« PoprzedniaDalej »
weaned calves of two or three months old it succeeds ad- | ready for use, and will then keep 12 months longer with admirably; still, whenever it can be combined with swedes or vantage. Nine bushels of the roots will be equal to three common turnips, it is advisable to do so. I may appear bushels of malt, and sufficient for one hogshead. The roots prolix in these descriptions, and to the experienced far- will not be much deteriorated by the process of brewing, mer much will appear to be a repetition only of his pre- cattle eating them with greater relish than before. The cost viously acquired information; but from the number ofinquiries per hogshead will be about 108., or sufficient of the roots may I from time to time receive upon the mode of cultivation be cut into pieces and put into a copper until fall. As much and application, I am induced to believe that the public in water may then be added as the copper will hold. When it general are not acquainted with either. Indeed, in many has boiled long enough for the roots to become tender, the districts it has not yet been introduced, whilst in many liquor should be strained off, and sufficient hops added, and others only recently, and but in few has it been extensively again boiled one hour. Ferment and turn as before. Although brought into cultivation. The yield per acre will depend this plan is attended with less trouble, the former is far prein a great measure upon the means employed, the increase ferable, as the process of drying drives off the watery portion being for the most part dependent upon the state of the soil of the root, by which an earthy flavour is got rid of, and, the root and the quantity of manure applied. It must, however, be becoming malted, assumes the flavour and quality of malt proobvious that, after the land has been brought into the ne- duced from barley. Every one who has theslightest acquaintance cessary state of tillage, the next question is to what extent with the science of chemistry must be aware that any substance manure may be applied best to facilitate the object. It be- that contains sugar will produce fermented liquor, as beer, which comes merely a calculation whether an extra ton of manure upon distillation will yield alcohol or spirit. Sugar, however, will or will not produce a corresponding return in weight being presented to us in the form it has acquired by the proof roots. So far as my experience has been confirmed I cesses of manufacture, is scarcely reconcilable with the opiuion have found that by an extra application of 1 cwt. of guano, entertained of mangold wurtzel by the majority; and it is of the cost of 14s., from 4 to 5 tons increase of roots may very probable that the sap or juice extracted from the be produced, and so of most other descriptions of manure sugar-cane differs in its first stage but little from that exin like proportion. Some curious particulars respecting it tracted from mangold wurtzel. Be this as it may, prejudice a few years since were accidentally obtained. At a sugar can rarely be overcume, with the lower classes, in any manufactory established in Essex it was found that the matters connected with their food and drink, however sugar could not be extracted after the second vegetative pro- great an improvement may take place (Hear, hear, and a cess had commenced in the root. This circumstance to laugh). To those who may wish to grow their own seed, some extent explains why the roots at this particular period it will be only necessary to state that, after the roots have are of a less laxative quality and greater fattening pro- | been properly selected, they should be protected from the perty. Mangel wurzel contains about 5 per cent. of action of frost until the following March, when they should sugar wbich has been extracted and manufactured pro- be planted out about 18 inches apart, protecting the upper fitably by the French for a long period of time, but recent portion of the root from after-frost by coal.ashes. The attempts made in this country bave not been attended with shoots, as they advance, should be supported by stakes, like successful results. The Silesian beet has been used and carefully preserved from the attacks of small birds, more especially, but it is a question, taking weight into con especially sparrows, which will, if seed is attempted to be sideration, whether it would be more profitable for that pur- grown on a small scale, most probably destroy the crop pose than our orange-coloured mangold. Some years ago, altogether. In concluding, I beg to observe that I have observing it in process of drying upon a kiln devoted to the adhered throughout to the broad principles of cultivation, as purpose of drying chicory, and doubtless as a substitute for carried out by myself, leaving to others particular systems that root, it struck me that in this state it would produce good for discussion; and I have avoided throughout introducing beer, the dried root acquiring a malt taste, and the moisture anything but what has resulted from my own practical obof the root being driven off by the process of drying. I made servations. Since I completed my paper, I have received various experiments, and have produced a good beverage, very
