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or 14 lbs., to the rough-stalked mea.low grass. soda, or with farm-yard manure in winter, must not
Half-a-pound to one pound per acre of sweet- be omitted. A large extent of naturally excellent
scented vernal grass may be added or not, in grass land has been ruined by a two frequent repe-
all soils, as pleasure dictates. It is not a valuable tition of a hay crop, accompanied by a neglect of
pasture grass; but, from the sweet smell it imparts top-dressing.
to the hay with which it is mixed, it is to a certain
extent useful on this account.

2. THE RENOVATION OF INFERIOR AND WornIn the great majority of cases grass seeds are

sown in spring along with a cereal crop, which is
allowed to ripen its seeds; but when permanent

In attempting the improvement of inferior pasgrass is the object, the best plan is to sow them tures, drainage must form the preliminary operation alone; that is, any of the cereals sown along with in this as in the previous case.

We know many them, for the purpose of shelter, should not be instances where thorough draining alone has acted allowed to ripen. When grass seeds are sown in like magic in effecting a vast improvement of inautumn, a bushel of rye per statute acre should be ferior pasture lands, where the grass has been sown at same time; and when the sowing takes changed through the influence of the drainage from place in spring, a similar quantity of any of being of the coarsest kind, and greatly disliked by the cereals will answer the purpose. Rape is stock, to sweet, fattening pastures, from which it an excellent seed to sow along with grass seeds,

was almost impossible to keep out either cattle or whether they are autumn or spring sown.

From sheep if an open gate or a hole in a hedge could be 3 to 4 lbs. an acre, sown broadcast, may be used i found by them. In a case to which we would parit shelters the young plants, and affords a most ticularly allude, the soil was a very tenacious clay, valuable amount of forage for sheep when pastured and had been tile-drained at one time about two on the young grasses.

feet deep, the drains running across the slope. The When grass seeds are sown in autumn, they will grass, however, was never good; but when this in ordinary cases have advanced sufficiently by land was drained four feet deep, the drains running April to admit of being lightly stocked with sheep. up and down the slope, and only seven yards apart, We are not partial to the system adopted by some,

in the first year afterwards a great change for the in such

cases, of stocking so heavily as to eat down better was manifest, and each succeeding season the young grasses to the root; for we consider that added to the value of the pastures. To expect to by doing so many of them are entirely destroyed. improve inferior pastures which require draining It is, no doubt, a great temptation to a man who is, without that operation being carried into effect, is perhaps, short enough otherwise of grass for his simply to expect an impossibility; and we may be ewes and lambs, when he has a field of young permitted to remark that there are more pastures grasses forward; but it is better to remove the requiring drainage, and the want of which is the sheep for a week or ten days at a time, after being primary cause of their inferiority, than many appear grazed, so as to allow the young grass to shoot out to be aware of. One thing we may be certain of afresh. In like manner, spring-sown grasses must that as long as there is a single case of rot in sheep, be stocked as soon as they are sufficiently advanced

we may rest assured that the thorough-drain has to afford a full bite. Cattle must not be allowed to not been called upon to lend its aid in eradicating graze on the newly sown lands. In many districts the evil. the land is full of small stones, and all which If the land has become fogged, or covered with would interfere with the scythe ought to be mosses, the harrow may be used with good effect; removed at any early period when most con- and afterwards let the opportunity of a damp mornvenient. Some do this as soon as the grass seeds ing be taken advantage of, to sow grass seeds over are sown; others defer it until after they have per- the parts which have been most scarified by the haps been eaten down for the first time.' In either implement, case, broad-wheeled carts ought to be used to The application of bone-dust, at the rate of say carry away the stones, so as to prevent the forma- twenty bushels per statute acre, is, we need scarcely tion of ruts, as will be the case when narrow say, a most efficient mode of improving inferior wheels are employed. The frequent use of the pastures. Instead, however, of putting them on roller is highly advantageous in smoothing and the land in their natural state, another method may consolidating the surface.

