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While he advocated warmth, he was very far from saying that animals should be shut up in places where the atmosphere was at 100 degrees, or where there was no adequate provision for ventilation. What he wished to point out was, that warmth had an important and necessary connection with the food which was given to animals. Having now said enough with regard to the breeding of sheep, he would say a few words with regard to sheep required as food for man. There was no other animal so important in this point of view as the sheep. Mutton constituted the grand staple food of this country; and hence, as he had before remarked, the improvement of the breeds had a close connection with the increase of population. The Royal Agricultural Society and the Smithfield Club had both exerted themselves in the field of improvement, by offering prizes and holding exhibitions periodically; and great success had attended their efforts. Similar exhibitions had recently taken place in France; but the result thus far was that the English breeders and graziers who exhibited sheep swept away the prizes, and, pocketing the money, walked away with it (laughter). As regarded the distribution of the meat, some preferred early lamb, and others preferred saddle of mutton with a black foot, and had to pay for the luxury; while others, again, having less money to spare, made a different choice. The whole thing was beautifully arranged, and the culture harmonized well with the variety in the public demands. Having been at Smithfield market early on Monday morning, he had observed that the butchers from the West End had the first choice of the market; then came the purveyors for the mass of the middle classes; and, last of all, came those whose business lay chiefly with the working-classes, and who said they must have a great lot of meat for their money (laughter). A very remarkable alteration had taken place of late years with regard to the conveyance of sheep to market, and the return to the seller. When he was a lad, living in Lincolnshire, his father's sheep and capital were a fortnight walking to the metropolis, and they each lost eight or ten pounds' weight of meat on the way. Of course no one got the meat that was expended on the route-it was so much absolute waste. Now, sheep were conveyed from Lincolnshire to London in a few hours, and within thirty hours after they
left the farm the animals were not only sold, but the farmer or dealer had his money for them, and could thus employ it at once. This was a very great improvement; in fact, one of the great facilities afforded by the railways. It was not necessary that he should say anything with regard to the dead meat markets, as they were all familiar with them. Here, again, however, was a comparatively new state of things. Meat was now brought from Scotland and other distant parts of the kingdom, which did not come formerly; and rapidly as people from various districts had located themselves in the metropolis, the supply of meat had followed them in the same ratio. The use of artificial manures had a close and interesting connection with this subject. By using such articles the farmer was euabled greatly to increase his growth of turnips, and before it was necessary for him to pay for the manures, he had an ample return in the extra quantity of sheep which he was thus enabled to keep and send to market. He must now conclude. He had told the commissioners that it was quite impossible for him, within a single lecture, to exhaust the whole question of the culture of sheep. The wool production he had not yet touched, and he believed it was to be entered upon by a gentleman from the North of England familiar with manufactures, who would take up the subject where he (Mr. Smith) had left it. The wool collection in the museum was by no means complete; and as he had before intimated, he should, after his return home, do everything that might be in his power to supply the defects. The great importance of sheep, in relation to their woolbearing properties, was daily increasing. Beyond our own growth the imports of wool from Australia, in 1807, amounted to only 245lbs.; whereas in 1855, the latest period up to which the returns extended, the importation was 40,810,1371bs. In 1833 we received from India 3,721lbs., in 1855 4,594,520lbs. The total imports of wool from all places, in 1855, amounted to 99,300,446lbs.
The lecture occupied one hour and three-quarters, the whole of which being given from notes, made it the more interesting to the audience. The lecturer concluded by thanking the audience for the patience with which they had listened to him, and on retiring he was loudly cheered.
Swine are filthy animals in the cleanest condition in which they can be kept, and emit an offensive smell that is very disagreeable to other animals, as to cattle, with which the nearest association is placed in the arrangement of being reared and fattened. The manufactory of pigs is best located in a separate position from the farmery, but closely adjoining it, as the purposes are combined, and require a juxtaposition of utensils with which to work in unison. The site of the farmery, and the elevation of ground, will very much dispose the arrangements. The piggery may stand in the front range of either wing, in a small distance removed, and with an open front to the most benign aspect. The walls of the erection being low, the position in front of the farmery will not much exclude the sun from shining on the farm-yard behind, and a space of twenty or thirty yards being intervened between the piggery and the front of the farmery, no inconvenience will happen from the respective situations. As in all cases of the kind, circumstances will direct the arrangements.