a communication from a correspondent (Mr. Stagg, of similar in colour and character to London porter; but I am Grafton, Wilts), who has grown and used this root largely. free to confess that the workmen in my employment, having | He states that he believes it was not at one time much apacquired a peculiar relish for malt beer (Hear, hear), cannot be preciated : but that the prejudice is wearing fast away, induced to accede to its adoption at seasons when they assume since the application of it has become better understood. the dictatorial position, especially during harvest (loud He states that danger from overteeding must be avoided; laughter). The process, however, is so simple, that I will re- that the root should be treated rather as an auxiliary in peat it here, and offer you a sample whereby you will be able feeding than otherwise; and that 561b. per day for store to judge of its quality. The roots should be sliced with a cattle and 70lb. for fatting cattle is sufficient; that in feedGardner's, or other tarvip slicer, about three-quarters of an ing ewes he does not allow them more at once than they inch in thickness and about one and-a-half inches in width. will eat in three-quarters of an hour. For lambs and tegs, These should be dried slowly upon a kiln, until quite crisp, he thinks about two bushels of cut root per score sufficient taking care not to scorch them during the process. Three for one day, increasing the quantity to three bushels per bushels of these dried roots are about equivalent to one bushel score, and, as the spring advances, even more ; and he then, of malt, and should when placed in the mash tub have boiling in adverting to its feeding quality, states that its nutritious water poured upon them, so that when drawn off it shall pro- property consists of saccharine, which he erroneously sufduce one hogshead of sixty gallons. This liquor should be poses to decrease as the season advances, because it cannot boiled from one hour to one-and-a-half hour. Then add hops then be extracted for making sugar. Upon investigation, equivalent to 3 lbs. for each hogshead, and boil 15 or 20 however, such does not appear to be the case. The sugar minutes longer ; ferment the wort at 65 to 70 degrees, and undoubtedly remains, but becomes fixed, so as not to be treat it exactly as in the case of malt liquor. Keep it at least extracted by the usual modes. It ceases to crystallize eight months before using ; but at 12 months it will be quite under the ordinary process ; but that it remains undiminished in quantity, is certain. The root, during | Large store bogs, with a moderate quantity of peas or beans the spring, loses a large proportion of moisture. The may be fattened to a certain extent -upon the roots, to as not to quality becomes sensibly altered, and the sugar has require much meal in addition afterwards ; but the meat will also undergone a chemical change, which causes not be of first rate quality if no meal is used in addition. One it to act upon the intestines of the animal less word I wish to add upon the cultivation. The land cannot be violently than in its early stages, and which, as I before too frequently stirred, even if weeds are absent; but in hoestated, may be altogether avoided by combining it with dry ing, if the roots are cut with the hoe from inattention, it always food, and giving it in moderate qnantity. Cattle, however, injures them, and frequently spoils them altogether. Another that have been fed upon it from an early age, are never ob- very important point is the quality of the roote, and which served to become afterwards affected by it. Some discussion cannot be obtaijed unless the seed has been well and carefully has taken place upon its being injurious to sows in farrow, and produced. Cheapness is the order of the day, but in no into very young pigs, which, although not invariably the case, stance does a farmer pay more dearly than when he purchases ought to be obviated. I prevent it as much as possible by seeds of indifferent quality; but in seeds from which our roots sending them away to a yard where it cannot be obtained, but are produced, which at most amount to only a few shillings per for pigs from four to twelve months old it is bighly beneficial. acre, the crop has varied from 100 to 300 per cent.; whilst inI also object to giving it to the ewes in lamb, as I have some- variably the soil is injured to a far greater extent by the worst times found that it has been attended with bad results, and variety. Wheat appears to be the best crop to succeed, if the as a general rule, ought to be avoided; but wherever it can be land can be cleared with little injury. It will require, howcombined with