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is supposed that ten or even fourteen days may | health. The usual symptoms he described were :thus elapse after the period of infection before the A slight, but husky cough would be occasionally disease becomes outwardly apparent. This parasite observable about this time, and perhaps the breath theory, Mr. Karkeek observed, received some sup- ing would be with increased effect, as if the animal port from the little that was known concerning the had undergone some unusual exertion. In milch properties of parasites : and this was a subject of cows, besides the above symptoms, there would be much practical importance to the farmer. In the a diminished supply of milk. As the disease adfirst place, such sources of infection were destroyed vanced, the cough became more troublesome and by a temperature above 120 degrees Fahrenheit, husky; the respiration became hurried, the pulse and also by strong chemical agents, especially increased and oppressed, the appetite diminished, chlorine. Their activity was also impaired by cold rumination suspended, bowels constipated, and the and by free ventilation. On the other hand, surface of the body chilly. The disease still ad. warmth, closeness, and filth, increased the virulence vancing, the respiration became more difficult
, of the contagion, and became as it were a nursery laboured, and painful; the poor animal was fre. of pestilence. Nothing tended to promote the quently found lying, the head protruded, the mouth spread of an infectious disease, such as pleuro- covered with frothy saliva, the muzzle cold, rigors pneumonia, more than the crowding together of frequent, and the pulse rapid and indistinct. Ap. cattle which were affected by it. Each of those proaching death was shown by moaning, grinding animals was a separate source of contagion, and the teeth, loathing of food, coldness of the extremni. the air would be contaminated in proportion to ties, wavering pulse, distressed breathing, liquid their combined action. It might be asked, how stools, and distention of the bowels. From this the empoisoned air produced its morbid results ? description of this terrible disease, it must be He answered—not by direct irritation of the lining evident that blood-letting could be useful only at membranes of the air passage, but by, specific its commencement; bleeding should be early, or action on the blood; which fluid, thus acted on, did, not at all; at the very beginning of the disease it by its changed condition, virtually, though not might do good, but at its later stages bleeding immediately, affect the pulmonary tissue. In proof would but hasten its fatal termination, since in of the assertion that vitiated atmosphere does not proportion to the extent of dropsical effusion act as a direct irritant to the pulmonary tissue, or would be the debility of the patient. It was sup. mucous mernbrane of the air passages, Mr. posed by Mr. Simonds, of the Royal Veterinary Karkeek remarked that the usual symptoms of College, that early bleeding might withdraw a por. catarrh or bronchitis are never the precursors of tion of the vitiated fluid that had laid the founda. pleuro-pneumonia. And again-if vitiated air tion of the disease. Another remedy frequently acted as a direct irritant of the pulmonary tissue, adopted was the use of purgative medicines. In both lungs would be equally affected; whereas it most diseases affecting the ox tribes, it was found was well known that the disease was very partial- that gentle aperients were beneficial; but in pleuroaffecting more frequently the right lung than the pneumonia, strong purging should be avoided, left. Hence, pleuro-pneumonia could not be con- Diuretic medicines might be useful, as in dropsical sidered as an inflammatory disease, in the strict diseases, for stimulating the kidneys to increased meaning of the term. It might be asked why this action. He had little faith in sedative medicines or aërial poison affected only the lungs ? This was a diaphoretics in this disease; but diffusible stimu. question not only easily answered. This much lants and tonics were valuable remedies, at the was known, that the choleraic poison acted on the commencement of the disease, after the operation intestinal canal, the poison of small-pox re-acts on by purşgatives. In the latter stages of the disease, the skin; that of glanders on the mucous inem vegetable and mineral tonics would be found useful. branes of the nasal cavities, while the poison of A veterinary friend had used creosote with con. pleuro-pneumonia acts on the lungs. He had siderable success; he (Mr. Karkeek) could be dis. already stated that pleuro-pneumonia could not be posed to try its effect when opportunity offered. considered an inflammatory disease, in its origin ; After speaking of the necessity of occasional reand of this, the absence of all ordinary symptoms laxation of the bowels, in connexion with the