be adopted, and which we believe to be the better Although the production of hay should be an plan. When grass land is drained-pipes being object which it was desirable to attain, the grass used as under-ground conduit- let the filling of ought not to be mown the first year, but entirely the drains be finished neatly, without laying the top consumed by sheep. The second year's grass may sod on the surface, Collect these sods, and after be mown, but as soon as the bay is removed, let a chopping them in pieces, form a heap, upon each wet day be selected to top-dress the field with 1 layer of which spread a quantity of bones, and also cwt. of Peruvian guano and i cwt. nitrate of soda coarse salt. There will be thus—first a layer of per statute acre, after which, when the grasses are earth, next a covering of bones and salt, then earth, sufficiently grown, stock again with sheep. The again bones and salt, and so on, until the heap is aftermath ought on no account to be mown, say four feet high. The uppermost layer must be neither should a hay crop be taken two years in of earth. The bones to be at the rate of 20 bush. succession. In the after-management of the land, an acre, and the salt 5 cwt. The former will deshould a crop of hay be taken, top-dressing imme- compose rapidly, and become absorbed in this heap diately afterwards either with guano and nitrate of of earth. It may be applied to the land a month after being mixed, observing to turn the heap care- other sweet grasses. This practice of using marl fully over before drawing the compost out on the alone in the improvement of poor grass lands is field. If it is in the power of the farmer to saturate common in some districts with which we are the heaps with the liquid drainings from his farm- acquainted; and shell sand got on the sea shore is yard, the value of the compost will be greatly also employed for the same purpose, and with preincreased.

cisely a similar effect. Even common sand will be A compost of earth, lime, and salt is an excellent found to improve the pasturage on poor clays. We top-dressing for pastures, and very effectual in had on one occasion a very striking proof of this improving the quality of the grasses. Let the heap being the case. A field of poor, ungrateful clay be made in layers as above described, but in this was laid down to permanent grass, and although it case, after being made up, it must remain untouched had been previously treated liberally, the grass for at least six months. Then let two men com- still was always very thin, and of extremely mence at one end of the heap, and turn it over, indifferent quality. A considerable quantity of carefully intermixing every portion of it, and add- fine sand was drawn and spread over the worst ing a shovel-full of lime where it may appear to parts of the field, and from that time the sward have been passed over lightly at the first mixing. began to improve, becoming thicker every year, the The heap will be permitted to remain for two or bare spaces being filled up by sweet herbage, three months longer, then turned again, beginning which did not exist previously. at the opposite end from that which was begun All pastures which are eaten down by cattle ought upon the first time. A compost of this kind is to be frequently gone over, and all the droppings better to lie twelve months before being applied to carefully scattered. This prevents the grasses from the land, so that the particles may be allowed to growing in tufts, as in the case where this precau-. be thoroughly intermixed, and also to permit cer- tion is not adopted, besides helping to improve the tain chemical changes taking place which the lime pasture generally. and salt will effect in connection with the organic An unremitting warfare must be waged against matter contained in the earth, and by which the weeds, and the most effectual mode of removal is fertilizing effects of the compost will be increased. by digging them out. Cutting them down regu

Calcareous manures alone, when used as a top- larly at an early stage of their growth will weaken dressing, will effect great improvements in the cha- them so much that in course of time they will die racter of pastures. We have often applied marl to out; but this is apt to be neglected until they perpoor heathy pastures, and the result was that the fect their seeds, when it is too late, and we therefore heaths and coarse bents became eradicated, their prefer recommending digging out instead of merely place being supplied by natural white clover and cutting down.–Irish Farmer's Gazette.

