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At the end of three weeks, it was easy to perceive the fa- nodules mixed with blood. I would, however, remark that the vourable effect of the phosphoric acid upon the buckwheat experiment No. 3, the results of which are very fine, were proWhere the superphosphate of lime, of animalized phosphates, duced under the influence of weak doses of animal substances. and of the mixture of blood and powdered nodules were nsed, Had the porous vegetable charcoal in this case a condensing the vegetation was both luxuriant and precocious. The animal action immediately utilized ? It appears very probable, charcoal was distanced, and owing to the poverty of the earth Let it therefore be well understood that the figures exthe pure phosphate of lime gave wretched results. The follow- pressed in this table are applicable only to the special circuming, however, is the complete summary of the observations, stances of the experiment, and it is requisite, in order to study made with the greatest care :
more completely the action of the nodules, to make uew essays in which the organic matter of the soil determined will perform a part which is wanting here. Under these reserves I think I am able to establish the following facts :
1. The nodules of phosphate of lime of the Ardennes, rednced to fine powder, and exposed some months to the air, are assimilable by vegetables.
2. Their favourable action on granitic and schistose soils, in the clearings of lands and heaths, may be variable according as we employ them alone or associated with organic substances.
3. As this is also remarked in the employment of the phos. phates of charcoal of clarification, and charcoal powder of the alters, there is agreement sometimes in associating organic substances with the modules in fertilizing poor soils by dissolvent agents, and sometimes, on the contrary, in employing them alone on clearings in which vegetable substances abound.
4. The addition of blood to the powdered nodules gave excellent results in the triple point of view, of retura in grain, of vigour of the straw, and of precocity.
5. The employment of the action of acids, in order to promote the assimilation of phosphates, will only take place in lands and cultures in which the superphosphate is actually found useful by the agriculturists. In all cases, on the contrary, in which bone-black in grains is rapidly dissolved, the nodules finely powdered will themselves be assimilated.*
6. Lastly, and as a consequence useful to point out, it is once more established that from the search for co-efficients of solubility in the laboratory, to the agricultural verification, there is all the distance that separates an extremely simple effect from one extremely complex,
Poor earth without manure
four-thousandths of azote...
lized with chalk. . : : ...
of azote ..............
phospbate of lime ...
THE KIND OF MANURE USED.
PHOSPHORIC ACID EXCEEDING THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE CROPS.
BATH AND WEST OF ENGLAND SOCIETY.
A Monthly Council was held on Saturday, Feb. 27, at Waghorn's Hotel, Taunton, John Sillifunt, Esq., in the chair.
THE CARDIFF MEETING.–Mr. Widdicombe (Director), brought up a report on the subject of the tenders received from the various contractors for the erection of the hoarding, for the show-yard, offices, and works for the meeting at Cardiff in June next. The tender of Mr. George Pollard, builder, of Taunton, was accepted. The report of the committee (ander the guidance of Mr. Gooch, the consulting engineer of the society), on the terms upon which steam engines would be permitted to exhibit in the show-yard, was introduced and discussed. The report was adopted, and ordered to be printed and circulated among intending exhibitors in this department.
The MEETING IN 1859.-The deputation appointed to risit Barnstaple reported that they went to that town on Thursday last, and inspected three sites offered for the ex. hibition next year. They now recommended a piece of land about a mile from the Barnstaple Station, on the North Devon Railway, in every way suitable, provided the requirements of the society were complied with. It was also reported that eligible fields for the trial of implements would be offered to the council on advantageous terms.
New MEMBERS. — The following new members were
Mr. R. F. Jender, Winvoe Castle, Cardiff
Mr. F. T. Allen, West Kington, Dear Chippenham
Mr. J. Spurway, Spring Grove, Milverton
Mr. J. P. Spurway, Spring Grove, Milverton
Capt. F. Spurway, 2nd Somerset Militia.
