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tial memorial to mark the high estimation in which you are The health of Captain Egerton was next drunk.
held by the tenantry of Sir Philip Egerton, have done me the Mr. HICKLIN, in a speech expressive of the pleasure he ex-
honour to appoint me their chairman, in which capacity I nowperienced in seeing

so good a feeling existing between landlord,
stand. Proud I am of the duties entrusted to me, though agent, and tenantry, proposed "Success to the Flail and the
very far from being able to discharge them in a manner that I Plough.”
would wish; but I am quite sure you will excuse me when I

The healths of Mrs. Beckett, the Vice-Presidents, the Comsay you must take the feeling of the heart for the will of the mind. During the time you have been amongst us, which him for his exertions to obtain so bandsome a testimonial, with

mittee, the Secretary, the Press, of Mr. Butt, and thanks to now extends over the long period of twenty-three years, we have had very many opportunities of witnessing the unremit

other toasts, were proposed and duly responded to, the entire ting care and attention with which you have discharged your

company enjoying the occasion in a happy, convivial manner. important duties as agent to our worthy landlord. I can say from experience, when you have seen it needful you have not been backward, with the kind consent of your benevolent magter, to render us every assistance in your power; and now, sir, on behalf of my brother-tenants, whose names are herein

THE GUANO TRADE A MONOPOLY. written, I beg your acceptance of the accompanying testimonial as a mark of the esteem we bear towards you, and also

As a convention of the Peruvian Legislature is now sitting as a small return for the many acts of kindness you have done

at Lima, as to the future disposal of guano, whether it is to us, and for the uniform good feeling and gentlemanly manner

be continued as a monopoly in the hands of the present conwith which you have treated us; and we hope and trust that

signees, Messrs. Baneda Brothers for the United States, your valuable life may yet be spared many years to us and to

Anthony Gibbs and Son for Great Britain, and the agent for your esteemed wife and family, and that you may be permitted France and the continent, or opened for free sale at the islande, by a gracious Providence to pursue your career of usefulness | it may be interesting to know a little of the trade and of the in the enjoyment of every blessing this world can bestow. And

immense profits made by the consignees. The shipments to when declining years come on, may you view that tribute of this country and England for 1854, being in round numbers respect with delight, and say “I have won those for au example 163,000 and 200,000 tons (those to the continent not into a rising progeny and ages yet unborn;" and when it pleases cluded), will sbow the great interest the consignees have in God in his infinite mercy to call you hence, "may you die the continuing things as they are, and the necessity of our citizens death of the righteous, and may your lagt end be like his." and the English exerting themselves to open the trade to the And now, gentlemen, I call upon you to show your further public :wishes to our worthy guest by filling a bumper to his good

SOLD IN THE STATES IN 1854. health, with the honours due to a hearty good fellow.

dolls, The toast having been drunk amid enthusiastic cheering and 163,000 tons at 55 d., 8,965,000 d.; com. 5 per cent. 448,250 musical honours,

freight 20 d., 3,260,000 d.; com. 2?

81,500 Mr. BECKETT rose and said : Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen,

The consignees get this on all charters, no matter
I rise with no ordinary feelings of gratitude and pleasure to

how many ship.brokers are interested in the
receive from your hands this valuable testimonial, as a mark of

other hall.
the estimation in which you hold my conduct and services as Estimating 163 vessels as loaded, and that 3,000 ds.
land-agent to Sir Philip Grey Egerton. More than 23 years

were drawu for disbursement, the profits on ad-
ago I entered upon that appointment with the highest gratifica.

vances of Peruvian dollars, worth about 75 C. .... 125,000 tion, and I soon found that I had to work with an intelligent and improving class of farmers, who only required confidence

654,750 and encouragement, not dictation. I also found, as I expected, the nobleman whom it was my duty to serve and represent, to be a most liberal-minded landlord, whose greatest desire and

Mesers. A. Gibbs and Son, in proportion, would happiness was to improve the condition of his tenantry, to

amount to......