THE BEAUTIFUL IN AGRICULTURE. Both the art and the science of agriculture are spatible with anything that is useful in agriculture sufficiently advanced in this country to enable its or important in household affairs, the fact would citizens to study and practise thé Beautiful in excuse the general neglect of this principle in planting, and in all farming operations, with entire nature. But so far from being hostile to the success. Beauty in rural objects and scenery is creation of wealth, or to its accumulation in the not confined to embellishments, but is attainable in hands of the owners of the soil, Beauty is one of all that relates to plants and their culture, to do the most reliable elements of money value in mesticated animals, forests, parks, fields, orchards, every species of property., In proof of this, and gardens. Nature kindly favours, and often we cite the facts that a beautiful horse often suggests agreeable features to such as have an sells at from £70 to £120, where an ugly eye to see and heart to feel the charms of beauty one of the same weight and muscular power She aids in a thousand ways to quicken into life will bring only a fifth of the sums named. A and activity the dormant taste for the Beautiful beautiful plantation has equal advantages over placed in every bosom by a beneficent Creator. one quite lestitute of pleasing and attractive feaTo develop and cultivate this latent and prolific tures. As society advances, and the popular apsource of enjoyment in mankind, is one of the preciation of lovely and captivating expressions highest duties of educated persons. It should becomes more acute and refined, it is obvious prompt all to investigate the elements of beauty that Beauty must appreciate in cash value. Inin natural objects and in rural arts, whether they deed, not one in a thousand knows how to turn to relate to the vegetable, animal, or mineral king- the most profitable account the intrinsic power dom. With each of these grand departments of and the solid merit of the Beautiful in agricul. Nature the cultivator has much to do; and he ture. It is not, as many suppose, a mere ideal should learn her processes and laws, from which matter, having no foundation in things substantial he will at length fully understand that Beanty and and enduring; but it is a material part of that Utility are integral parts of any wise system of perfect economy which owes its existence to the farm economy.

Supreme Arc itect of the universe. Hence, as If beauty in a country residence, in farm build- planters and husbandmen, it is a part of our ings of whatever kind, or in tillage, were incom- highest wisdom to cultivate ihat faculty within us,

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which happily discriminates in the varied fruits of of money thrown away by the rich, and those who the earth, in its ever differing inherent fertility, would fain pass as such, on expensive buildings, and its wide range of really valuable plants and shows how little our taste in such matters has animals. We should study to multiply delightful been improved over that of savages. Fortunes are objects and scenes around our homes, and improve often squandered in a few years on misshapen such as Nature has scattered with a liberal hand palaces and villas. Some, less extravagant in over all our acres, whether few or many.

outlay, are more outré in architectural folly, Let us consider what it is that renders land adding to the residence of a private family, by way beautiful for tillage.

of ornament, what would appear to be massive Consider the first and most obvious wants of all columns, but which are generally made of wood, in cultivated ground, and it will be seen that fruitful- the ridiculous ambition of appearing to live in ness is the function most needed. It is, however, something like a Grecian temple. In costly public no more necessary to successful agriculture, than edifices, columns are appropriate, to aid in supexpressive of natural beauty. A rich soil clothes porting the great weight of a marble, granite, or itself with noble forests; and if these be removed, other structure; but nothing is more like an as on extensive prairies, with the most luxuriant eagle's feather stuck into the matted hair of a and nutritious grasses. Fruitfulness of the earth savage, than the frail plank pillars or columns, being an essential element of rurul beauty, to in painted white, so ostentatiously stuck out in front pair the fertility of land is not merely to diminish or at the sides of a dwelling-house. A worse taste its money value for the growth of crops, but to can hardly be imagined. Simplicity, neatness, and transform a landscape that once inspired universal quietness ever indicate contentment, gratitude to hope, confidence, pleasure, and industry, into a God, and the promise of a long happy life. barren waste, which, when fairly tilled, promises Whereas, the straining for effect always suggests little reward to honest toil, and actually yields less unfavourable thoughts, and not unfrequently prothan it promises.

vokes remarks expressive of contempt rather than Under such circumstances, it is fortunate that of admiration. Science teaches us how we can best change a Whatever contributes to the comfort of a family sterile field, or an impoverished estate, into one at a rural home, adds to its beauty, if properly distinguished alike for its elegance and productive placed and constructed. Thus, a well-arranged

Science also tells us that it is easier and kitchen, with a wood-house, cement cistern for better to preserve the natural resources of land, than holding rain water, and many other conveniences, to restore them when removed in crops, or washed are not only matters of interest, but really increase away by many heavy rains falling on shallow the attractiveness of a family residence.' It is the ploughed fields. To avoid loss in this particular, judicious planning, combination, and management it is important to know the precise things in the of all the affairs, both in doors and out, on a farm, soil that form agricultural plants, and how these that make the farmer's life happier than that of things are both lessened and augmented in all most other men engaged in different pursuits. He farming operations. With this professional know- has the constant assistance of those wonderful ledge, the cultivator may profitably increase the powers known as vegetable and animal vitality, to beauty and value of every rood of land on his multiply his agricultural wealth and beautify his plantation.