other descriptions of roots or cabbages it is ever, a light dressing of mannre at the time of sowing, or a excellent. Horses can be fed upon it with advantage, and in top-dressing in the spring of 40 bushels of soot per acre, if it small quantities daily it may always be successfully used. By can be procured, to be applied when the weather is open and å statement I received from an intimate friend, the result of moist, early in the spring. The broad leaf, or red clover, suicsuch a mode is given by him as follows. The horses I in- ceeds better after it than after any other crop ; and I have spected, and they certainly appeared in healthy and good known instances of wheat and mangold-wurtzel being grown working condition. Expense of keeping 8'horses for 18 weeks in rotation for many years together, and probably with as large at, per week, £2 6s. 8d. 2} bushels each borse per day at 4d. profitable return as by any other system of husbandry. By (the exact cost per bushel), or 53. 10d. each borse per week. way of addendum, I will give the cost of brewing beer from it One and-a-balf bushel when at light work, 4s. per day, £l 8s. exactly as carried out by myself, for the instruction of those per week, of on an average £1 178. 4d. per week. The roots who are desirous of making the experiment. Although brev. were given whole, and the horses had sufficiency of good oating from mangold-wurtzel has been referred to in the forestraw iu addition, which, at Is. 6d. each, is 12s. ; altogether going description, I may observe that beer made from Silesian £2 9s. 4d. per week. Eight other horses, at one and-a-half beet is far preferable, and more nearly imitates beer manusasbusbels of oats each horse per week, is 12 bushels, at 38., £1 tured from malt, and is not so liable to become flat after the 168.; half ton of trussed hay in addition, £l 109.; average cask becomes partially drawn out, or exposure to the air takes per week £3 6s.; so that the keep in one instance was £2 place, to which beer from mangold-wurtzel is liable. Five tons 99. 4d. per week, in the othet £3 68.- in my opioion, not of roots produce from 70 to 80 bushels of dried roots, and are sufficient profit to enable it to be adopted, especially upon calculated to brew as much beer as 4 quarters of barley-malt. farms principally arable, where the manufacture of manure is A copper that bolds 14 bogsheads will require about one-third of great consideration. Six oxen might bave been maintained more water to obtain sufficient wort to again fill it. Put I in addition to the horses, which would have produced double hogshead at boiling-heat upon the roots, and mash well; then, the quantity of manure, a point worthy of consideration as an as quickly as it can be obtained, add 1 hogshead more boil. adjunct. However, ia feeding horses, not exceeding 1 busheling water, to be again mashed ; let it stand one hour sdper week to every horse becomes beneficial in the highest de- ditional, and draw off clear; put on about 1 hogshead of water gree to the health of the animals. In conclusion, I wish to add, cold, and in about a quarter of an hour draw off. This liquor that upon a fair calculation, mangold wurtzel is a crop should be put in the copper, and boiled for the next mash; that may be produced more cheaply than swede tur- take out the roots, and replace with a like quantity as before nips, or any other description of cattle food. Upori for the second brewing; boil the wort for one hour, then add our light turnip soils it cannot be introduced with 5 lbs. of good hops, and boil twenty minutes longer; feradvantage, nor will it ever in such situations be accepted ment at from 65 to 70 degrees, as with malt-beer; tun, and as a substitute for either the swede or common turnip, especially keep it eight months before using: it will, however, keep tro as it cannot be folded off by sheep upon the field where it has years, and continue to improve, from 6 to 8 bushels of the been grown; but for yard feeding of sheep I believe it to be roots being sufficient for each hogshead. The roots may, after superior to the varieties of turnip. Upon mixed soils and being used for brewing, be given to cattle or swine, with but strong clays, too heavy for the cultivation of the turnip, it has little loss in quantity, but certainly of improved quality. One opened a new system of cultivation, enabling the occupiers of ton of roots produces about 15 bushels of dried roots ; the cost farms, upon which 30 years ago no cattle food was obtained in of drying being 58., and slicing about 2s. more; the whole cost the winter, to fodder out their straw and hay with great ad of the beer is 10s. per hogshead. vantage; and since the introduction of guano and artificial Mr. W. BENNETT (Cambridge) regarded the subject, manures it may be grown almost to any extent without de- however, of how best to grow, to store, and to use mangel priving the farm of the ordinary manure. In the autumn, from warzel, as of