813,000 make their homes comfortable and condition prosperous. I

There are other commissions on advances, further found in Sir Philip Egerton's professional agent, Mr.

storage, &c. Humberston, the present Mayor of Chester, a most gentlemanly Memorials had been presented by the British landowners, and agreeable adviser, easy of access, and always at my right farmers, shipowners, and merchants to the government, to use hand whenever I required advice. Under such circumstances, their influence to have the monopoly so injurious to the public and with such advantages, it was no difficult duty for me to good done away with ; but hitherto their exertions with the sail smoothly with you in all matters connected with a land. Pernvian government have been unsuccessful. However, agency. My course has been as smooth as an unruffled sea. I there is now a hope, as the Peruvians think a change ought to am proud to say that I have never had to encounter a head- be made. The ministers of both countries should render wind or a stiff gale ; nor do I yet see any breakers ahead, ex- their assistance for so desirable an object. cept the chance of a break-down in my attempt to acknowledge your great kindness on this occasion. While the brilliancy of

Though freights have fallen considerably since 1854, the your magnificent testimonial dazzles my eyes, my heart throbs price of guano has been raised from 55 dole. to 62 dols. with gratitude which I cannot fully express. I value it for its When at the Chincha Islands a few years ago, Mr. Elias bad intrinsic wortb, but still more because it comes from a respect the contract for shipping, at nearly a dollar over the tender of able disinterested tenantry, with whom I have had the hononr to Mr. Lloyd, though backed with good security. This would be act for so many years. I little thought when I entered upon my a charge extra of 400,000 dols. a-year to the farmers, estistewardship, that the 1st October, 1834, would be the harbinger mating the annual shipments at that amount. The vessels of such a day as this. I thank you all most sincerely. I thank were then delayed a month, by having to enter and clear at also my absent friends, the tenantry, who have contributed to Callao. this testimonial, which I shall endeavour to hand down to my children as unsullied as I receive it at your hands. May health

In 1851 the price of guano, with higher freights than at and happiness attend you and your families, and may the te- present, was 45 dols. This year the English agents attempted nantry of the House of Oulton always be as united and pros- though the charges were the same ; but it failed, owing to the

to raise the price to 70 dols., being 8 dols. over the rates here, perous as their warmest friends can desire; and believe me that amongst those friends you have none more sincere than

Mark Lane Express calling the attention of the farmers and Sir Philip Egerton your landlord, and your humble servant his

the trade to its injustice. 500,000 tong could be annually laud-agent. Mr. Chairman, I beg leave to thank you indi. shipped from the islands, which at 20 dols. would give & vidually for the kind and flattering manner in which you have

revenue to Peru of 10,000,000 dols. (less the shipping charges), been pleased to present this testimonial; also to you, gentle and with 20 duls. freight would make guano etand 40 dols. men, for the patient hearing you have given me, to enable me

afloat, instead of 60 dols., as under present management. most inefficiently but most sincerely to acknowledge the high This is a question of importance to the farmers of the world. compliment which you have paid me.

-Hunt's (American) Merchants' Magazine,

THE CULTURE OF SHEEP.

A LECTURE BY MR. ROBT. SMITH, OF EMMETT'S GRANGE, SOUTH MOLTON, DEVON. On Monday evening, Feb. 22, a lecture was delivered by Mr. supplied a staple article of food and raiment, and at the same Robert Smith, of Emmett's Grange, South Molton, Devon, in time afforded employment to an immense number of artisans. the new lecture-theatre of the South Kensington Museum, on the culture of first-rate sheep was a “science blended with " The Culture of Sheep,” being the last of a series of six ad practice ;” and consequently a proper knowledge of Nature's dresses to working-men, and intended to explain the collections laws, more especially as regarded the effect of climate and of the animal kingdom in the museum. The attendance was situation on their character, had led to important improvevery large, there being at least 500 persons present. The lec-ments in their form, quality of flesh, and general management. turer produced a great number of pictorial sketches of the It must not be forgotten that the sheep of the present day various breeds of sheep, English and foreign, which added ma- were, in fact, the production of man's skill and enterprise in terially to the interest of the lecture; they being frequently their propagation from their original wild state. From this it referred to in elucidation of the subject.

