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Ayrshire breeders have, for many years, been driving of opinion that a Shorthorn bull with Angus cows would at that point-namely, good milking qualities, and I make an excellent animal ; but, if such were done, regret to say that I fear they have done so to the neg- he would stick to the first cross, and never cross again. lect of the feeding qualities. A recent writer, speaking The Chairman, in his reply, even took up the of Ayrshires, says, that one cause of the pleuro-pneu- cudgels for the Shorthorns on their weak point: "The monia is that they are bred too fine, and I am of milking qualities of the Shorthorns were fully equal to opinion that there is some truth in this. The same the Ayrshire. All the dairies in London were filled writer also said, that if a breeder has a first-rate bull, with Shorthorns, and the Londoners were pretty well he was put to his nearest relations, to his own mother, up to the way of getting most value for their money. daughters, or cousins, thus breeding too much in-and- He had known one Shorthorn cow that gave 18 Scotch in. Whatever causes operate to produce the effect, I pints (36 quarts imperial) of milk per day, and the do not pretend to say, but it is an acknowledged fact amount of butter he did not recollect, but it was the Ayrshire breed are deficient in beef and growing something immense ; while at Keir he believed there qualities. They are, generally speaking, narrow in the was a Shorthorn cow which was a most magnificent chest, and cannot have a large development of lungs, milker. All this went to show that the Shorthorn so that they may be predisposed to take injury or catch breed contains all the good milking properties, but cold."

they had been destroyed by endeavouring too much to The difference between the two is yet fur- get a monstrous fat beast." There is a great deal of ther demonstrated, If the Shorthorn is fed up truth and sound sense in all this. Indeed, we must the Ayrshire is as systematically fed down. Mr. especially compliment Mr. Homo upon the manifest Gray, of Bearside, was once leaving the house justice with which all his remarks were inade, as well of friend where he had been

buy as upon the great attention he has clearly given to his a bull, when he saw an Ayrshire calf which could subject. Cattle are not merely fed too highly for scarcely move about. He asked what was the matter? | breeding purposes, but even it is said for that of con“ Nothing,” said his friend,“ only we must starve the sumption. A London surgeon has recently been alarmcalves the first year to make them fine, or they would ing the town by a declaration-founded upon post grow up large coarse animals."

mortem examination--that there was scarcely a beast The point of the debate was, nevertheless, all in exhibited at the Smithfield Club Show but was so favour of the Shorthorn. As a cross for almost any grossly over-fattened as to be unfit for human food ! kind of Scotch cattle there is clearly nothing equal to Without going quite so far, the abuse at our summer them. “ Mr. Bates, of Kirklevington, once told me stock shows is altogether indisputable. Scotland itself (Mr. Home) he had got a lot of West Highland heisers, affords a very recent and striking example of this. and put Shorthorn bulls to them; thus producing The famous "John O'Groat," the first-prize bull this the most admirable animals he ever saw-pictures of year at both the English and Scotch national meetings, many of which he had hung on his walls.” Mr. and one of the grandest Shorthorns ever seen, has since Stobie, of Ballochneck, not only confirmed this, but died. Mr. Hoine, “for one, however, was not allowent on to mention that he exhibited two cross-bred gether unprepared to hear of such an event. If an heisers at the recent show of fat cattle at Glasgow - animal is fed up to a state quite unlike healthy nature, as one of which gained the first prize, and was out of a the rage is at present, what else can be expected ?" This small Ayrshire cow, by a pure Shorthorn bull; it was may not be very palatable to some of our friends, but a a very fine animal, and admired by every one. “ He home truth may do them more good than they may at had no hesitation in saying the Shorthorns, and first first be willing to admit. crosses were the easiest fattened breed, and in times We have followed out this discussion with much like these, when the farmer must get his gonds quickly interest and satisfaction, and hope ere long to have to to market, they were the best.” Mr. M'Nellan had chronicle some such similar inquiry on this side of found the Shorthorn the easiest fed, and a cross be- the Border. The new number of the Royal Agricultween the Shorthorn and Ayrshire exceedingly useful- tural Society's Journal has a very able paper on the in fact, as easily fed as the Shorthorns; and, while Implement Show at Salisbury, but not one word as to he had reared this class to 50 stone, he could not rear the live stock. And yet our

“ different breeds of an Ayrshire to more than 35. And Mr. Chrystal was cattle” is no so unimportant a thesis, after all.

THE CONDUCT OF THE PARIS MEAT TRADE.

We recently referred to the price of cattle in France | at by the functionaries specially employed to protect and England, showing that the British grazier had no the public interests -- both the producer and the conreason to fear a competition with our French neigh- sumer are robbed right and left; whilst the only persons bours. We now publish, on page 292, of this num- benefited by the system are the butchers, who make ber, a paper on the production and consumption of enormous profits. In the mean while, the production meat in France, and the effect of the present law upon and grazing of cattle decrease in France, and the quathe price of meat, in Paris particularly, and generally lity of what is produced is deteriorated by the operation throughout France. We are sure that this paper will of the law, and the ruinous deductions between the not only be perused with interest by the English gra- grazier and the consumer; and the consumption is zier, but it will excite some surprise at the clumsy checked by reason of the high price of meat, the apparatus set to work for the regulation of the consequence of the prohibitory exactions, amounting to sale of meat by the French Government, to the about 3}d. per kilo. on ox and cow beef, 4 d. on veal, destruction of all competition, and the encourage- and 6 d. on mutton; or on an average from 1fd. to 3 d. ment of every species of fraud and peculation on the per lb. one hand, and unmerciful exaction of dues necessary The enhancement of price, however, is not the only to support the system on the other. Between the pub. evil of the system. By the law, the butchers are bound lic taxes and the private plunder the latter conniyed to make four kinds or classes of meat, and also to sell