use of pneumonia was proof; but there could be no of the above medicines, Mr. Karkeek further question that inflammation was one of the results recommended the application of a seton to the of the disease. It was more frequently regarded “ dew-lap,” and of blisters to both sides of the as a dropsical, than as an inflammatory disease. chest. In conclusion Mr. Karkeek remarked that Evidently the empoisoned air produced consider- there should be no specific for this disease; and able debility of the vascular part of the lungs, and that he who should undertake its treatment without serum was effused almost immediately; hence the a knowledge of its nature, and of the structure and dropsical character of the disease. As it progressed, functions of the organ it affects, would act like an inflammatory action was set up, accompanied by ordinary artisan who should set about the repaircongestion, with effusion of lymph and serum into ing of a watch, the wheels and levers of which he the interlobular structure of the lungs and the had never investigated. Inattention to contagious cavity of the chest. He was of opinion that this diseases had occasioned much mischief and loss of serous effusion took place before the animals property; and there could be no doubt that, if health was observed to fail. Proprietors of cattle proper precautions were taken on the first appearshould therefore be early and late with their stoc ance of pleuro-pneumonia in any neighbourhood, when pleuro-pneumonia prevails in a district,
district, its ravages might be considerably mitigated. On narrowly watching the slightest indication of ilí | the outbreak of a disease of this kind on a farm,
the first thing to be attended to is the removal of generally, as rendering cattle impregnable, to some the infected beasts to some suitable place far from extent, against-infectious diseases. A striking the other cattle, where they can be watched and proof of this was exhibited in the well-known fact receive medical aid, without endangering the that the high-bred cattle generally of England had healthy animals ; and these too should be carefully been comparatively exempt from pleuro-pneuinspected daily. Finally, he would impress upon monia; the obvious reason being that more attenhis hearers the strong necessity for judicious feed- tion was paid to their health and general comfort ing, proper drainage, ventilation, and cleanliness than was paid to ordinary cattle.
THE LONDON, OR CENTRAL FARMERS' CLUB. THE CULTIVATION, STORING, AND USES OF MANGEL WURZEL. The usual monthly meeting of the Club was held on Mon- vantage as at other seasons, provided due care is taken in day evening, March 1st, at the Club-house, Blackfriars, storing to keep it from the action of the frost, from which,
In the unavoidable absence of Mr. Owen, the Chairman for like the potato, it is liable to become injured, and even the year, Mr. Henry Trethewy, of Silsoe, Beds., took the chair, rendered useless, ahould it happen to become entirely frozen supported by Messrs. Oxen Wallis, William Bennett, T. E. Within the last five years both the Swedish and common turPawlett, L. A. Coussmaker, J. Tyler, James Thomas, W. nips have deteriorated to such an extent as to have become Gray, S. Skelton, W. Shaw (Coton), J. Wood (Sussex), J. (upon soils on which they had been repeatedly grown for Wood (Croydon), J. Cressingham, H. Gibbons, G. S. Harri- several years in the ordinary rotation) almost useless. In son, Ibbott Mason, J. A. Clarke, J. Ekin, Hammond, W. addition to the disease called "fingers and toes," which has of Eve, R. Peacey, W. Banwell, C. J. Brickwell, W. P. Lamb, E late been very prevalent, another disease has appeared, in a Purser, G. Wilsher, J. A. Williams, J. Miles (Wexcombe), certain degree similar in its effects to that which has proved so T. Stagg, T. Chandler, J. B. Spearing, 8. W, Squier, J. destructive to the potato, and which in the present season esOdams, &c., &c.
pecially has rendered the turnip-crop almost worthless throughThe subject fixed for discussion, at the instance of Mr. out the kingdom. At the same time, however, mangoldR. BAKER, of Writtle, was stated in the following terms :- wurtzel bas produced a crop unprecedented for weight and " The cultivation and storing of mangel wurzel, and the quality; nor does it deteriorate like the turnip, by being best modes of using it for feeding and other purposes." grown upon the same soil for many years successively, as inMr. Baker brought with him from his farm a number of speci- stances can be adduced where it has been grown on the same mens of the root in question, that he referred to, several land for many years together, without in any way becoming times in the course of bis introduction, and which were gene- depreciated in quality or quantity, but bas rather improved rally admired for their development and freedom from preva- year by year the longer it has been grown (Hear, hear). The lent defects.