might be inferred that were the breeders to relax their After some introductory observations-in which Mr. Smith exertions, leaving the animal again to Nature's course, the spoke of the advantages offered to working men in that institu- various flocks would soon degenerate. Let them fancy for a tion, and observed incidentally that in going over the museum he moment such a state of things. Where then would be the had found that the collection of specimens relative to the culture advance of commerce or the increasing production of meat for of sheep was incomplete, and that he would do what he could to an increasivg population ? Happily for the English patiop, supply the deficiencies—the lecturer proceeded to bring before bowever, there was no cause to fear that this picture would the audience the subject of his lecture. The culture of sheep ever become a reality. In every point of view “the cultare was, he said, a branch of their raral and national economy of sheep" deserved to be esteemed one of the principal which had not as yet received that degree of public attention branches of rural economy, and claimed the attention of the which was due to it. As a rural occupation it was the founda- artisan, the manufacturer, and the State. Now he must coltion of all good husbandry, and in a national point of view fess at the outset that he was not so familiar with foreign they looked to it as a means of employment for thousands of breeds of sheep as he was with English breeds; and therefore their artisans, and as an important source of food and raiment on that part of the subject he must call in the assistance of a for an increasing population. They found from history that very able work by Mr. Youatt. He should afterwards speak of sheep had existed at the earliest periods in every quarter of the what he himself was familiar with. The sheep which was handed globe, from Iceland to the regions of the torrid zone; but down to us from time immemorial was a horned sheep. (The they had been most cultivated in Europe-especially in Ger- lecturer here referred to a picture of the original breed.] many, Spain, and Great Britain; and not only had the culti- As he had before intimated, sheep were transformed in the vation of sheep in this country recently outstripped that of process of propagation, by means of certain rules which were every other country, but they were daily witnessing a new and known to the breeders, and that the original breed should important auxiliary in the culture of sheep in the British have been transformed into the sheep of the present day colonies. As he had already intimated, sheep were found in [pointing to specimens of the latter], showed how great an every quarter of the globe. Thus they were to be met with art was the culture of sheep. He was indebted to Mr. Davis, in every variety of climate, adapting themselves to the vicissi- the Queen's artist, of Church-street, Chelsea, for the paintings tudes of heat and cold. In each country they were cultivated and pictorial specimens before them; and when he told them according to the wants and tastes of the people, whether for that gentleman had executed the whole of the sketches food, clothing, or the uses of commerce; but when left to since 11 o'clock that morning, they must feel he had lost no themselves, under the operation of Nature's laws, they repre- time. After referring to a representation of the Russian sented every form of carcase and clothing wbich corresponded sheep, the Wallacbian sheep, and the fat-rumped sheep, & to or fitted them for the particular climate and country in affordiog illustrations of the original breed, and also to a picture which they existed. Sheep when in a wild state preferred to of a black-faced Scotch sheep for the same purpose, he alluded range at large on open plains, and displayed cousiderable sa- to the fat-tailed sheep of the Cape, and remarked, in passing, gacity in the selection of their food. They herded together in that the tail of this sheep was esteemed so great a luxury in small flocks, and were in general active, swift of foot, and its native country, that it often sold for more than all the rest easily frightened by dogs or men. When completely domesti- of the carcass. He then mentioned the Cyprus sheep, known cated, the sheep appeared as stupid as it was harmless ; but by its spiral horns, and the Mouflon sheep, which inhabited when left to depend upou itself for food and protection, it ex- Iceland, and resembled our deer. There were also the Asiatic hibited a more decided character. Under such circumstances argalia, the American argali, and more particularly the a ram had been seen to attack and beat-off a formidable dog. Merino sheep, of which he would speak at a future period of On the approach of storms they retired for shelter to the spot the lecture. Before he proceeded any further, he said, be which they knew from experience to be mort adapted to afford ought to remark that the fine-woolled sheep were produced in it. Of all the domesticated animals of Great Britain, the sheep dry warm countries, while strong-coated sheep were produced was of the greatest conseqnience both to the farmer and to the in wet cold countries; the coat being, in fact, adapted to the nation—to the farmer, because it was raised with ease and in climate. From this it followed, that is the finest-woolled situations where other animals could not exist, and generally animals were introduced into this country, they would die made a better return for the quantity and quality of the food away; while sheep of the opposite description might be escodeumet than any other animal; to the nation, because it 'pected to thrive. After illustrating and explaining the foreign