The exterior shape of the piggery is best in a long
square, differing in a third or fourth from the true equality of sides. The shortest sides are placed to form the back part and open front, the former being divided into a cooking-house, and sheds for the boar and brood sows; the extent being always proportioned to the size of the farm, and the number of swine that can be kept. An end door in the food-house affords a passage along the front of the breeding sties, and a ready access with food and litter. A front door in the centre of the house leads along a paved road between two rows of feeding sties, in which the bacon hogs are confined, in two together, and provided with sty and shelter-shed of the area of about 100 square feet. A light four-wheeled waggon of thin iron carries the food along the passage, and the swine are fed on the right and left with much convenience and facility. The two rows of sties, and a centre passage in width, occupy the length of the food-house on large farms; on less extents, one row of sties will be placed, and an end-door will serve the feeding and breeding departments. The front of the breeding sties in width, the short side of the piggery, minus the length
of the cooking house, extends to the open front of the
morning, and in the early evening before sunset, with cooked food, in steamed potatoes mixed with meals of any kind, moderately thickened, and given in a milkwarm condition. This preparation is done in the foodhouse before-mentioned, which contains the steaming apparatus and the meals in readiness. It is two storeys high, and the second floor is dry for the meals, which are kept there for use. The daily allowance to the pigs is ample to the full satisfaction, but none to remain in the troughs to become cold, and produce a nauseating effect. The quantity the animals can daily consume is soon ascertained, and regulated accordingly. During the last month of fattening, one daily meal is given of uncrushed grains, as oats and barley, and especially of beans, which contain the tannin principle, and impart a muscular firmness to the flesh, and the whiteness that so much recommends the quality of the bacon. This firmness is a chief point by which the flesh is judged.
Brood sows are constantly fed with liquid substances, as milks and wheys mixed with meals, which promote the secretion of milk for the hard task of suckling. Dry food for a time, after the pigs are withdrawn, much encourages the salacity. Weaned pigs are treated for a time with warm gruels of meals and milk-thin and warm at first, then gradually thickened and used lukewarm into a cold condition, when the animal becomes a gradual consumer of clovers and vetches, and raw food.
It has been very satisfactorily ascertained that swine are benefited by cooked food in a very large degree; while other animals, as horses and cattle, show a promotion that does not compensate the labour of preparation. The physical constitution of the pig, and its delicate intestines, may account for this differential benefit. Bacon pigs are fed twice a-day, by break of
It is very advantageous that a few small pigs from weaning have the liberty of wandering over the feedingyards at pleasure, and to sleep and nestle in some chosen corner. A hole in the lower part of the gates lets the animals in and out the yards, in which they eat the crumbles of the turnips, and search for pickles of grain among the straws of litter. The surface of the yards is turned and tossed about by search with the noses, and a beneficial mixture is effected of the different substances. Pigs, in a limited number, are brought forward in this way in a very fresh condition for the feeding sties, and when assisted with light grains laid on dry ground, the full fattening is done as well as in fattening cribs. The meat may not be so large in quantity, but the quality is superior both in texture and firmness.
The mode of rearing and feeding swine now detailed may be done on any farm according to the extent, from one brood-sow to four, which will afford fifteen to sixty pigs yearly. The intervening numbers will fill the different extents of occupation. Every method must be systematic-large or small, the performance must be regular and orderly, with a constant adhesion to the rules that are adopted. The buildings must be provided, and the food allotted; the care must be bestowed, and the attention unceasing. From want of systematic regulations, there constantly happens desultory and languid
The season of curing bacon extends from October to the end of March, and during that time there may be preserved two fattenings of hogs in succession. The pigs in the store-yard, that are of the proper age and most forward in condition, are placed in the feeding sties, in two together, by the first of October, and will be ready in the beginning of January: a second lot is drawn into the sties from the store-yard, and will be ready in March, which concludes the season of curing. The management after that time is wholly in the breed-performances, which fail to produce any valuable results, ing-sties and store-yards. Brood sows are best restricted to two litters of pigs in a year, and an average of eight in a brood will afford a full supply of animals to be manufactured. More litters may be got in a year, but the vigour of the pigs becomes puny, and the sow is much exhausted by the severe employment of suckling. A less frequent propagation produces a more vigorous progeny; and not only in swine, but in every animal whatever; and if the system were adopted pursued, the result might wholly reproduce the animal organization.