applicatiou of guano and superphosphate of lime to the turnipThe CHAIRMAN, in opening the proceedings, remarked on crop is equally effective for mangold-wurtzel, and affords the the importance of the cultivation of mangel wurzel, and ob- cultivators of strong clay soils an opportunity of growing it at served that the feeling of the committee on the subject was a reduction of expense previously unknown, and with an adshown by the fact that roots were set down for discussion, in vantage that can scarcely be sufficiently estimated. It is, howa one form or other, no less than three times during the present ever, best adapted for, and is most generally grown upon, tenyear.
der and strong loamy soils, as the difficulty which sometimes Mr. BAKER said : Of all our root crops the most important arises in wet seasons of carting the roots from the field renis mangold wurtzel, of which we may say, as its name im- ders the renoviog them from strong tenacious clays a hazardous ports, that it is “the root of scarcity ;” in other words, it is process at all times, and in some seasons impossible to be efthe root to be depended upon during a scarcity of other food, fected unless by employing men to carry them to the sides or and, with the exception of the Swedish turnip, there is un- the fields in baskets, which cannot be accomplished at a less doubtedly no other description of root either 80 serviceable or expeuge than from 20s. to 25s. per acre. This valuable root productive, whilst in many particulars it is far superior even has been growa successfully in Essex within my knowledge to that. In combination with the swede, in feeding, it fills a upwards of 40 years. The long red variety was at first the place which that root has failed to supply, and it is especially only one cultivated; the globe varieties of both red and orange adapted for seeding late in the spring, after the turnip has lost were subsequently introduced, and at a later period the long most of its nutritious qualities. It is also more certain to plant orange. Little improvement has taken place by cultivation in well. It is less liable to injury from excess of drought or the long red variety ; indeed, I consider that it was as good, if moisture. It can be stored during the autumn with less not better, 30 years ago, than at the present period. Great injury to the land than follows the removal of a turnip care, however, was then taken to select it for seed whilst crop during the winter months, and under the improved growing, and ultimately to change it from a heavy to a system of management can be applied to the feeding of light soil, as it has always a tendency to become too fine neat stock and sheep throughout the whole of the year. and slender in the form of the root if grown successively upon Independent of these numerous advantages, it is also more light soils, too thick and short upon heavy soils, and in a few productive than any other description of root; it can be grown years, unless properly changed, it would degenerate alike in with advantage upon almost every description of soil, espe. the form, character, and colour of the roots, upon which the cially strong loam or clay-totally unfit for turnip cultiva- quality and productiveness of the crop greatly depend. The tion-and during the winter, when severe frost prevails and crown of the root should not rise in any material degree from turnips become almost useless, it can be used with equal ad- the base. The foot-stalks of the leaves should partake of the
colour of the root, a light red, and not be too many in number, remains untouched until the month of April, when but branching gracefully from the base. There should also be it is scarified and harrowed (not again ploughed), and the a similarity in all the roots, which in their form ought to be seed is drilled in three rows, npon stetches of 6 feet 6 inches nearly alike, ending below in a single tapering tap-root of each in width; and under this simple mode as fine crops as I small dimensions, without any fangs branching from them, to have ever seen are produced. The wheat eddish selected for prevent their being easily drawn from the soil, without the the purpose is, as before stated, where clover bad been takep assistance of an implement to effect it, but yielding at once in the previous year, and the after-cultivation of the land is easily on the slightest application of force being made. This principally carried on by the horse-hoe. The difficulty, howdesideratum cannot be obtained when the seed has been grown in carting off the crop in wet seasons is very great from small plants raised in the previous antumn, but only by upon such soils, and various modes of removing it have been carefully selecting the roots one by one from the field whilst resorted to, sometimes by panniers and horses ; but the cheapgrowing, and rejecting those which when pulled have not the est mode is by carrying it off in baskets, which it is stated requisite qualifications of colour and shape, especially at the can be accomplished for one shilling per ton, when stored at crown and root. The difference in the cost of producing seed the sides and ends of the field, and sometimes in a contifrom roots thus selected, and from plants as before stated, nuous row also in the middle, it can be afterwards removed varies from 300 to 400 per cent. Seed from plants is apt to during a frost, or as best can be effected when opportunity