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breeds, their localities and habits (which was an interesting | It was a sketch made by Mr. Davis, of some Merino part of the lecture), he would not trouble the audience with sheep which were introduced into England by George any further remarks on foreign sheep, but would proceed to the Third, with a view their propagation. Notwithspeak of their own sheep. Of course England in the earliest standing the king's patronage, the farmers of the day periods of her history resembled all other countries under would not have these foreign sheep thrust upon them ; similar circumstances. There was nothing but bleak bills the carcase not being one that would pay, and almost the undrained plains, and wild commons; and over these unculti- sole use of the animal being the production of fine wool, to vated lands were found no animals but such as were in be mixed with the coarser wools. There was a fac-simile a corresponding condition. But in the course of time of this breed of sheep on Exmoor Forest; and this suggested desolation gave way to improvement; the bills and plains were to him that though the Spaniard had propagated this cultivated, drainage was to a certain extent effected, and animal chiefly for his wool, it might have come originally with the improvement of agriculture there was a corresponding from the mountain. The Merino was a very hardy animal, improvement in the breeds of sheep. He would first speak of its wool was remarkably thick and fine, and it was altothe uatire horned sheep as originally knowu in this couutry.gether a very respectable sheep (laughter). It had occurred That picture [pointing to one] represented the old black-faced to him that the Exmoor sheep might be mixed with the mountain sheep of Yorkshire. That animal had disappeared Merino to advantage; not that English farmers would consent before the plough, and the farmers of that part of Eugland had to admit the Merino in order to improve their own sheep; but placed on their lands a much better kind of animals. There, he thought their sheep would improve the Merino, by giving again (pointing to another specimen], was the Dorset long- them more lean meat and length of wool. There [pointing woolled horned sheep. Generally speaking, all the inferior to a picture) was a brown animal called “the Syrian sheep," breeds had given way to the better breeds; but here was an which was a sort of Cape sheep with a long tail. This reexception—the Dorset sheep remained, and the reason of this minded him of a very interesting fact, namely, that the sheep was that the lambs were produced two or three months earlier of the earliest ages, besides being horned, were in many cases by that breed of sheep than by any other. The inserior Dorset coloured. In tracing the records of history, relating to this sheep were preserved in order that the luxurious might have subject, he found mention made of black sheep, brown sheep, lamb out of season (laughter). They had no doubt all heard speckled sheep, mottled sheep, and so on. So also in the prea great deal about the Welsh sheep [pointing to a sketch of sent day, agriculturists sometimes saw among their flocks black this breed]; those sheep were fed on the waste bills of the sheep, grey-faced sheep, grey-legged sheep; while there Principality. If the hills could be cultivated, there would be a was also an occasional appearance of horns. Now he felt proportionate improvement in the breed of sbeep; but as there that he had not said enough about the Merino sbeep. The appeared little prospect of that, the animal would no doubt con- Spaniards and the Germans had propagated the Merino on tinue in its present condition, and he need scarcely say that the account of the fineness of its wool. It is this kind of sheep Welsh sheep were altogether a naked lot (laughter). He now that