MR. POPPY OF WITNESHAM. Respected FRIEND, -Herewith I send thee an extract | among occupiers of land in Suffolk-is justly entitled to from the Suffolk Chronicle, giving a brief outline of the life and a niche in the temple of agricultural fame. labours of our valued old friend and father of farmers'clubs, Charles Poppy was born in the parish of Withersfield, Charles Poppy-thinking it probable it would be interesting in the year 1773. At eight years of age he was sent to be to the readers of the Mark Lane E1 press, some few of whom, educated at Tilney School, Harleston, Norfolk, where he who were readers of the agricultural periodicals sixty years remained seven years. Thomas Pallant, the meteorologist
, since, will probably recollect his early efforts to promote was a schoolfellow of his. When he left school he was the practical interests of agriculture. To him we owe in placed with Mr. Candler, of Linstead, near Halesworth, this district the earliest introduction of swede turnips, as of for instruction in farming. There he profited but little, a crop of mangel wurzel, and of Belgian white carrots; the for his master was not a strict one, and, as many, of most successful prevention of the ravages of the turnip fly; Charles's schoolfellows lived in the neighbourhood, he had the invention of the scarifier, which was the original' type the run of many farms; and this suited & mettled lad of his of those now in use; and the introduction of the system of age better than work. It was a dairy farm, and he refarmers' clubs. Well do I recollect visiting, in company mained there two or three years. Candler was a regular with my highly-esteemed friend, John Morton, one of the old-fashioned farmer, but hearing that a new-fangled monthly meetings of the primitive club, held in the long system of draining had been tried on a farm at Cookley, he low-room of the village inn at Ashbocking, when, seated as took his agricultural pupil with him to look at it out of president at the end of a long table, covered with gigantic curiosity, and here it was that our future experimentalist roots, interspersed with glasses of steaming mixture, and saw, for the first time, an arable field of six or eight acres pipes with well-waxed ends, he gave us, in his own ge- subjected to the system of thorough drainage. nial and unobtrusive manner, interesting anecdotes of his From Mr. Candler's he went to “ Frendze Hall Farm,”. successes and his failures, of his temporary discouragements Scole, Norfolk, an arable and grazing farm of upwards of and: his ultimate rejoicing in the triumph of successful at four hundred acres. There he remained four years, and tainment. At a shortly subsequent period, two or three of there he learnt to work. There it was that he made the those warmly interested in agriculture in the neighbourhood acquaintance of Mr. Kent, who was steward to George the of Yoxford visited the Ashbocking Club, and the rapid Third, wbich led to an interchange of correspondence upon establishment of similar clubs in Yoxford, Halesworth, agricultural subjects. There it was that he first saw Swede Beccles, Wrentham, Harleston, Framlingham, and Wick turnips grown. Thomas Avis, Esq., steward to the Duke ham Market, was the result. Through the kindness of the of Norfolk, occupied the farm adjoining " Frendze Hall," editors of the Mark Lane Erpress the reports of the pro- and he was at that time trying to grow swedes, the root ceedings of these various little societies were published, and being then unknown in the East Anglian district
. Mr. the practical usefulness of their discussions thus obtaining Avis raised them in his garden and then planted them out, wide circulation, institutions of a similar character were and he continued this practice for several years. speedily formed throughout the length and breadth of the As the fourth year drew to a close our young farmer land.
began to feel himself able to practise the art of agriculture, About this time, the late William Shaw with two or three and he therefore engaged himself as assistant to Mr. Wythe, of his friends, conceived the idea of centralizing these by a land valuer and agent at Eye, who occupied the "Park the establishment of a club in London, and hence the com- Farm," and two others in the immediate neighbourhood. mencement of the Central Farmers' Club.
Having procured some seed from his old neighbour in NorSurely amongst the thousands who have through so long folk, Mr. Avis, he proceeded to try the experiment of grow; a period benefited by the disinterested Jabours and ing swedes. There was a bailiff at the farm, but such researches in which he has spent his long and useful life, scarce and valuable seed he could not trust in other hands there must be many who will rejoice in the opportunity to than his own, and he therefore sowed it himself. This was contribute to the promotion of his comforts and that of his the first known instance of Swede turnips being sown for a azed partner for the few remaining years that may yet be crop in Suffolk. The seed, however, was put in too late
, allotted to him, now that the day of his working for others and the crop proved very poor, too small to feed cattle, lest at the age of 85–is well nigh passed.