paramount importance, more especially at the beginning of October, the pulling and storing the crop may the present day, when in many parts of the kingdom Swedish be commenced whenever the leaves may be required, pulling turnips had become almost an utter failure. This root the roots no faster than they may be required. So far as my had long become the staple article for the fattening of experience goes, I believe they may be estimated at from 30s. cattle in almost all parts of the country, but had of late to 21. per acre. My mode is to cut them with hay, and the years become subject almost to endless diseases. He could short straw coming from the thrashing-machine at that time. speak particularly of his native county (Bedfordshire), Herts, Hunts, and Cambridgeshire. The crop of swedes was not only Thomas) begged to assure him that so far was that from being now blasted, by a great variety of insects, by the very frequent the case that in Bedfordshire it was becoming a very common occurrence of the disease called an-berry, or the fiuger-and toe practice indeed to eat it off the land. disease, but also by a complaint similar to the potato murrain ; Mr. Baker: You could not produce a heavy crop, then ? the bulb decaying most near the root, and at other times it Mr. Thomas begged pardon ; he had seen very heavy crops would commence at the very heart of the turnip. Nor was the of mangold on light lands. He had seen this on sandhills disease at all confined to certain uukind lands for turnips, but which had become sick and tired of growing swede turnips. on the best convertible soils, and those under the very best | Mangold-wurtzel could be eaten off the land about the months management. Our farmers could no longer depend upon any of March and April, and he believed it was more forcing and part of those crops to draw off for stall feeding ; but sufficient nutritious thau the swede itself at that time of the year. could not be grown even to furnish manure for the succeeding Mr. STAGG (Grafton, Wilts) said that, like Mr. Thomas, he crop of barley, where all the turnips were fed upon the land. could not agree with Mr. Baker in all the views he had It was that circumstance which rendered Mr. Baker's able enunciated on this subject. In the first place, with regard to paper so much the more valuable, for it was a startling fact mangold-wurtzel not being a proper food for ewes, lambs, and that while they had rarely known a more wretched crop of tur- pigs he himself had fed his flocks of ewes and sows for many nips, the mangold had proved this year splendid almost be- years past, from the month of November to the month of May, yond precedent. Mr. Baker's remarks on the culture for upon that description of root, and he had had quite as good mangold were very judicious : his practice in some respects lambs as any of his neighbours who bad fed their flocks upon was very similar to bis (Mr. Bennett's). His own plan was to turnips. His tege also had fed upon aud done well thereon ; plough deep in the autumn, often two furrows deep, or plough so likewise had his sows to a great extent, and he should not one good deep furrow, the subsoil-plough following; but where be afraid to show them against those of any gentleman in Bedthe subsoil was at all strong and good, he preferred ploughing fordshire. They had had very good farrows, from ten to thirteen two furrows deep, throwing the lower soil at top, for the at a time; during the whole of last winter he never lost a pig, action of the atmosphere. For his own part he preferred and he believed he had abont a hundred now. With regard getting the land ultimately into Northumberland ridges, al- to storing of maugold, his practice was to store in heaps of though he knew on the strong lands of Essex and part of Suf- about a cart-load each, first cutting off the greens or tops folk our best farmers succeeded in growing admirable crops which are left on the land, and fed by ewes. About twoon the flat surface, by one deep autumual ploughing (cheers). thirds of the roots are then fed on the land by sheep, the reThe great superiority of mangel wurzel over most other roots maining one-third (more or less as required) carted off when was, first, that it might be grown on land unkind for the convenient, and given to cattle or pigs in the farm-yards. The growth of turnips ; secondly, such lands would bear a much only objection he ever found was the difficulty in preventing heavier crop; thirdly, it was far more easily extracted from the servants over feeding with this root. The store-heaps are soil; fourthly, it might be kept much later in the season; and covered with straw in the same manner as potatoes. He had a last, though not least, if fed judiciously with other food, it was large field now in store of, he believed, fully 40 tons per acre, and equal if not superior in its fattening qualities to the best kind had never had a wheelbarrow-full of rotton mangold throughout of turnips (Hear, hear). The cultivation of mangold had the whole of his experience. in fact opened a new era in clay land farmivg. There were Mr. Williams: You don't cut them near the crown? many farms in his native county, on the northern side of it, Mr. Stagg: No, not so near as to run the risk of injurwhere decent flocks of sheep were kept in summer ; but not ing the crown. With regard to mangel wurzel as a root being at all adapted for turnips, the flock had to be disposed crop, he considered it most valuable for the farm. On one of, in the winter, except a few half-starved ewes, which ran over part of his farm he had grown turnips, but those were the grass land in the day time, and browsed the bean-straw at to a great extent club-footed, and were what had not innight. By the cultivation of mangold, however, in these modern aptly been termed fingers and toes (Hear, hear). Upon times, fine flocks of ewes were now kept where scarcely heavy clay soils and upon sandy soils that would not grow any could be kept before. Also on fen land, which was ad- turnips, it was, in his opinion, quite a godsend to have manmirably adapted for the growth of mangold to the extent of gel wurzel to resort to; and he would repeat that he consi30 to 40 tons per acre, this root was now grown extensively, dered it a most beneficial crop for the farm. He had kept and although not equal in quality to that grown on high land, it 600 sheep for the last 15 years, on the average, although was by no means depreciated in the same degree as were turnips they had scarcely any other kind of roots than mangel from on this kind of land. On all soils salt greatly improved the November to March (Hear, hear). quality of mangold, and he felt confident on none so much as A MEMBER: What sort of a farm is yours? peaty fen land.
Mr. STAGG: A store and corn farm. Mr. Thomas (Lidlington, Beds) said that Mr. Baker had not The MEMBER: And what kind of mangel wurzel do you alluded to a circumstance with which be (Mr. Thomas) had some prefer? slight acquaintance, viz., to the seeds being wrapped in capsules, Mr. Stagg: The red globes (Hear, hear). In conclusion, each of which contained three or four seeds. He should like to he would merely observe that there was no more difficulty know whether Mr. Baker had ever tried the experiment of in feeding off mangel than swedes (Hear, hear). breaking up the capsules (Hear, hear). He (Mr. Thomas) had Mr. GRAY (Courteen-hall, Northampton) did not presume done so on a small scale in bis garden, he had crushed the out- to set his production of mangel wurzel in competition with ward coat through a bean-mill, and he had found, in conse- that of Mr. Baker, but having had some years' experience in quence, that the plants came to the hoe in one half the time the growth of this root, he would take the liberty of making that those did which were dibbled in the capsules. One re- a few remarks with regard to the system he bad pursued. mark which Mr. Baker bad made was susceptible of correction. Of course, he grew it after his white grain crop. After That gentleman had stated that there was this difficulty with harvest, if the land wanted cleaning, he did what he could regard to mangold-wurtzel, that it could not be fed off the to accomplish that object. He then manured with from 10 land in the same manner as the swede turnip, He (Mr. to 12 tons of dung per acre, leaving it spread upon the land for two months, ploughed it up to a fair depth, and left it of his practice to this effect-that there was no kind of food until the spring. April was in his opinion the best time for 80 suitable for ewes during the last four or five weeks before sowing. He set two ploughs to ridge it up, and dibbled parturition as mangold wurtzel (Hear, hear). He could asthe seed in, employing four men for that purpose. Each sure every gentleman who grew mangold wurtzel, and posman carried a little bag of seed hanging from his neck, and sessed a flock of ewes heavy with lamb, that he had never dropped in the seed as he went along. He made a compost found the least injurious results from the practice, bat, on the of turf ashes, malt dust, and pigeon manure, with three contrary, very great advantage in the production of fat and hundred of superphosphate of lime per acre. This he milk at the same time. mixed up and left to lie a little while before he required Mr. GRAY said that on one occasion, when he was not so to use it, and carried it to the land in carts, and afterwards well acquainted with its feeding properties as he was now, he along the ridges in wheelbarrows, putting a handful of the had a considerable quantity of mangold down in the month of compost over the seed, that being the covering it had. July, and felt some difficulty in deciding how he should disHe should also state that upon depositing the seed, he pose of it. At last he fetched in ten bullocks from the field, applied a light roller. Since he had tried this system and gave them the mangold, with a proportionate quantity of his crop had never failed, but was always a very good one, bay, and the result was that be bad never seen beasts do better although it had failed under every other system. With regard (Hear, hear). to the transplanting of mangel wurzel, they all knew that if