has been found to be most suitable for our Austracame to the Old Norfolks, the sheep improved by the late Lord lian colonies. The Southdown sheep had been tried there, Leicester, better known in those days as Mr. Coke. When but had not been found to answer so well, because it was, in Lord Leicester first began his career as an agriculturist, in fact, a wild mountain sheep. In Australia, land being for the Norfolk, he found nothing but sandy dowos and a race of most part of little value, and rents merely nominal, an imhardy and inferior sheep; but now the sandy downs bad be- mense quantity of sheep were kept ranging over vast tracts of come fertile fields, and there was no part of the country which country; and up to a recent period, if the shearing from time exhibited greater improvement, whether as regarded the culti- to time fulfilled the expectations of the grower, he was amply vation of the land or the breeding of sheep. The sheep of repaid. Since the discovery of the gold digging , however, and which he had spoken had now disappeared, having been the vast increase of population, there had, of course, been supplanted by the improved South Down of Sussex. Then people to feed as well as fine wools to be produced. In fact as to the horned sheep. These were peculiar to the dry the people of Australia bad already found themselves rather in lands of England, it being on the moist pasture of the a dilemma for want of mutton; and it might be worthy of country that that description of animal did best. If the consideration whether it would not pay some Australian agricultivator could get enough within five or six years from culturists to come over here, and pay him (the lecturer) a good the wool and the price which he ultimately obtained for the price for specimens of his mountain Exmoor shcep (laughter.) carcase of his “ old mountain wether,” he was generally Now among the old English breeds that remain, there was the satisfied. He had now to refer to what were once the Dorset sheep, which was preserved, as he had stated, on account marshy districts of England, but which were now reckoned of the early lamb; the Welsh sheep, which did not among the most fertile agricultural and grazing districts of appear at all likely to be improved ; and the Scotch the country: he referred especially to the Lincolnshire black-faced Sheep. This last sheep resembled the Rusmarshes. That county might be regarded as one of the sian sheep, and belonged, no doubt, to the same best pasture districts in the kingdom. The sheep there family. It was a very useful animal, chiefly for this were exposed to the eastern winds, as they fed on the low reason that it lived and throve where no other breed of sheep grass lands; and consequently the animals which were could do so. Then there was the Exmoor sheep, wbich he most adapted for that district were robust animals animals begged to say had not disappeared (laughter), but, on the which had a large amount of bone and fleece. Ile was able contrary, was as thriving as ever. Next there was the old to speak on this subject with the greater confidence, because Scotch white-faced horn, which, in consequence of the improveLincolnshire happened to be his native county, and he ment of the black-faced sheep, and the very rapid march of the resided there for a considerable portion of his life. The Cheviot sheep, was altogether out of date. Then there were old Tees-Water sheep was almost a fac-simile of the Lin- the old Ryelands, natives of Worcestershire, Herefordshire, colnshire sheep. [The pictures of both were referred to in &c. On this subject he remarked, that it was not unlikely support of this statement.] There [pointing to a picture of that the late Mr. Bakewell received considerable aid from a group of sheep) was a representation of the Merino. the Ryeland sheep. Mr. Bakewell never explained to Eng