they should choke themselves; in fact, they were like His old friend and co-worker for nearly 50 years, Arthur Bloomfield's description of the rinds of Suffolk cheese : Biddell, of Playfird, has organized the plan of obtaining sufficient funds for the purchase of an annuity on the joint
“Too big to swallow, and too hard to bite." lives of the worthy pair; and if thou conldst suggest that subscriptions should be received at the office of the Central upon farming on his own account. He took a farm at Oca
After remaining four years with Mr. Wythe, he resolved Farmers' Club, there is little doubt the object would be cold ; but at the end of three years the owner wanted it, speedily accomplished. With kind regards and pleasant memories of other days, business, and travelled over Suffolk, Norfolk, and part of
and Mr. Poppy had to quit. He then entered into the seed I remain, my dear friend, sincerely thine, Cambridgeshire. Being a keen observer, his travelling Ipswich, 2nd Month 22.
J. ALLEN RANSOME. gave him a good opportunity of making himself acquainied
with the soil, culture, and vegetable productions of the
districts he visited, and this he did not lose sight of. The SUFFOLK WORTHIES AND PERSONS OF line of life, however, did not please him, and before the end NOTE IN EAST ANGLIA.
of twelvemonths he was again engaged by Mr. Wythe to
undertake the sole management of his farms, that gentle CHARLES POPPY, THE AGRICULTURIST.
man having removed to West Norfolk.
Mr. Poppy, desirous of being on his own footing, nest Among the many men in Suffolk who have achieved a took a farm at Wetherden. Here a new phase of life name and reputation by the practice of agriculture, few opened to him. He married Frances, the youngest could be mentioned who have so deservedly won a claim for daughter
of the Rev. John Gibbs, rector of Occold, and distinction among Suffolk farmers as Charles Poppy, of vicar of Yaxley, by whom he has had five children ; three Witoesham. This venerable agriculturist, the correspon- of them are now living in the United States, one, dent and contemporary of Arthur Young, Sir John daughter, is living at West Ham, and one is deceased. Sinclair
, George Webb Hall, and others-a man whose when he began married life he thought he was comfortably numerous experiments and lengthened experience on the settled : prices were good ; his farm of 160 acres was, to all crops and soils of this district render him pre-eminent I appearance, one of average quality; his house was sub
stantial, and moated round in the old style; and he had neighbourhood, established the first organised Farmers'
cultivation of which he had so long superintended. The
Charles Poppy is not like Tull, a gentleman of ancient Unfortunately for him, the promised twenty-one years' | family; nor like Stillingfleet, the grandson of a bishop; nor lease of the Witnesham farm was never executed. Mr. like Arthur Young, a Fellow of the Royal Society; but he Poppy kept on farming and improving, prices were increas. is a practical agriculturist, who, in proportion to his means, ing almost every year, and in a few years he paid a heavy has done more, by experiment and correspondence, to adpenalty for neglecting the affair of the lease. The owner vance the agricultural art in this county than any other of the farm and a friend visited him, and the next rent day man living, and as such is worthy of all honour. the alternative was to Mr. Poppy either to pay an advanced rent or to quit. It was in vain that he pleaded his agree. ment: there was no written contract. He had himself be. come a family man, had expended a considerable sum in improvements, and it was not likely that another farm THE PROPOSED ESSEX AGRICULTURAL ASSOcould then be obtained, and he had therefore to submit to CIATION.- Tbe adjourned meeting of the committee appointthe demand. His case is one among many of the folly of ed to promote the establishment of an agricultural society in making improvements without security.
the county of Essex, took plare on Friday, March 26, at the About this period he entered into a correspondence with Shireball, Chelmsford; Mr. C. Du Cane, M.P, in the chair, Arthur Young about the “scarifier," and he sent a model Mr. Bramston, M.P., one of the other county members, and a of the instrument he had invented to the Board of Agri- considerable number of gentlemen connected with the agriculculture, at the time Sir John Sinclair was President; both ture of the district, were present. The hon. chairmau stated Arthur Young and Sir John highly approved of the model that 34 vice-presidents at £5 59. each, 39 members at £2.. 28. implement, and felt sure of its getting ultimately into each, 151 members at £1 19. each, 24 members at £1 each, and general use. Young, however, advised Mr. Poppy not to 269 members at 103, 6d. each, had been enrolled, in all 517 take out a patent, and the result is, that at the present day, gentlemen. The surplus arisiog from the local fund raised scarifiers, of which his was the original type, may be seen for the Chelmsford Meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society on almost every farm in this district.