and sink into weak and unprofitable establishments. Swine yield more flesh from the food consumed than any other fattened beast: the quality is very nutritious: it takes the salt more readily than any other flesh, and, from the smaller quantity required on that account, the cured article is not so salt in the use as other flesh from animals. It enters very largely into the consumption of naval stores, and for domestic use the flesh is very extensively entertained both in a fresh and cured condition. No other animal food enters so largely into general consumption; yet in some few cases only has the manufactory of the flesh been reduced into system, as with sheep and cattle-food is grudged, and attention withheld, and the animals wander about the farmery despised and unvalued. No farm is established without an arrangement for swine, than which no animal will yield so much flesh for the food consumed, or is fattened with so little cost. J.D.
THE USES OF A DEAD HORSE.
The first, or introductory lecture on the Commercial | 7,000 public conveyances plying for hire, and the omniProducts of the Animal kingdom, in course of buses alone employ about 13,000 horses. The number of delivery at the South Kensington Museum, was vehicles passing along the principal thoroughfares in an delivered by Professor R. Owen, who gave a resumé ordinary day of twelve hours, is about 126,000. of the economic uses of animals generally to man, interspersed with much interesting information on anatomy and physiology, in that pleasant and popular style for which he is characteristic.
Having dealt with the statistics of living animals, let us now look to the commercial products of the dead horse. From 250 to 300 horses die weekly within a radius of five miles from Charing Cross, and the flesh of these is chiefly consumed by dogs and cats within that area.
The second lecture was delivered on the 25th Feb., by Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., on the use of refuse animal matter; and it is this address to which we would chiefly call attention, as affording much curious detail. Taking as his text, the uses and value of a dead horse, the lecturer went over the whole range of seemingly waste products, detailing their processes of re-conversion, comparative value, and resulting products; thus proving that if we but follow the example of Nature, all substances, however apparently noxious and useless, are re-convertible into other and very important commercial products.
We shall confine ourselves, in the present instance however, to his main illustration-the carcase of a dead horse.
What the mortality may be of the equine race in the United Kingdom we have no means of ascertaining. Indeed, we have no correct data for estimating very precisely even the total number of horses in the United Kingdom. We have returns for Ireland and Scotland, and the agricultural statistics for these countries for 1856, gives the number at 753,170. Those in England and Wales must be guessed at. Sixteen or seventeen years ago Mr. M'Culloch estimated the number of horses in Great Britain at 1,400,000 to 1,500,000. Now this guess must have been somewhat wide of the mark, for there are scarcely more than this in the whole kingdom at the present time, at least judging from the most careful calcula
Firstly, then, we have the hair, which may weigh about 1lb., and which sells for 8d. to 1s. Horse-hair we know is applied to many purposes; it is made into hair-cloth for seatings, coloured hair damasks, bags for crushing seed for the use of the oil-crusher, cidermakers, and others. A consumption of 800 tons of horse-hair a-year, of home and foreign production, valued at about £80,000, shows the value of this one item.
Next we have the hide, weighing-say 30lbs., and worth possibly 8s., for converting, when split, into the finest Cordova leather; or, in its full thickness, for covering the large board-room tables of offices, &c.
The tendons weigh probably 6lbs., and are converted, like other animal tissues, into fine glue, or gelatine. The flesh will weigh about 224lbs. boiled, and may be used as meat for men, dogs, poultry, &c.
Smile not, gentle reader, at the banquet offered—of viands which are just now in high repute on the continent. A society of economists, naturalists, and hardy gourmands in Paris, aim at the introduction of horseflesh in the category of butcher's meat. They set the example themselves, and this example is spreading. It is argued that the horse ought to contribute to the nourishment of the human race, as well as the ox, the sheep, and the pig. That it does so already in our own metropolis to a great extent, in the shape of nominal smoked " ox-tongues" from Russia, and chopped socalled "beef" sausage-meat in Westminster, Whitechapel, and other suburban localities. But the penchant for roast and boiled horse-flesh has found adherents even here, and our esteemed contemporary, the "Journal of Agriculture," of Edinburgh, has come out strong in a recent number in its favour.