Mr. COUSSMAKER (Westwood, Farnham) said, as regarded they did not get a full plant it might be desirable to trans
the cultivation of mangold wurtzel, he concurred in the opinion plant. His own practice was to get a strong force of men and
of Mr. Gray, that it was desirable to plough deep once in the boys, and on the first wet day send them out to transplant his
autumn, and then leave it. Winter produced a tilth which no mangold ; but let it be observed that if the operation was per
power on earth could produce in the spring. The more they formed in the same manner as they treated the cabbage, they stirred the soil in the spring, the more they let the drought would get no plant. He put in the little fibres straight, and into it. If it were left alone, the soil retained a certain pressed them down lightly with the soil; for the lighter they
amount of moisture, and the seed vegetated quicker. With were pressed the better. During the present year, he had been regard to the stacking of the crop, be agreed with what fell particularly successful. He had transplanted more than at any
from Mr. Baker. He had used this root a good deal for former period, and finer crops he bad never grown. The disco- fattening beasts, and as food for milch cows. He had found very of this fact he had made quite by accident, and he was sure
the orange globes produce the best kind of milk. He had it was worthy the consideration of the farmer. With respect to likewise found mangold wurtzel a most valuable food for store horse-boeing, they all knew the advantage of keeping the land
pigs; and, though he had never used it himself for that well and thoroughly cleaned (Hear, bear). When he took up
purpose, he had beard that it was not at all a bad kind of food the roots for storing he set two men with common bean hooks
for horses when mixed with a certain proportion of hay and to cut the tops off, and he did not think that out of 10 acres
corn. The long orange was, he believed, a very superior root. of mangold wurtzel last year he had a single decayed root. Some years ago, a gentleman took a farm near his own for the This at all events showed that cutting off the tops was not in
express purpose of making beet-root sugar; and the sort of jurious. Then, as to storing, he set four men to fill the carts. root which he chose for that purpose was the long orange. Boys were employed to drive the carts away, and it took As it appeared that there was an Act of Parliament under two men to put the roots in heaps. He thatched as rapidly which he might be compelled to pay duty on his sugar, he as the heaps were formed, leaving plenty of veutilation. dropped the scheme; but he was of opinion that he might With reference to the value of the root, he thought it was otherwise have cultivated the long orange with great advanbecoming more important every year. Certainly its seed- tage for the manufacture of sugar. ing qualities were unsurpassed by thoge of any other. He once showed in Baker-street a Hereford or, the only root be ing as he did some of that stiff land which had been spoken
Mr, J. A. WILLIAMS (Baydon, Hungerford), said, occupy: had being mangold wurtzel, being the winner of the first prize in class 2. Some remarks had been made about the of, he had not yet been able to cultivate mangel wurzel to difficulty of growing mangold wurtzel on stiff soils. He advantage; but he thought the cause was, that he had not himself on one occasion tried the cultivation of it on as
adopted the right method. He was more than ever convinced stiff a soil as any in England ; and he should pity any man
of the utility of that Club, for he was satisfied, from the arguwho was obliged to produce mangold upon that sort of soil.
ments of Mr. Grey and Mr. Coussmaker, that to be successful The system which he adopted was to cultivate in the autumn,
on very strong clays the cultivation must take place in the manure, ridge up, and then leave it. By adopting that plan land, and having been told by practical men that such land
autumn. He happened to have a good description of dowo very good crops might be grown on such soils, and it was practised very extensively with great success on the cold clay present could tell him from experience whether or not such
would grow mangel wurzel, he should be glad if any one lapds of Huntingdonshire.
was the case. Mr. Baker had spoken of the practicability of Mr. W. Bennett: Do you prefer large plants for trans- distilling from mangel wurzel
. He (Mr. Williams) thought planting ?
that with the prospect of having wheat at 40s. a quarter that Mr. GRAY : Not very large.
was a matter which was well worthy of consideration ; but Mr. Bennett: As large as a cabbage plant ?