was about £315, and there way, therefore, a sum of £350 avail. White carrots were introduced into this district by Mr.
able for the inauguration and establishment of the association. Poppy. He brought the seeds from France in 1828. With regard to the rules, the chairman further stated that he Sauntering about Calais prior to embarkation, he saw some had prepared them, having previously received copies of those strange roots lying on the stalls of the market-place, that governing the Suffolk and the Bath and West of England “ looked like a hybrid between a parsnip and a carrot," and
Societies. The hon. gentleman's code, wbich he read, was he at once bought some seed to try their growth in East adopted, with a few slight alterations. It provides for the Anglia. He was incessant in his labours to introduce man- management of the association by a committee of 24 members, gold wurzel, but he for a long time met with great difficul. chosea equally from the northern and southern divisions of the ties in persuading farmers to grow this valuable root, and county, and that no political discussions shall be introduced he distributed seed, published pamphlets, and wrote letters into the society, which is to be devoted exclusively to agriculto the public journals, with the hope of getting the root tural objects. The meeting resolved on the appointment of a into general use; and there cannot be a doubt but that his secretary at a salary of £50 per annum, and Mr. W. Tutfnell exertions were of great value. Mr. Collett, of Clopton, had undertook to act as treasurer. It was also determined, after succeeded in growing the root, but his want of knowledge some discussion, that the first exhibition of the association in storing them caused his crop to spoil. A labourer from
should be held at Chelmsford, on Tuesday, June 15, and the that parish brought one to Mr. Poppy as a curiosity, say meeting adjonred to March 26, for the reception of a schedule ing, he“ din't know what that was ; if 'twas a carrot 'twas
of prizes to be prepared in the interim, and to be then suba stamming great un." Mr. Poppy has also been zealous mitted for approval. in promoting the cultivation of " millett” as a useful stallfeeding plant for storing, and as a substitute for clover. Mr. Poppy, in connection with a few friends in his
MANURES FOR GREEN CROPS.
At a numerously attended meeting of the Wes-, until Liebig published his work on the “ Applicatern District of Mid-lothian Agricultural Associa- tion of Chemistry to Agriculture.” This work protion, held at Mid-Calder, on Tuesday, the 1st duced a considerable impression at the time December last, Peter M·Lagan, junior, Esq. of amongst farmers, some of the more sanguine Pumpherston, in the chair, the following able imagining that a new era had dawned upon agricul. paper on the “ Manures best suited for the Turnip ture. Greatly increased crops were to be raised by Crop” was read by Mr Rowat, Currievale: new manures, adapted to each description of grain
The results of a few experiments with different and rootcrop, atone-half the former price. But alas! kinds of manures
are all I have to lay before you. I we all know to our cost that ever since, notwithstandhave no historical account of the various manures ing all the aid of chemistry, manures of all kinds now in use ; nor have I anything to say of their have been gradually rising, till last season we paid chemical properties. There will doubtless be a a higher price for them than we ever did at any difference in the opinions of many here as to the former period. Let me not be understood as comparative merits of different manures ; but I speaking lightly of the aid which chemistry renthink you will agree with me as to the necessity of ders to agriculturists in judging of manures. So applying manure of some kind if we expect to raise far from it, I believe that we may on good grounds a prolific green crop. We all know that in carry- cherish the hope that this abstruse science will yet ing away from the land a crop of any kind, whether discover for us more plentiful and consequently cereals or root crops, we are robbing the soil cheaper supplies of artificial manures. Years of of chemical properties which must be returned to it patient analyses and experiments may be necessary. again in one shape or other, if we would maintain Let us be patient. the land in high condition; and perhaps one of the Let us remember what chemistry has done in most difficult problems for an agriculturist to solve supplying us with manures in time past. Thirty or is the one now before us-What is the kind of ma- forty years ago, when turnips began to be more nure which, at the least cost, will raise the largest extensively cultivated, all the farm-yard manure green crop, and at the same time leave the land in that could be collected was found quite inadequate. the best condition for the succeeding rotation ? A Bones