M. St. Hilaire, the champion of this new addition to our food resources, reasons in this fashion
"Horseflesh has long been regarded as of a sweetish disagreeable taste, very tough, and not to be eaten without difficulty. So many different facts are opposed to this prejudice, that it is impossible not to recognize its slight foundation. The free or wild horse is hunted as game in all parts of the world where it exists-Asia, Africa, and America--and foritself is made use of as alimentary as well as auxiliary-in merly, and perhaps even now, in Europe. The domestic horse some cases altogether alimentary-in Africa, America, Asia, and in some parts of Europe.
"Its flesh is relished by people the most different in their manner of life, and of races the most diverse-negro, Mongol, Malay, American, Caucasian. It was much esteemed up to the eighth century among the ancestors of some of the greatest nations of western Europe, who had it in general use, and gave it up with regret. Soldiers to whom it has been served out, and people in towns who have bought it in markets, have frequently taken it for beef. Still more often, and indeed habitually, it has been sold in restaurants, even in the best, as venison, and without the customers ever suspecting the fraud or complaining of it.
"And, further, if horse flesh has been often accepted as good
under a false name, it has also been pronounced good by those when aged, the bones contain too great a proportion of
So much for the great champion of horseflesh. Having disposed of the flesh, we come next to the blood, heart, and tongue, weighing about 60lbs. The former is used, like the blood of other animals, as a decolorizer, for manure, and for making, with other animal substances, the well-known salt, prussiate of potash. The disposal of the heart and tongue we will say nothing about, as there is somewhat of mystery resting upon their appropriation.
The intestines of the horse, weighing about 80lbs., are converted to several uses. When cleaned, they serve for covering polonies and sausages; or they are twisted into bands or strings for bowing cotton, or for other purposes.
There is seldom much fat to be got from the horse: probably about 20lbs. may be obtained; and this is used, after being distilled, for burning in lamps. We import horse grease largely from the River Plate, but we get better at home. The grease is also worked up by the soap and candle makers in common with other fats, while the entrails and remnants are given to hogs, to make food for home consumption—at least this is so in the United States, where the porcine race are less daintily fed than our own store-fed pigs.
The bones come next; and these weigh, say about 160lbs., and are sold at the rate of 4s. 6d. per cwt., either to convert into knife-handles, or for making phosphorus, and superphosphate of lime. They will not do for animal charcoal, because horses being usually killed
The Kensington Museum catalogue, compiled by Mr. P. L. Simmonds, lets us into the secret of a ready way of cleaning the bones and divesting them of putrid flesh, &c., so as to fit them for use in manufactures. To take off the flesh by hand is a tedious and difficult operation. An ingenious Frenchman solved the diffi. culty. He noticed that rats were very fond of horseflesh; so are fowls-other arguments in favour of M. St. Hilaire's reasoning of the wholesomeness of the food. Our Frenchman advised the authorities to colonize the dead horse-pound with rats. This common pound is an enclosed area of about ten acres, surrounded by a stone wall, to which all carcases, &c. are taken, and among the rest the 400 horses which die or are killed in a week in Paris. The catacombs furnished rats by thousands; and now a dead horse put in over night is picked beautifully clean by the morning, and the bones are ready for the bone-dealer. A grand battue is also periodically made, to keep under the rats, and they are utilized by making their skins into gloves, and possibly their flesh into pies or ragouts. We have nearly done with the economic uses of our worn-out hack; there remain but his pedal extremities to deal with. The hoofs, weighing about 6 lbs., are worth 8s. to 10%. per cwt. for gelatine, or for making prussiates. They are not adapted to pressing into the, so-called horn buttons, which are made from ox-hoofs, but possibly may turn up polished in the shape of a snuff-box, capped with silver. The shoes will work up into shoes again, or sell for old iron; and the nails are much esteemed for making gun barrels.
"Tis right to be off with the old love,
We have now used up our "old horse," and this is merely the example of many other animals whose carcases are turned or might be turned to various useful purposes. Such a history points a moral that nothing should be despised, for out of many waste substances money is to be made; and the large profits of scavengers, knackers, and dust-contractors are evidences of the utilization of offal and sweepings.
FURZE AS FOOD FOR HORSES.