run off with a seed-stem in the first year, whilst that produced offers for employing the teams to advantage. Although it is from full-grową roots is less likely to do so. Planting very at all times pecessary to produce a fine tilth at the surface, a early likewise produces the same tendency, and it is in a considerable degree of firmuess is requisite to ensure a full general way not advisable to plant before the middle of April crop. To fully effect this object the land ought to be rolled vor after the middle of May. The system of cultivation as down with a roller sufficiently heavy to consolidate the soil carried out by myself is to plough up the land intended for without kneading it, but this ought not to be attempted until this crop immediately after the previous grain-crop has been it has become sufficiently dry to accomplish the work safely
. removed. The land best adapted for the purpose is that upon If, on the other hand, the weather continues moist, the which wheat has succeeded clover. The land in the first rolling will be best effected by a roller of a lighter description, instance ought not to be ploughed beyond the ordinary depth, such an one as is used for turnips being sufficient. Planting is until, hy repeatedly scarifying and harrowing, the couch and root | best performed by the drill, taking care that the seed is never weeds become extirpated. About the middle of October the deposited more than one inch in depth. If the land is in a soil should be stirred an extra depth, which can be easily very moist state at the time, and the weather showery, it is effected by the ordinary plough, followed immediately by a better to leave it untouched, after depositing the seed by either skeleton-plough or grabber, furrow by furrow, until the whole harrows or drill. A light bush-harrow may, however, under is stirred from ten to twelve inches in depth. Ridges should such circumstances, be adopted. If the weather is dry and the then be formed two feet eight inches wide, in the contrary surface of the land also, an extra rolling should then be given direction of the field, and a grubber be passed up each of the immediately after the seed is deposited, which by some culti. furrows the full depth of the ploughing. If opportunity will vators is previously soaked from 24 to 36 hours. This is, notallow, the ridges may be re-ploughed, and the operation of withstanding, at all times a hazardous practice ; for if the land grubbing the furrows repeated as before. This process may, is moist, the soaking of the seed will not be of any adrantage; however, be thought too expensive, but the improvement of and if nearly dry, the moisture remaining not being sufficient the mangold wurtzel and succeeding grain crops will become to facilitate vegetation the seed will be likely to rot or mould, too apparent to leave any doubt as to its beneficial application, and fail in vegetating. Again, if the seed be new, which is and it will be found to answer far better than if the dead the main object to secure success, little doubt can exist subsoil had, by an excessively deep ploughing, been brought that success will follow; for although seed will continue to up by one operation only to the surface, If farmyard manure vegetate until three or four years old, it never does 80 freely, is to be applied, it should be first moderately decomposed by unless a superabundance of moisture is already present, and the fermentation, and carted on at any time in the winter or weather continues mild and showery. The process of dibbling spring, when it can accomplished with least injury to the is so simple as hardly to require description. The dibbler protillage of the soil. As soon after it has been spread, the ceeds with a wooden dibble, having a rather blant point, artificial manure should be sown by hand upon it in each and turned with a shoulder, to prevent its entering the scal furrow, and immediately ploughed in, taking care not to more than one inch. From two to four seeds are deposited in make the attempt unless the weather and state of the soil each hole, and afterwards covered in by the dibbler himself, or are both suitable, and never venturing to bestow the arti- by a boy following, who with the back of a hoe punches in the ficial manure unless it can be directly ploughed over. The soil firmly on the seed. This, however, may be varied, by the land should then be suffered to remain until the time of man proceeding with the hoe, and removing a little of the drilling or dibbling in the seed; by no means, if possible, soil, by drawing it with the blade of the hoe towards himstirring it near that time, so as to allow the moisture to self; a boy on the opposite side of the row drops the seeds on evaporate. It is by adhering strictly to this principle that a the space from which the mould has been withdrawn. The plant can with certainty be secured; whilst, on the contrary, man then immediately pushes the mould back over the seed, by continuously stirring the soil until late in the spring up to and gently presses it down; and as each capsule contains from the time of sowing, it will probably be lost, unless frequent two or three seeds, they by this process become more dispersed showers happen to fall at that period. Upon the strong clay than when dropped into a small hole, and can be more easily homogeneous lands of Essex, which can scarcely be exceeded singled out afterwards. From 3 to 4 lbs, of seed per acre is in tenacity, very fine crops of this valuable root are produced. found to be sufficient, provided, as before stated, the whole of The practice pursued is, soon after the wheat crop is cleared, the seeds are of the previous year's growth; which is however to plough in deeply, by one ploughing, about 20 cart loads, very rarely the case, unless the seed is purchased of persons 36 busbels each, of good farmyard manure ; the long dung, upon whom dependence can be placed. It is also frequently direct from the yard, being preferred, The land then spoiled by mice extracting the seeds, with but apparent little