were introduced, and with marked success, thrifty housewife, on one occasion, presented a especially in sharp soils. Then by the aid of friend who had called with skim milk cheese, bread chemistry these bones were dissolved, and the and butter, by way of refreshment. He deliberately quantity formerly reckoned necessary for an acre spread a slice of cheese with the butter, saying, "I was found amply sufficient for four. But even restore unto thee what was feloniously taken away;" with all this multiplication of the power of manure, and if we wish to raise luxuriant crops of potatoes it was found insufficient for the land under green and turnip, we must restore to the land the chemi- crop. Then some sixteen or seventeen years ago cal properties which previous crops had carried off. guano was introduced, which met the desideratum Manuring land is no modern practice. It is quite for the time; and now, when farm-yard manure, true some agriculturists in the present day profess bones, dissolved bones, guano, &c., &c., are all to grow a succession of crops for a series of years found unequal to manure the vast extent of land on the same land without applying manure of any under green crops, I doubt not some substitute will kind--and the evidence that this has been success- be forthcoming in the time of need. To chemistry fully done seems so complete that we cannot dis- all eyes are at present directed, and I trust they pute it. Still, I think you will agree with me when will not look in vain. It is but a few months since I say that even in the Lothians, which has been that wonder-working science resolved the gas constyled "the garden of Scotland,” we must apply tained in our Torbanehill coal into a liquid, which manure, and that, too, with no niggard hand, if we I know some of you are pouring into your lamps, expect to raise a crop that will cover seed, labour, and obtaining a good light for a half-penny a night; aud rent. In the wheat-growing districts of Cana- while a wick the length of your finger will last you da, where the soil is so rich that the farmers for a twelvemonth. If that eagle-eyed science which years did not require to give it manure, now, in- detected the liquid gas in the dark coal-beds of stead of carting their manure to the river side as Torbanehill, and made it equal if not to the light of the easiest mode of getting quit of it, they collect it day, at least, to a gas light more brilliant than any carefully and apply it to the land. Chemical light these dark December days can boast, is it too science has done much for agriculture in analyzing much to expect that she will unlock the vast storesoils, testing the manurial qualities of various sub- houses of Nature's laboratory, and bring forth the stances, and thus guiding the practical farmer to many rich fertilizers lying dormant, whether it be the kind of manure best adapted for the respective from the enormous beds of nitrate of soda in South soil and crops to which they are applied ; and yet, America, or the deposits of fossil remains of whales, withal, agricultural chemistry may be said to be yet sharks, and other gigantic monsters of the deep in its infancy, although it has attained to the ordi. that in some remote period of earth's history nary span of human life. Yet it seems to have re- seem to have sported their short-lived day in our ceived' no attention from practical agriculturists seas, and had their bones deposited in the south of England for the use of the British agriculturists of tons. The turnips in this last were Swedish the 19th century?
variety: the others were all green top yellow. To make use of a Yankee expression, I believe in I have been in the habit of making a few exchemistry, and it its power to guide us in the choice periments with different kinds of manures every of manures. But I have still stonger faith in ex. year. Up till last season I always found dissolved periments, although these are not always safe bones to yield as large a crop, or nearly so, weight guides. There are so many circumstances to be for weight, as guano, and certainly the largest crop taken into consideration--the character of the soil, for the money value of the manure, while its effects climate, period of sowing, the season, &c., &c., on the land were more lasting. Whether the defithat implicit confidence cannot be placed in any ciency the last two years arose from the wetness of one experiment; but if year after year we make the season or the quality of the manure, I know trials of manures on different kinds of soils, and not. I dissolved the bones myself previously, but carefully ascertain the results, we shall be able to I had them from a highly respectable party, and do arrive at general conclusions on which we may de. not believe they were in any way adulterated. I pend as safely as any chemical theory, however was in the habit of using bone meal, or the ridbeautiful.