plantation. Groves of forest trees, orchards of Having a critical knowledge of the constituents fruit-trees, as well as all the benefits of the garden, of soils and their products, how is one to make a are at his command. Parks, lawns, and pleasuretruly beautiful landed estate ?

grounds he and his children may indulge in, if This depends mainly on the circumstances with their tastes appreciate and enjoy such improvewhich he is surrounded. He should examine these ments; and it is better to cultivate a taste in this with the utmost care, with a view to learn what is direction, than that which seeks amusement by practicable, not in itself, but to a man of his means, visiting distant watering-places and the gaieties of acquirements, family ties and duties, and powers of cities. To the owner and cultivator of the soil, execution. Farm buildings and sences of some home should be the most agreeable place on earth. kinds are indispensable; and in their construction There his best thoughts and efforts, his money and arrangement bis taste and skill will inevitably and bis ambition, should find full employment. be revealed to his neighbours and the public. A Absenteeism is fatal to the Beautiful in agriculture. cultivated taste may be seen as well in the erection A farmer should not only stay, as a general rule, of a log cottage as in that of the most costly on his farm, but live there, in the best sense of the mansion. Nature displays the Beautiful not only term. This idea does not conflict with a reasonin the lowly and humble violet, but in plants and able amount of travel, either for recreation, or to animals too small to be seen by the naked eye. obtain additional knowledge. Good books are now Wisdom in the designer may be shown as effectively so cheap and abundant, that a library composed in in the arrangement and structure of little things as a large degree of works on agricultural and in large ones. Divelling-house architecture, whether horticultural subjects, is found to yield both in cities, villages, or strictly country residences, is amusement and instruction on better terms and susceptible of great improvement, judging from of a better quality than the planter can obtain from the habitations of the million. These rarely any other source. It is quite as easy to acquire a possess either convenience or beauty, or any other taste for agricultural reading, as for tobacco, tea, or merit to recommend them. Even in cheapness, coffee. Man is a creature of habit; and the best they fail as much as in other respects. The amount way to avoid bad habits in our children, is to fix

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early in their constitutions pure tastes, the the fertility of properly-irrigated lands. The fer. gratification of which will ennoble, not degrade tilizing influence of water, when judiciously applied them. To cultivate the Beautiful in rural life has to the earth, is well known. It is, therefore

, in an elevating influence on society, and thereby pre skilful hands, an invaluable element of fruitfulness vents vice and crime, poverty and suffering. and beauty. More knowledge and higher art will

Nature being the source of Beauty, we are to one day use water in this country as successfully study her admirable processes as they are made in agriculture as was ever done in Greece, Italy, or known in the Natural Sciences. Chemistry, Egypt. Botany, Geology, Vegetable and Animal Physi- Next to irrigation, we regard the planting of the ology reveal to the human understanding a thou seeds of all the more valuable forest trees and fruit sand charms in the perfect harmony that pervades trees that will grow and prosper in our climate as every form and condition of matter, and thus the most commendable practice, with a view to perpetuates all the beauties and blessings which promote the Beautiful in agriculture. Land is call into activity both the gratitude and the reasons now cheap; and there is a certainty, as population of man, The powers within him, and the elements increases, that the demand for lumber and timber, that surround him, act in concert to force his for fruits of all kinds, and for fuel, will increase in growth in morality and knowledge, that he may be an equal, if not a greater ratio. By skilful planting, come in each succeeding generation at once a hap- one may unite beauty and profit in an eminent de pier and a wiser being. In connection with our gree. Black walnut planks are now worth, in all moral and intellectual development, so natural and northern cities, from four to seven dollars per 100 so desirable, a higher degree of social and phy- feet. With due care, the tree grows rapidly, and sical comfort is clearly both attainable and suscep- its fruit possesses considerable value. A forest of tible of full enjoyment. It is not every person, in this and other well-known trees would add an whatever condition he may chance to be, in refer- interesting feature to any plantation, while the ex. ence to culture, who is capable of appreciating pense of it would be a mere trifle. There is geeither the Beautiful in Agriculture or in Nature. nuine poetry in trees-in their beautiful foliage, Hence, in all nations just emerging from bar- their charming blossoms, their delicious fruits, barism, husbandry, tillage, architecture, and all their cool and soothing shade, their stately trunks, other arts, are prosecuted in the rudest manner. waving tops and graceful outlines; and all speak to Some rise more rapiùly than others in every attain- the eye and soul of man in a language not to be ment; but time is necessary to the growth of every misunderstood. It was in the light and shade of art and the perfection of every science.