injury to the capsule, and which inexperienced persons would to 10 tons of good, partially decomposed farm-yard manure, not be likely to detect. I am induced to draw particular at- upon which, when deposited in the rills, I broadcast four cwt. tention to these facts, as I believe that the causes of failure per acre of rapecake, pulverised and mixed with two cwt, of depend mainly upon defective seed being used; and I do not guano and one of superphosphate. If the land is not very recollect a single instance in which I have failed in obtaining good, I add another cwt. of guano or artificial manure. At the a plant when I kpew that the seed was new and had been well time of drilling-in the seed I drill-in one cwt. of superphosphate preserved, wbicb, if perfectly dry, may be done by keeping it in of lime with it, to force a quick growth of the plants in the casks, or suspending it in sacks from the roof of a building. If first instance. By this mode I usually obtain a good crop, and a quantity of seed, however, is left exposed in granaries in- in using any substitute for the rapecake or farmyard-manure fested by rice, in a few weeks they will extract every kerne adopt some sort of artificial manure containing a large amount from its outer case. The distance at which I plant my roots of animal matter. By increasing any of these substance. is 15 inches apart in the rowe, and 32 inches apart from row I feel couvinced, from practice, that a larger quantity than to row. As I pow use my roots as early as the month of Au- three cwt. of guano cannot be applied with advantage; equal gust, I, for that purpose, have them lest about ten inches apart, to adding, in point of expense, an equal value of some other and by withdrawing each root alteraetely but little loss ensues description of animalized manure. Fish and blood manure to the main crop. This is a far better practice than that of are both well adapted, and near the sea-coast, wherever removing part of the leaves, which is very injurious to the fish can be procured, it may be applied in preference to any after-growth. By the middle of August in the last year, I was other description. Thousands of bushels of star-fish and sprats enabled thus to obtain from 12 to 15 tons per acre of roots and are annually used for this purpose, which are purchased at leaves together, without any material loss in the crop. As soon
about 6d. per bushel, and, in point of cheapness, surpass most as the young plants appear, which in favourable seasong takes descriptions of artificial manure. It is usual to plough them place in a few days, they should be inspected; and if it is ap- in preceding the winter, merely scarifying the surface afterparent that they decrease, the land ought to be again rolled. wards at the time of sowing. During its growth it is The wireworm is sometimes very destructive, especially when seldom interfered with by insects. Slugs and wireworms land in the previous autumn was covered with grasses ; and if attack it in its early stages of growth, as well as the comseedling weeds are found to spring up abundantly, the ground mon turnip-fly; bat the latter only injures it to a certain ought to be at once carefully hoed, and the weeds eradicated extent. By sowing early, however, it sometimes becomes from the close vicinity of the plants ; for if they become once greatly injured by frost, and is sometimes killed if the frost choked by weeds at this season of their growth, they rarely is more than usually severe. Besides, as before mentioned, recover the check thus received. As soon as the plant arrives it has a disposition to run to seed, which induces me to sugto three or four inches in height, they should be singled out by gest that about the middle of April is the proper time for lowhand, taking care to secure the best plant first in the left hand, ing the main crop. Much, however, of a successful result deand then to pull out the superfinous ones with the right; but, pends upon the weather that followe, and a due preparation if drilled, the plants should be set out first with the hoe, and of the land previously. Hot and dry summers especially proafterwards singled by the hand, as in the former instance. After mote its growth. It rarely suffers from drought ; whilst on the plants have been singled out and the tops of the ridges care- the other hand excess of moisture and a low temperature comfully hoed, a horse-hoeing should follow, which, from the land bined retards it greatly, and the quality becomes also deprehaving been previously subsoiled, will be easily effected; but, if ciated in like proportion. After the crop bas arrived at mathe land has again become consolidated in the furrows, another turity it is carted from the field to the homestead, or is stored process of grubbing, or