SIR,-As you now and then receive some little matters written by me, and are so courteous as to give them a place in the Farmers' Gazette, I now send another, in the hope it may promote your object in being of benefit to those who read your paper. It has been too much the practice of horticulturists to introduce and recommend new plants and flowers, and to let the old pass into oblivion. Thus the beautiful moss-rose, the cabbage-rose, the York and Lancaster, the double white-rocket, with others, which fifty years since were the delight of the cultivators, some are now never seen, and others, like poor relations, are left to take the lowest room, and new or scarce plants and flow-hay or oats, in more beautiful condition (sleek as mice) than ers, which bear no comparison in fragrance or beauty, are any of my neighbours, though they had costly grooms, the the ornaments of the garden. In the same way, in improved horses fed with best hay, oats, and beaus, and warmly clad, agriculture-though there are few who join more in heart Mine were, perhaps, not as fit for the race-course or the and hand in the introduction of new plants and new prac-hunting-fields; but for road-riding, carriage-work, or the tices to this land-though there are many of the old I long work of the land, they were most fit, although fed only on to see exploded, such as poorly-paid, badly-fed, and, as a chopped furze and steamed swede turnips; and I rejoice certain consequence, badly executed labour, small, weak, to see that this valuable food has been brought under the badly-fed horses, and consequently light and inefficient notice of the agriculturists. ploughing, and therefore scanty produce-still there are others of the old school I regret to see neglected
I shall now make some remarks on the most valuable of those old practices which are too much neglected-feeding cows and horses on furze (whins), the fiorin grass, and irrigation. I have been for fifty years and more feeding my cows and horses on furze; and I can say, from that long experience, that it is the cheapest and the best food for the autumn and winter months. I saw it in constant use at the residence of the late Rev. Horatio Townsend, the author of the statistical survey of this county, who strongly recommended it. I followed his example, and never have regretted doing so. I have had my horses, getting neither
On arranging some papers lately, I found a letter, dated June, 1840, from one of the best practical agriculturists I know. He states, "The most profitable crop I have planted is furze. With an acre and-a-half I fed five horses up to the
first of June. I have twelve tons of hay for sale, which I never had before. It would be much easier to induce the farmer to cultivate furze than to grow turnip; and I believe it is more profitable. Land inaccessible to the plough, of which we see so great a proportion, would yield great crops of furze; and land remote from manure could not be better disposed of We are in the infancy of knowledge as to what ground is capable of, or what plants are best suited to the varieties of soils. The florin is a plant that never got a fair trial in the south of Ireland. I think the time will come when all the bog and low lands will be covered with it. If you look out about the latter end of June you will meet it at every step." The old practice of preparing furze was tedious, and comparatively expensive-by a block with transverse knives, sometimes with a long handle, and better with a chain, hooked on what is known by the name of a turner wattle, or by a straight spade, sometimes by thrashing. The great desideratum has been hit upon by Messrs. Richmond and Chandler, in their powerful straw-cutters, varying in price from £7 to £10.
I have just now attended my machine bought from Mr. Thomas M'Kenzie, Cork, for £7, a man cutting, and a boy feeding it, the furze ready, and in 17 minutes they cut 17 buckets full. The bushel contains 3 gallons. This is fully sufficient for four horses for 24 hours instead of hay; hay is spread on the top of the furze, and cut with it; it improves the cutting, saves the boy's hands from the prickles, and is an advantage in the feeding. When ready it is wetted with water, which makes the mastication easier. The expense of the man and boy is 1s. 5d. a day-say 10 working hours, and working little once a quarter-hour or (the one-fortieth of 17 pence for the labour of preparing food for four horses, or about three-eighths of a penny a-head. A tenant of mine who lives in Carberry told me he feeds his horses entirely, and his
ON THE ACTION OF NODULES VEGETATION IN GRANITIC
[TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH OF THE
In according its kind approbation to my last researches on the solubility of fossil phosphates of lime, and in deigning to encourage me, through the organ of its reporter, M. Payen, to follow them up, the Academy of Sciences has marked out for me a course in which I have proceeded with the anxious desire of noticing in it some facts interesting both to physiology and to agriculture. I propose to detail the first results to which my experiments have conducted me.