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Tish breeders the course which he pursued, as they could | viot sheep, then the mixed black-faced and Cheviot cross, and have wished him to do, by leaving as a legacy to future gene- next we find the black-faced ewe, and lastly the black-faced rations the descriptive art of producing such a newly estab- wethers, which it was said no weather could destroy, unless lished breed as his Leicesters. He thought he obtained them blown over by a tempestuous gale (laughter). Tracing the originally from the Ryelands sheep. In fact [pointing to pic- course of the different breeds on the map, he observed that torial sketches of Ryeland and Leicester sheep) there we have they bad here long-wools, middle-wools, and short-wools. The the portrait of a Ryeland ewe, and another of a Leicester, as long-wools were to be found in Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, Kent, first improved by Mr. Bakewell. I must say, I think them so the Cotswold-hills, and some parts of the midland counties; alike, that I was about to say I see no difference. A repre- the middle-wools were to be found in Dorsetshire, Devonshire, sentation of one of Mr. Bakewell's sort of sheep was given Leicester, Rutland, Nottingham, &c.; while among the in the Farmers' Magazine, published by Messrs. Rogerson short-wools were the very popular Southdowns, West and Tuxford, of the Strand. Many breeders thought that Country-downs, Norfolk-downs, Hampshire-downs, and animal--a ram bred by Mr. Ioskip-an exceedingly good Shropshires. The latter breed, he might observe, had one, and many ventured to aggert that there never was so come very rapidly into public favour, and he must confess good an animal before, and never would be so good a one again. that as an old breeder he was astonished to find them cultivaMr. Bakewell produced a particular kind of animal-an ani- ted to so high a pitch, and carrying off, as they had done, mal suited to his own particular taste. At the outset he bred prizes at our national shows. In like manner (and this is his sheep for form and symmetry, quality of flesh, fineness of extremely interesting) there was now a new breed of sheep, wool, but regardless of weight. After a few years, wben he called the Oxford Downg. Thus, it would be observed, were had arrived at a certain state of cultivation, however much be agriculturists in various districts endeavouring to propagate might be admired by his friends the Leicester breeders, there sheep which were peculiarly adapted to the climate and situawere others who did not view the matter in the same light. tions of their several districts. This was very important as These persons did not feel that the head required to be made bearing on the state of the sheep culture at the present day. smart, or the wool fine, or the bone less; they therefore re- The truth was that there had been eminent breeders of sheep as sisted the new theories, and, as is stated by Mr. Yonatt in bis well as eminent men in otber departments of industry; we book, Mr. Bakewell was at first unsuccessful in the letting his have had our Ellman, Grantham, Bakewell, Collings, Culley, sheep ; but in after years it happened that men's minds began the late Duke of Bedford, Lord Spencer, Lord Leicester, &c., to change : lest the whole cultivation should be monopolised by of the past age, who did their duty in thug handing down to that gentleman, a society consisting of eight breeders was us our present established breeds--breeds that have been calformed to obtain the first pick of his flock. In the fall of tivated from these indigenuous and mountain races here (pointthe year each of these gentlemen selected a male animal, 80 ing to the pictorial sketches). This stage of improvement that Mr. Bakewell's sheep were distributed as it were over the was received by men of the present generation, who have country. There was another breed of sheep which he had not succeeded