Mr. Baker had raised an obstacle which, if it really existed,
would prevent such a desirable object from being attaided, vis, Mr. GRAY: No.
that the landlords would not permit, and the tenants would Mr. Thomas wished to say one word with regard to feeding not like, the cartage of a large bulk of roots off the farm, as it ewes off mangold wurtzel. For more than 25 years he had in- would be too much to draw the bulbs away, and the residue variably done it, and during the last month previous to yeaning, back again for feeding purposes. Now he was pleased to tell had always found it to be most beneficial. After trying the them that that obstacle was removed. They had all seen or system for many years, he made a memorandum of the result heard of the invention of Boydell's steam-horse, manufactured
by Mr. Burrell of Thetford. Mr. Burrell had told him (Mr. , system which he adopted was this. He invariably mixed his
Mr. Baker then replied. Adverting to the remarks made
THE MANAGEMENT OF A FLOCK OF BREEDING EWES, MORE
PARTICULARLY IN THE LAMBING SEASON.
," said Fitzherbert long ago, " is the most have in their turn to be subjected to a rigid examinaprofitablest cattle that a man can have.” Since his tion. First determine the number of gimmers to be adday so much attention has been paid to the breeding and mitted, and then draft out of the old flock a correspondgeneral management of sheep, and with such encou- ing number of the worst animale. Beyond the disqualiraging results, that this old writer's statement is more fications of age and bad teeth, there are some others entirely realized than ever he expected.
which I will mention : thin wool, hollow back, flat sides In the following remarks upon the treatment of indicating a want of space for the foetus), diseased udbreeding ewes I shall not confine myself particularly to der, asthmatical affections, and diminutive stature. one class. I intend to detail the course generally This selection is very important, for with improved adopted; and if specific treatment is noticed, the locality form we obtain improved constitution. where it prevails will of course be stated.
Then if the flock is sufficiently large to employ two tups We will commence, then, with the selection of ewes or more, the ewes must be divided into as many classes to put to the tup.
as there are tups, the breeder designing to correct the This selection is only necessary where a standing flock defects of the female by the excellencies of the male ; is kept. Where the flock is a " flying one," since all and this course perseveringly pursued is always found are disposed of, none obtain a preference. By a fly. to result in a regular, sound, and prolific flock. ing flock is meant one that is purchased a little before, As ewes are more prolific during their third and fourth or immediately after, the lambing season, the lambs be- years than they are before or after, during which time ing disposed of when weaned, and the ewes, when fat, they generally produce single and weak lambs, it seems from coleseed, &c.
;" could it be obtained of the right The aged ewes, and ewes with no teeth, are first drafted. age, might be more profitable than a standing flock. Some breeders expel every ewe that has had three There are reasons, however, why such a course is open to crops of lambs.
objection; but I do not intend to touch upon them now. The flock-masters of North Lincolnshire get off The tup commences his work generally on the 11th their ewes at their fourth year in prime condition, and October, so that the lambs are expected about the 8th make topping prices.
to the 11th of March. The date of this operation is But whatever variety of practice there may be, a ewe varied acccrding to circumstances. For in Scotland the with no teeth, or defective teeth, where turnips are tupping season for Cheviots is from 15th to 22nd Nogrown, ceases to be used for breeding, as she would fail vember, with the expectation of receiving the lambs in to sustain not only her progeny, but herself.
April, when the weather is milder. In the South, where Should the breeder eject from the flock every ewe breeders endeavour to supply the London market with having a disqualifying property, he might as well give early lamb, arrangements are made by which they arrive up breeding. Such drafting must, however, depend at Christmas, and from some classes of Dorsets two crops upon the number of good substitutes which the shearling of lambs are obtained within the year. In the north
or gimmers may supply, which, of course, I eastern counties, the north-eastern wind having cut