I was desirous, in the first instance, in spite of the unfavourable season, to make in May some preliminary essays on the culture of wheat. For that purpose I commenced operations upon a piece of land cleared only a few days previous to the experiment, and on which I have comparatively employed nodules of pulverized phosphates at the rate of 55 per cent., and animal charcoal (black) in small grains, 72 per cent. of richness. The earth, rich in humus and acid principles, possessed the best conditions for dissolving the phosphates. The dressing was employed at the rate of 6 hectolitres to the hectare, and the results observed were as follow:
In the pieces which were planted with wheat there was no appreciable difference between the produce of the animal charcoal, the fossil phosphates slightly animalized, and the same phosphate mixed with very porous charcoal. There was a very marked superiority, which I was far from expecting, in another piece in which the nodules, simply reduced to very fine powder, had been employed comparatively with animal charcoal in small grains. In all these essays in other respects the produce was moderate, whatever was the dressing adopted, in consequence of the very recent clearing of the land.
cows mostly, on it all autumn and winter; he mows it every second year, and has abundance for them from a piece of land which cannot be ploughed, and which would produce nothing else; he cuts it with the straight spade, and it takes a man for the entire day to prepare sufficient for six horses. Now that Richmond and Chandler have brought out such a machine, there is no excuse for it not being in general use; and though furze will grow well on stony and rocky land (I have seen the roots several feet down in the chinks of a quarry), the best arable dry land will produce a far better and more abundant crop, and a more succulent shoot. Three acres of such land appropriated to the growing of a plant which is perennial, and requires no further culture (though, I doubt not, it would be still better for annually opening the ground and digging or forking in manure), still an everlasting winter meadow, of no comparison better food than hay, is no slight benefit now that the difficulty of its preparation-the great obstacle-has been overcome. Cattle will not hove with it. They are always sleek, an indication of health. It is in a fit state from October to May, inclusive. It improves the wind; a thick-winded horse becomes a free breather; broken-winded have no appearance of their being so; and I have seen horses cured of cough by feeding with it. I dare say many who know not its value, and who are of those who deprecate any innovation or change, will say all this is hyperbole; this was often said of fiorin and of turnip culture; but when the failure of the potato compelled turnip culture, they then saw that the new was better; and I pledge myself that any who henceforth use furze, as directed, will fully agree in every word I say. Directions for sowing the seed in fields would be very desirable. Yours, &c., WILLIAM R. TOWNSEND, Aghadda Rectory, Rostellan,
Co. Cork, Feb. 12, 1858.
Two pieces of land were sown with oats, and dressed, one with powdered nodule, the other with animal charcoal. In both cases the produce was fine, but there was still no appreciable difference observable, either in quantity or in the appearance of the crops.
In spite of the unfavourable conditions in which these preliminary essays took place, I must confess I was struck with
PHOSPHATE OF LIME ON AND SCHISTOSE SOILS. "JOURNAL D'AGRICULTURE PRATIQUE."]
surprise on seeing my anticipations at fault in regard to the action of the fossil phosphates employed alone, and in the state of fine powder. My researches in the laboratory on some coefficients of solubility in carbonic acids, the laws of analogy, and, I must also add, the ignorance of actual science as to the modifications the nodules undergo in presence of the air contained in the arable soil-all this led me to regard these manures as slowly assimilable, deserving on this account to be classed far enough from bone charcoal. Nevertheless the agricultural experiments seemed to contradict my preconceived ideas. We shall see, as we proceed, that this contradiction manifested itself afresh in more conclusive essays.
My second series of experiments were made on the culture of buckwheat, which in the west absorbs enormous masses of animal charcoal. The surplus of the quantities assimilated by this plant remain in the soil, in which its action is subsequently felt upon the winter wheats.
In order to place myself as much as possible beyond the influences, multiplied and unequal, of experiments on a large scale, I resolved to make my experiments in pots, on substances exactly weighed, and in presence of elements of irrigation and exposure perfectly identical.
Eleven pots were filled with earth extremely poor, and derived from the disintegration of schistose rocks. The earth was minutely mixed in each pot with 10 grammes of manure and two seeds of buckwheat, which were sown from the 25th of June to the 22nd of September, when the experiment was completed. The watering of the pots was performed twice aday with rain water. Vegetation proceeded well, except in the cases in which earth was used without manure, and with nodules treated with 20 per cent. of sulphuric acid. In these two instances the plants were poor and weak, and the produce insignificant. We must not forget that the poverty of the earth employed was extreme. Humus existed in it only in very minute proportion. Its aptitude to retain water and condense the gases was as feeble as possible.