to admiration in carrying on this great work of art mentioned, namely, the Romney Marsh sheep. This was by propagation. Our country stands indebted to such men as a wild, bony, coarse animal, and he believed it had Jonas Webb, the Duke of Richmond, Overman, Sainsbury, disappeared. There was another sheep, of an intermediate Rigden, Grantham, &c., for cultivating the South Down ; to character, called the Devonshire Nots, a variety between the Sandy, Pawlett, Creswell, Turner, Spencer, and others for the Exmoor horved sheep and the Leicester, and a very hardy api- Leicesters; while the long-wools have been remodelled by the mal. This was found among the high hills of North Devon Clarkes, Kirkhams, Casswells, Richardsons, Brices, &c., in and West Somerset: it was an animal which was about half Lincolnshire ; and by Large, Hewer, Garne, Wells, Handy, way between the highly-cultivated sheep and the mountain Brown, and Ruck, on the Cotswold and neighbouring races, and, occupying an intermediate position, was exceedingly hills. There are many other breeders who had long directed useful in certain districts of the country. He now came to special attentiou to the improvement of their breeds of sheep; the short-woolled sheep. A black-faced short-woolled sheep and, looking at the transformations which bad been effected, was found scattered over a great many of the southern coun- [here the lecturer pointed to the original and the improved ties. Here, for example (pointing to a specimen), was a black breeds represented in the pictures), he must say, that if credit Norfolk sheep. This afforded an illustration of what he had was due to improvers in other departments of art and of insaid before with regard to the influence of climate. Here they dustry, equal credit was due to the breeders of sheep for the had changed the Old Norfolk for the Southdown sheep in the ingenuity and talent which they had displayed in their vocadry eastern counties of Eugland. Then they had the South- tion (cheers). Much of the improvement was due to the down on the dry southern soils, and distributed over many Royal Agricultural Society, which had offered prizes for the intermediate spaces of dry and healthy sheep-land—which the best specimens of sheep. But let it be remembered, that lecturer explained, gronnding every argument upon climate Mr. Ellman took in hand the improvement of the South and improved cultivation. The Leicesters inhabit the midland Downs about a hundred years ago; and Lord Leicester, Mr. counties and intermediate lands between the extreme dry and Bakewell, and some few others, achieved immense success before extreme moist climates of our island, the long-woolled sheep numbers were at all aware what they were doing. This, of being exposed to the colder aspects, where the short. wool or course, had a close bearing on the production of the estabpure Leicester could not exist. The localities and habits of lished breeds of the present day, early corrections being thus the several breeds were then enumerated by reference to a map early stamped by their males. It must not be supposed that of England and Wales, wbich had been prepared by the antho- the race of attempted improvement was all supshine. He rities of the Institution for the purpose of illustrating the lec- could give the names of a dozen or perhaps twenty breeders ture. In turning to Scotland, he would remark that such was who had not succeeded, especially in the breeding of rams. It the effect of altitude that he would illustrate it in this way, by was no easy matter to blend science with practice. He bad reference to a hilly district : for instance, at the foot of the already mentioned the failure of the attempt made by George hill was to be found the cultivated Leicesters, then the mixed the Third to introduce merino sheep into this country; and Leicester and Cheviot, a stage further ap they found the Che- he had recently learned, from the published report of an