subsoiling, sbould take place, to enable near to the spot on which it has grown, as the farm borses are the horse-hoetoenterthe soil readily. Subsequent hand and horse in greater request at this season than at any other portion of hoeings will also become necessary, and should be frequently the year. It is usual to secure it as near the field as possible, applied ; and, as the plants advance in growth, the hand keeping in view the contiguity of a good road, as necessary hoeing should be so managed as to draw the soil from the roots for its after-conveyance to the homestead. Having detertowards the furrow, so that at the expiration of the season the mined this poiut, it is usual about the middle of October to land will have become nearly level. Great care should be taken commence pulling and storing it. The roots are pulled up, to have every plant atanding singly, and at all times kept per- and the leaves merely twisted off. The former are thrown at fectly clear from weeds. All plants that run up with a seed- once into carts, and removed to their destination. The usual stem ought to be instantly pulled up and conveyed to the live price is 86. per acre, inclusive of uploading the roots and packstock, as they never afterwards form a good root, but greatly ing them. The drivers are found by the owner. This amounts impede thegrowth of those that stand nearest them. The manure to about 4d. per ton, but the price paid depends in some meabest adapted is guano and superphosphate of lime combined; sure upon the state of the weather, the weight of the crop, au admixture is wvariably found to answer best. This root and the quality of the roots ; for if of a bad sort, they will is a gross feeder, and can hardly be supplied too abundautly require to be grabbed up by some implement, in which case the with manure ; so that, after the land has been properly pre-cost might be doubled or even more. It is advisable to compared, it becomes a matter of calculation to what extent mence stacking the roots upon a bage not exceeding three yards manure can be applied, to afford the greatest return of profit in width, but from 6 to 7 feet is better. The roots should be in the ensuing crop. As this plant is of marine origin, salt is packed with the crowns outward, in the form of a roof, dinecessary to its full development. I have generally applied the minishing upwards until they arrive at a narrow ridge at top, aalt at the time of subsoiling, between the ploughing that pre-rising from the base from 6 to 8 feet in height. If a wider cedes and the second ploughing that follows, so as always to base is selected it will be necessary to introduce a fagot upbring the subsoil into immediate contact with it; from two to right in the middle of the heap at about every 6 feet apart, so four cwt. per acre is sufficient. I have used the latter, but have as to carry off the heat ; for should fermentation set in, which lately found that a repetition of that quautity within two or in some seasons it is apt to do, unless due precaution is taken three years is too much, two cwt. being afterwards quite suffi- to prevent it, the result would be to spoil the roots. When cient for the succeeding dressings. I usually apply from 8 the clamp or row is completed, it should be well covered over
with straw, about 6 inches in thickness, and then with the soil very much injured. Having described the mode of produg up immediately around to the thickness of about 8 inches, ducing, I shall now advert to the best mode of expending leaving an opening over each fagot secured at first partially this root, so far as my own observation and experience enfrom frost by a wisp of straw only. It is, however, thought ables me, and having now used it forty years, I have no advisable by some cultivators to defer earthing the heaps to hesitation in giving it the preference to every other descripthe top for about 2 feet downwards, until a later period, and tion of root or vegetable, not only as regards the amount of all hazard of fermentation is over. When it is stored in a build- produce, but as to its general applicability. For fattening ing made secure from frost for the purpose, but little fur- neat stock it is superior to the turnip. For breeding sheep ther care is necessary, as I have never known an instance of and cows, however, I think the latter better; but as the its being injured by fermentation, provided the top of the season advances, the mangold wurtzel becomes greatly heap on remain uncovered. In my storing house I frequently superior, improving the longer it is kept in the spring, cart in from 400 to 500 tons in one heap of 20 feet in width. whilst turnips depreciate in about equal ratio. Where The walls are formed of the earth excavated; a roof with a cattle have been accustomed to it early, they never become thick coating of thatch covers the whole, and the carts enter affected by it afterwards; but it frequently happens that by folding doors at one end. It may be safely packed to any other neat stock and sheep, upon having their fill, at once thickness and height, if afterwards protected only with straw. become affected. It apparently attacks the pervous system, For this purpose barley straw answers best, and is packed and produces stiffness of the joints, and they refuse to eat round about three feet wide, and well trodden down, and aster- it for a few days; but all this may be obviated by feeding wards