dlings from the bones, to assist in drying them Farm-yard manure, guano, ground bones, charcoal | The addition of a portion of dry bone may perhaps manure, and dissolved bones, are the manures I have account for the different result. Dissolved bones, made the experiments with, the results of which I I have observed, give a great stimulus to the young now beg to lay before you. In the season of 1856 turnip plant, and by sending it rapidly on, it is I tried six different lots of three drills each. The sooner beyond the reach of that horrid enemy of First was manured with 5 cwt. Peruvian guano per the turnip plant—the fly. In this respect it excels
Imperial acre, and yielded-21 tons 1 cwt. all other manures except guano. You will observe Second, with 5 cwt. dissolved bones-17 tons one remarkable result in the lot with 10 cwt. of 1 cwt.
dissolved bones; the yield is no greater than with Third, with 5 cwt. charcoal manure-12 tons 6 cwt. This would not have surprised me had 9 cwt.
guano been the manure, but with hones it is to ine Fourth, with 2} cwt. each guano and dissolved altogether inexplicable. In making a calculation bones—18 tons 15 cwt.
of the cost of various manures used in these experiFifth, with 2 cwt. each guano and charcoal ments, Patagonian produced the largest weight of manure-21 tons I cwt.
turnips for the money cost, but inserior guanos are Sixth, with 1} cwt. each guano, charcoal, and not to be depended on, with this exception. Half dissolved bones-20 tons 2 qrs.
charcoal and half guano produce the next greatest I ought to explain that the turnips were not weight of turnips for the money, reckoning the sown till the 19th of June, quite too late to sow charcoal manure at 5s. 3d. per cwt. and the guano green top yellow, especially in such a season as at 148. Dissolved bones are the next cheapest. 1856, and hence the crop was a very small one.
I Perhaps it may be expected I should say somealso weighed the same lengths of 3 drills of the thing of the manures best adapted for potatoes. I same variety of turnips sown on the 24th of May, am not a large potato grower, seldom having more and manured with about 30 tons of farmyard dung, than eight or ten acres, and therefore leave that ploughed in December, and if cwt. each dissolved subject to another. I may state that I this year bones and guano, applied in the drills, which used 1 cwt. each of charcoal, guano, and dissolved yielded 27 tons per imperial acre.
bones, with farmyard dung ploughed in in autumn. This season I had a trial of seven different lots, A small portion of the field had 3 cwt. of guano, manured as follows:
without charcoal or bones, and I could observe no First, manured with 6 cwts. of Peruvian guano, difference in the produce. One word as to the weighing 26 tons 19 cwts.
Edinburgh Police Manure. I have found it suit Second, manured with 6 cwts. Patagonian guano, well on stiff soil, but on lighter land I would de, cost about 10s.--26 tons 13 cwts.
cidedly prefer the one-half quantity of farmyard Third, manured with 9 cwts. dissolved bones-dung. I know this does not correspond with the 22 tons 18 cwts.
experience of some of the most intelligent farmers Fourth, manured with 6 cwts. do. from the same of the district, who compare it with other manure
manufacturer, but much drier-25 tons 11 cwts. in the proportion of three or two. One serious Fifth, manured with 6 cwts. dissolved bones, from drawback to it is, you have even on this calcula. another manufacturer - 22 tons 19 cwts.
tion three tons to load, cart, and spread, for two of Sixth, manured with 10 cwts. do.-22 tons 10 the other, and it will take nearly double the time cwts.
to fill and spread it. If liquid manure could be Seventh, manured with 3 cwts. Peruvian guano applied to turnips, I believe it would surpass every
and 3 cwts. charcoal manure-25 tons 18 other manure for that crop. Some time ago, in cwts.
transplanting some Swedes, I took urine from the These weights are all per imperial acre. I may tanks, and applied it after the turnip was transstate that Mr. Davidson and Mr. Cunningham were planted, and its effects were very powerful. kind enough to assist me in measuring the land The Chairman expressed the great satisfaction he and weighing the turnip.
had had in listening to the very able and suggesI tried another lot, manured with about 30 tons tive paper of Mr. Rowat. It had brought out farmyard dung and 1 cwt. each guano, charcoal prominently a most important point, which was manure, and dissolved bones, which yielded 33 well wortby of our best consideration, viz., the most