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Australian agricultural body, that its sheep-breeding opera- only 60), it must be wade up to 100 by fuel. What fuel ? tions had proved by no means satisfactory. He then pro- Why food. Surely, then, breeders ought, for the sake of ceeded to speak more particularly of the breeding of sheep. economy, to keep up the animal heat. The doctor quoted Adverting to what he had said about the early lambing of Liebig in confirmation of his views. “Were we," said Liebig, the Dorset sheep, he remarked that lambs were dropped "to go naked like certain savage tribes, or if in hunting and according to the uses and requirements of the several fishing we were exposed to the same degree of cold as the counties, as regards climate, food, and after-management to Samoyedes, we should be able with ease to consume ten pounds be pursued for realizing in the markets, and at what age of flesh, and perhaps a dozen of tallow candles into the barthey were to be sold. The mountain races, of course, did gaiv, as warmly clad travellers bave related with astonishment not drop their lambs until the cold season was gone by, so of these people. We should then also be able to take that the lambs could eat the early grasses as they first the same quantity of brandy or train-oil without bad sprang up. He had not yet referred to the Cotswold sheep, effects, because the carbon and hydrogen of these subwhich was a magnificent animal [Pointing to a portrait, he stances would only suffice to keep up the equilibrium between said, That is a draught of a Cotswold ram, belonging to Mr. the temperature of the external air and that of our bodies." Lane, which took the first prize at the Lewes Meeting]. | Dr. Playfair himself afterwards said: “The only use of Atter giving some local details of this breed, he stated that clothes, in the abstract, is to economize food. They assist in the lambing of this sheep occurred about March; so also retaining the heat of the body, and render less food or suel did that of the Leicester sheep; but he might say again necessary for this purpose.” To this he (the lecturer) would that the period generally depends on situation, climate, and add another illustration. If a man who had led an active life, the supply of food. One important fact was, that at the and had been accustomed to exposure to cold, retired from present time sheep were, in some of the best districts, sen business, and confined himself almost entirely to a warm room, to market at the carly age of twelve, fifteen, or eighteen he would get fat, simply because there would be nothing to months. Formerly, scarcely any sheep were sent under lower the animal heat. After the publication of Dr. Playfair's three or four years of age; and therefore the public had to lecture, in 1842, a prize was offered by the Royal Agricultural wait for their mutton (laughter). The truth was that in Society for the best essay on the management of sheep. He many grazing counties it was formerly, and even now, was himself fortunate enough to be the successful competitor; difficult to provide food for fattening them in the winter and at the end of the essay, which was published in the eighth season : hence, the farmer fed his sheep on the richest pas- volume of the Society's Transactions, would be found the retures he could give them during the summer months, insults of twenty experiments which he tried in animal-feeding, order that he might be able to send them early to inarket which confirmed Dr. Playfair's views in reference to warmth. --in the autumn. Another very important matter in relation He would not trouble them by entering into any of the details to the culture of sheep was warmth. He had before re- of the experiments, but he would observe that the experiments ferred to this, in effect, in speaking of climate; but the all hinged upon the relative value of the different kinds of food subject of warmth was £o important as to require special which were given to animals. For instance, there was a commention. On this point, he would read an extract from a parison between the common white turnip and the swede lecture which was delivered by Dr. Lyon Playfair before turnip. They all knew that the common white turnip conthe members of the Royal Agricultural Society, in the year tained a very large quantity of water. In September, while 1842, the subject of the lecture being, “The application the sun was still powerful, he found that the sheep would of physiology to the rearing and breeding of cattle." thrive very well on a given quantity of that vegetable; but He must confess that, as a farmer and breeder, he listened to when the sun's rays had become more oblique, and the that lecture at the time, as no doubt many others did, with a temperature of the atmosphere was considerably lower, predisposition to set down everything as mere theory; but so that as the animal inhaled the surrounding air the subsequent experience had convinced him that what the doctor exchanges were against it, he found that the animals said was true. Dr. Playfair set out by saying, “ It would be fed on the white turnip made no progress; the fact being presumptuons in any scientific man, however exalted his rank that such food did nothing but just suffice to keep up the ani. in science, to endeavour to instruct an assemblage such as this, mal heat. At this period, however, that was about Christmas, or to recommend illustrations in the practice of an art which he came in the swede, which contained a smaller proportion of has learned in the closet and not in the field.” He must say that water. Less of this was required to keep up the bodily temthat was his feeling at the moment. “But it may be per- perature, and with care on the part of the farmer, the animal mitted,” added the doctor, “even to the most humble culti- went on pretty well till the spring, when there was no longer vator of science, to examine the practice which you yourselves any difficulty. He might further observe, that he put eight have perfected, and to point out the laws of nature upon which sheep in summer into two pens, four in each pep, and besides that practice depends.” Dr. Playfair afterwards went on to giving them all clover, he supplied one pen with a pint of tell them, in regard to warmth, that it was up to a certain point beans per day, and the other with a pint of peas. It might be an equivalent for food. He said, “The average temperature of supposed that there would be little difference between the two the bodies of our cattle is about 100 degrees, or more than as the result of this variation of diet ; whereas in fact, the 40 degrees higher than the ordinary temperature of this sheep supplied with the peas did very well; while those that climate. Hence there must be some provision in the animal had the beans, like horses that were oversed with the same body to sustain the heat which is absolutely necessary for the kind of food, soon exhibited symptoms of inflammation, the performance of the organic functions. The air, being so much beans being too hot for the body at that period of the year. colder than the body, must constantly withdraw from it heat, at the couclusion of his essay he said, “Thus, after many and tend to lower its temperature. Whence, then, comes the anxious reflections npon the principle' which“ 'science' fuel for the production of the heat?” What the doctor said has dictated," practice” has shown it to be one of great magwas, in other words, that the heat required by the animal's nitude, and to develop the mysteries of past ages by pointing body being 100 degrees, when the temperature was below that out those elements of the vegetable creation best adapted to the exchanges were against the animal. If the bodily heat was Nature's laws uuder the varied temperature of the seasons."

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