off, with a clean-healed wound, in a very work- trees from the nursery ; and when he had planted the manlike manner ; therefore in making hay of shrubs the trees, he cut these twigs into sets, and stuck them into leaves must be decidedly unripe in order to adhere to the ground: therefore, what I have stated about the the stems. I need not tell any one that the willow will willow is no experiment now, but an established piece grow in any mud-bank at the level of the sea, and I of practical planting. Next in order comes the gorse, have already said that the Salix antarctica on the moun- as a plant for waste lands ; but of this I mean to say notain is a creeping shrub on the verge of perpetual snow. thing, and pass on to the third slave or drudge, which isthe This immense range, from undrained swamps to bleak ivy. This plant is one of our most beautiful evergreens, hill-tops, speaks volumes for the economical use of the and is well known to gardeners and planters as a very willow ; and if any one were to introduce a plant balf bad character. It is so uncharitable as a neighbour to as useful as the willow, to our agricultural societies, other shrubs and trees, that it beggars the earth in which from some foreign country, he would be considered they grow by its roots, and fixes the bark of even large a benefactor to agriculture. When goats and rab- trees so tightly to their stems, that the trees are actually bits bark trees for food in winter, they teach us choked by the network of ivy-shoots. All this merely an excellent practical lesson--viz., that the bark, and illustrates the fact of this important plant being out even the wood itself, is not so bad an article of food as place. I have seen the same plant covering the grey we might have thought it to be ; and when we see a face of a huge rock, and have seen the birds flocking to person able to convert the woody fibre of an old shirt, it for shelter; and in winter, when scarcely anything or even a heap of sawdust, into sugar, we find that it is else was to be seen for snow, I have seen the shepherd not without reason that the hares and rabbits have a cutting his ivy, and the anxious flock waiting around nibble at the apple-trees in winter : but I should de- him for its downfal. The range of this plant, therefore, spair, after all this, of doing any good with such a in no way interferes with that of the willow or the subject, were it not that I have already one link in the gorse ; for it has a region of its own. It is a most dechain, to weld this idea into-namely, the gorse, which termined grower. Wherever it can find a little vegetable seems now fairly adopted into agriculture. Yes, it is a mould, it will stick on like a leech, and never misses an fact that borses have actually been eating sticks, and opportunity of raising itself on any prop that comes in thriving well on them. Thirty years ago, I saw the its way. It grows freely from cuttings, and still more whin-mill at work, reducing the prickly fodder of freely from its berries, which, in good localities, it bears the gorse-plant into food for horses; and all evidence, plentifully. It has no prickles, like the gorse, to con. then and since, goes to prove its vast importance, not tend with in its cultivation ; and it forms a scene of only as a tenant of the waste, but even as a cultivated singular beauty wherever it is cultivated. As a cover plant for fodder.

for game, it is a plant of the highest importance, and After a very long acquaintance indeed with the plants should never be planted where it has to be rooted out, indigenous to our clime that are likely to prove of service as it is very unwilling to be dislodged when once in to us in cultivating what may properly be termed our possession. wastes, I find only three that seem perfectly at home as

The limits of a newspaper will only admit of a basty slaves, or drudges, to do this dirty work; and they are glance at these matters ; but, as they will fall into hands -first, the willow, that is willing to grow in our osier- that only require reminding, and to whom the thinga beds, in that which has not even the name of " dry spoken of are no strangers, I must let them pass withland :" it will also thrive well anywhere else, for it is out further comment. propagated by cuttings merely stuck into the ground; and if there be only one joint in the ground and one

I remain, Sir, yours respectfully, above it, the tree is planted. Willows are used by

ALEX. FORSYTH. planters as nurses for other trees; and M'Gregor found 100, Quay-street, Manchester, Feb. 24.

A SUCCESSFUL METHOD OF RAISING DUCKS. Believing it to be the duty of every individual, uninteresting to those of your readers who devote to contribute, for the benefit of society, any in themselves to rural pursuits, and who pride themformation he may possess, however small, and on selves on having a well-attached poultry-yard, I subjects ever so humble, and having for several hope it may be no tax upon their time and patience years past been in the habit of seeking recreation if I go somewhat into detail. during those hours which were not devoted to During many years I was struck with the gen. severer studies and labours, in a variety of experi- eral want of success which attend the raising of this ments on subjects of Natural History, I propose species of poultry. Not one-sixth of the young giving you the result of some experiments in raising were ever raised ; they appeared to be snbject to ducks, were carried on during a number of years, inuumerable diseases. l'hose that escaped were and which finally eventuated in complete success. stunted in their growth, and did not arrive at full It is sometimes beneficial to examine the causes of size till they were many months old. The general our failures, and it affords me pleasure at this mo- complaint among farmers and planters was, that ment in retracing the steps by which, after many this, the most valuable of our poultry, was a puny disappointments, I gradually accomplished the ob- bird, hard to raise, and subject to many diseases. jects to which my inquiries and experiments were They could raise fowls and even turkeys, but there directed. As an account of the process by which I was no certainty with regard to the duck. Desiarrived at these successful results may not be rons of investigating the causes of a failure in

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