groves that man first erected his most elaborate It is humiliating to our pride as a free, self- temples, and there his ascending devotions sought governing people, to know that in ancient Greece communion with the Creator of all. No wonder the Beautiful in agriculture and architecture was that groves were often held as sacred to God, and still far in advance of our highest achievements. A oftener made seats of learning-the chosen schools thousand years before the birth of our Saviour, where sages taught, and thousands studied the proHomer describes, in the fifth book of the Odyssey, found mysteries of the universe. If the history of a landscape in which four fountains of white our race shows anything good in man, it may be (foaming) water, each springing in succession, in stated, to his credit, that noble trees, of whatever perfect orderliness, sends the life of vegetation kind, inspire something akin to piety in bis heart through a meadow in different directions. At that and in his thoughts. Call this, if you please, an early period, agriculture was sufficiently advanced oriental feeling : it has been too general and too to have irrigation and meadows properly appre-long continued, not to have an abiding place in the ciated by the inost civilized nations. We wish we human soul. could say as much for the agriculture of our own It is the crowning beauty of a farm or plantation, sunny South. But all must admit, that, with us, to express, in its every feature, both tranquillity and neither irrigation nor meadows are regarded as happiness. Disquietude and pain will sometimes worthy of public attention. It is true, we know come to the best of men; but their continuance the value of hay, and consume many a bale from should be as short as possible. It is monstrous to the North, for which we pay at least twice what it suppose that our nerves are made sensitive that it is intrinsically worth.

they may feel more suffering than pleasure during Who needs to be told that luxuriant meadows, our existence. Pain and distortion are exceptions ; pastures, and fine stock, add largely to the beauty, enjoyment and beauty are the true, the natural interest, and value of a plantation ? Irrigated status of all sentient beings. When healthy, and meadows and pastures are an inexhaustible source properly fed, the young of all animals are beautiful of manure for enriching the tilled lands on a farm. and happy. Such is the law of Nature; and hence Where Nature periodically irrigates river bottoms, good husbandmen improve their flocks and herds the plough never exhausts the soil. Running wa- in symmetry of form, in elegance and elasticity of ter being Nature's grand restorer in tillage and movement, by simply having them always in the cropping, why not use it to rejuvenate our old enjoyment of suitable food and shelter. These fields, and thus render them at once both attrac- expel deformity in a few generations, and develop tive and profitable? None of them are so elevated Nature's highest beauties. The same principle apthat water does not fall from above them, and run plies to the feeding and care of agricultural plants, off their surfaces. Properly considered, all th Starve and wither them by ill-usage, and your seed moving water on continents is rain water. It cre- will soon degenerate, your crops fail, and your ates, as well as transports from one place to another, success in planting be no better than your practice,