thatched over down to the surface. Ia pulling the roots them moderately upon it at first, increasing the quantity preparatory to removal it is necessary to take due precaution daily, and always combining it with cut chaff or other dry against injury arising to them by the action of frost, a very food. I introduced this mode on a former occasion to the alight degree of which will, if they are exposed after being re- notice of this club, and have since found it has been moved from the soil, cause them to rot. That portion of the generally adopted. The mangold root, when first drawi, root which has previously grown beneath the surface being ex- contains an abundance of water, and requires dry food in tremely liable to injury when exposed above it, the better way admixture to counteract its effects upon the bowels of the is to pull and carry them direct from the field to the store, animals. It can be also adjusted better as regards the and there will be no necessity to remove the soil from the quantity given per day; from 56 to 112 lbs. being fully roots further than it can be effected easily, as it readily parts sufficient. About the middle of January the second regefrom the roots after storing, whilst by remaining upon them tation commences, and the sugar it contains becomes fired, it tends to keep them from fermentation, which however never and cannot be extracted. From that period, the fattening injures them if the beat is not confined in the heap by the properties become greatly augmented, and continue to inearth applied as a protection from frost. This root is pecu- crease until the month of June. I use machines that pluck liarly adapted to heavy and moory land. It will also flourish it into small pieces ; these are mixed with a quantity of cut upon all loamy soils, upon which Swede turnips succeed well. chaff, composed one-third part of hay and two-thirds oat In most cases it will produce from 18 to 22 tons per acre, but or wheat straw, moistened by linseed meal, that has been with extra cultivation and management about 10 tons per acre steeped in water forty-eight hours, at the rate of 3 lbs. to more. The quantity per acre can be easily ascertained by each bullock. In addition, from 3 to 4 lbs. of barley or weighing one load carried by each cart employed; and by fill. bean meal are added at the time of feeding, each meal being ing the carts alike the quantity may be obtained. Measur- prepared twelve hours previous to using. For store stock ing a single rod, and computing the weight per acre by it, at about 56 lbs. (equivalent to one bushel) is given; for fatall times is a fallacious mode. Great errors are sometimes ting stock from 80 to 112 lbs. per diem. I keep a large made by it, as much as 25 per cent. less having been after- number of milking cows, which are fed upon it from Avgust wards detected by computing by this method. A row taken to June following. Whenever the leaves can be used we and weighed from two or three average portions of the field find an increased quantity of milk. They are invariably would give a result sufficiently near. The weighing of a single cut up, and mixed with the roots and chaff, and are the rod to ascertain the comparative weights of different varieties most valuable portion of the plant in its early stages. As is, however, the best mode; as the quantity in imperial stones a manure, when ploughed in, they are also beneficial; per rod is equivalent to the like number of tons per statute but where much live stock is kept they can be applied acre of 160 rods. There being 160 stones in one ton, this to a more beneficial purpose. In feeding sheep, as mode is exceedingly well adapted to obtain the weight of the well as cows, the roots are best when combined with produce per acre. The weights per rod grown by myself in cabbages or turnips, but should never be given to either last season were as follows:
without some degree of caution being exercised, as a sudcwt. lb.
den change of food is apt to cause considerable relaxa. Red globe..... strong loam, weighed 4 32 tion of the bowels, which can be mostly avoided by proper Long red
3 96 Yellow globe.... ditto
management. For sheep before lambing and for sows in 3 90
farrow they cannot be recommended, and for very young Upon tender loam the yellow globe produced 4 cwt. 4 lb., the pigs they are also not well adapted, but are even injurious. other varieties not being weighed. In every other instance of The roots produce great heat in the system, and even gren weighing in previous years, the long red variety was will during the most severe frosty weather be found in a invariably the heaviest. It bas also other advantages, being high state of perspiration in open yards, and young cattle more easily pulled and stored. The quality I consider about invariably fatten upon them far better in open yards than equal. Cattle, however, will select it from the orange-coloured when stalled. This may be accepted as an established fact, in preference, and hares and rabbits also. Some of my land having myself made several experiments to prove it. With at one time joined a game preserve, and I then found that older cattle it is otherwise. There is one point, however, during the early growth the orange varieties were not much quite certain, that cattle which have been longest accusbitten, but that the long red, on the contrary, were always tomed to mangel wurzel thrive best upon it, and for youn