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Nature's beauties, whether in plants or animals, are of our farm improvements are of the same frail and fed liberally; and in this regard she teaches the ephemeral character. We must learn to do our cultivator to feed generously his soil, his crops, and work better, or we shall greatly damage the State his stock. By so doing, his land and all its pro- in which we live, by increasing its old fields, and ducts will be the best of their kind, assuming good perhaps provoke the curses of our own posterity. common sense in the primary selection. Fences, To injure the soil over millions of acres is a wrong buildings, and farm implements should be made of of fearful magnitude. Would to God that we could the most durable materials, that everything may see some evidence that the evil will be any less during indicate the settled purpose of the owner to have the life-time of the writer. The error is too old and such an estate as will support a family in affluence deep-rooted for that. For a little immediate gain in all time to come. Permanency of occupation in cotton or grain, our natural and valuable forests, and durability of improvements are material ele- the soil, and the best interests of society are all ments of agricultural beauty. A witty Englishman sacrificed; as if to desolate the earth were man's has remarked, that in travelling through the United highest profit and greatest good! Who will try to States, most of the houses appear to have been put remedy this obvious social disease, and foster the up Saturday evening, with the expectation that they study of the Beautiful in Agriculture.-- American were to be taken down Monday morning! Much Southern Cultivator."

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PLEURO-PNEUMONIA. At a late meeting of the Probus Farmers' Club, uncertain was its appearance, that it frequently Mr. William Trethewy in the chair-Mr. Karkeek broke out without the introduction of strange delivered an able and instructive lecture on beasts, or any other assignable cause; and in a “Pleuro-pneumonia.”

few weeks it spread like wild-tire. In such cases Mr. KARKEEK commenced by saying that the atmosphere was regarded as the medium he felt it was unnecessary for him to make any through which the disease was conveyed. That apology for introducing the subject; for although this disease existed on the continent for several Cornwall had been, comparatively speaking, free years before its appearance in England, was an from this dreadful murrain-in consequence of undoubted fact; and hence arose the questionCornish farmers having been for the most part ex. How did it reach England? Was it by direct imporporters, rather than importers of live stock, and station of foreign cattle? or was the disease wafted therefore having but little intercourse with infected on the air, as had been the case with Asiatic cholera districts-yet within the last few months the and other similar pests? In every instance of the disease had appeared in this county. He believed disease that had come under his own observation, he was correct in stating that the few cases which it was clearly traceable to direct importation of cathad occurred in Cornwall might clearly be traced to tle from other districts. But, as he had before obthe introduction of cattle from some eastern coun- served, the malady had been known frequently to ties, and might rightly be regarded as isolated break out without any such direct and immediate instances. It sometimes, however, happened with Thus much of the disease, however, was respect to epizootic diseases, that there was a fulfil- known--that it had prevailed in England, to a ment of the old proverb—“it never rains but it greater or less extent, since 1842; that it had been pours;" and he could safely verify the fact that raging in Ireland for some twelve months before some of the disease which had affected our horses, that period; that it was brought to the English cattle, and sheep of late years, had come, not, as it side of the channel by some half-starved Irish catwere, in single drops, but in a complete down- tle, and in a very short time it found its way into pour. This had been particularly the case with Cheshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, and Middlethe “influenza” in horses, and the “vesicular sex; that its ravages had been the inost extensive epizootie," a disease characterised by the formation on marshy districts and in ill-ventilated crowded of vesicles on the tongue, lips, and feet of cattle cow-houses; and (a fact well deserving notice) and sheep. The “variola ovina,” or sheep-pox, that the wide spread of pleuro-pneumonia was was another instance. This disease was imported occasioned by persons sending their beasts to from foreign countries, and wherever it had ap- markets and fairs on its very first outbreak on peared it had killed its thousands. Fortunately their premises. From the peculiar incubating for Cornish farmers, it did not cross the 'Tamer. character of the disease, it was obvious that it He mentioned these cases in order to warn his might be conveyed long distances during its formahearers that, although the murrain known as tive stage. This was consistent with the sup"pleuro-pneumonia" had not yet visited Cornwall position entertained by some medical men, that to any great extent, yet it behoved them to be malignant epidemics are the result of parasites watchful and fearful, for epizootic diseases of all vegetable or animal—each, after its own kind, kinds appeared to be borne on the wings of the disturbing in sundry ways, the functions and the wind, and it was inpossible to say whence they structure of the bodies on which they subsist; and came or whither they were carried. In those coun- that the germs of disease thus caused may exist tries in which the disease had prevailed, it had been for some considerable time before the appearance found extremely difficult to track its course. So I of its outward symptoms. In pleuro-pneumonia it

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