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cow beef, as such, at a lower rate than ox beef. But overlooked, and the proofs of them too strong to be
they have found a means of evading the law in both refuted. Both demand the immediate and serious
respects so effectually, that although it is notorious attention of the French Government. The high price
that a vast proportion of cows-generally old and past of meat alone, is enough to show that a change is
working and milking-are slaughtered in Paris, no cow necessary, both on account of the prosperity and the
beef is ever to be seen upon the stalls; and on the other health of the population,
hand, no beef of the fourth or most inferior class, and We have now before us a work devoted to the
very little of the third class, is exhibited for sale. The subject, * which estimates the general consumption of
just inference therefore is, that both the cow beef and meat for all France at 7 kilos. (or 154 lbs.) per head.
that of the inferior classes of meat are transferred and In Paris the proportion of neat cattle slaughtered is
merge into the first and second cla ses, to the extra stated to be 78,000 oxen, 18,000 cows, and 74,000
profit of the butcher, and injury of the public.

calves. For all France, 1840, the estimated numbers To these evils of the present system must be added

were 492,000 oxen, 718,000 cows, and 2,478,400 the enormous quantity of dead meat (la viande à calves; the latter being nearly the double in number la main), generally diseased, slaughtered clandestinely

of the two former. The reason ascribed for this beyond the barrier, and brought into Paris. This in destruction of animal food at the very source, is the 1846 amounted to 4,560,000 kilos. ; but in 1856 it

extreme poverty of the farmers, which compels them rose to 17,151,000 kilos., or nearly 50,000 head of

to convert their produce into money as quickly as poscattle. We admit that our London market is liable to

sible. We learn that the same system is still purthe same species of imposition, and that large quantities sued, and the consequence is that few calves are of diseased meat are clandestinely brought thither for reared, and the production of meat is continually sale. The supervision, however, of the officers appoint

declining, whilst the price of meat advances, ed by the City, to prevent its sale, have no temptation

and the consumption proportionally diminishes. to forego their duty, on account of the free competition

The author also accounts for the inferior quality of the which exists, and that renders it dangerous and cattle sent to Paris by referring to the state of the law. difficult, without detection, to offer such meat for

“ Under the system of a tax per head the butcher public sale. The consequence is, that we continually purchased by preference the finest cattle, finding it to read, in the public journals, of buichers being fined for his interest to do so in spite of their high price relathis offence; and the proportion, therefore, sold to the tively as live meat. Now, on the contrary, his interest public, is small compared with the general consump

compels him to purchase only animals of the second or tion.

third quality. He pays the tax on the weight, and The first and most palpable result of this system is, animal he purchases. On the other hand, the tax

receives no advantage from the form or strength of the that the entire consumption of beef in Paris, which is but the type of all the large cities of France, is reduced being uniform, as he finds in an ox of 500 kilos. as to about 87 pounds per head per amnum, whilst that many pieces of each class as in an ox of 300, and as he

cannot sell the meat proceeding from the first at one of London amounts to about 104 pounds; the meat

single centime inore than that of the second, he has an of the latter being almost wholly good wholesome ox beef, whilst that of the former consists of a large pro- quality, which cost him less alive, and afford him a

evident interest in purchasing only animals of interior portion of diseased and cow beef and veal, the cows

better profit. He neglects, therefore, beasts of superior being usually both milked and worked until they are past use for either. In the above statement, no account

quality, or does not offer a price for them adequate to is taken of the sheep and pigs slaughtered in London, ing of tiner races, and lowers the quality of the meat

what they cost; which tends to discourage the breedwhich would add at least from 38 to 40 pounds per consumed on the great market of Paris. Under this head per annum to the general consumption.

regulation the consumption of cows continually inBut a more serious consequence of this system of creases, to the decline of that of oxen; and the mean the butchery of Paris is not generally appreciated, weight of the latter, as well as their mean valuo, as because it lies in the back-ground of the picture. continually diminishes." This is the effect upon the general health and longevity Such is the state of butcher's law in Paris; and of the population. By a comparative view of this its effects upon the most important branch of good question, as relating to Paris and London, it appears husbandry in general, and upon the health of the infrom official documents, that whilst in the latter city habitants of Paris in particular. Efforts are making the mortality is gradually decreasing, in the former to induce the agriculturists to adopt a better system; it is as steadily increasing. Thus, in London, but until the law is altered or abolished altogether, it is the average proportion of deaths in ten years impossible that any beneficial change can take place. (from 1846 to 1855) has been 25 per thousand; and in in the meanwhile France will become an importer 1856 it was only 22 per thousand. But in Paris, the instead of an exporter of cattle ; for it is impossible average from 1831 to 1840 was 26 ; from 1841 to 1850, under the present system either to improve the breeds 281 ; and from 1851 to 1855, 317 per thousand! and generally, or to prevent decline in the production of this decrease in the duration of life is ascribed by the cattle. All writers on the agriculture of France agree writer to the diminution in the consumption of animal on this subject, as well as that the farmers of France food, the result of the present system.

are more disposed to invest their savings in fresh purSurely, if anything will open the eyes of the present

chases of land, or in railway and other public stock, astute ruler of France to the evils of the system pur

than in the improvement either of the soil or of the sued in Paris, it is a statement like the one we have

breeds of cattle. There are undoubtedly exceptions to given. We believe he has the welfare of the French

this, but it certainly applies to the large body of far. nation at heart, and the cities of France, especially

mers in that country, and is the bane of its agricultural Paris, have engaged his anxious attention. How it is prosperity. that he has adopted the present fatal system we cannot * “Question des Subsistances-solution, le pain à soixante tell; but with the abundant evidence before him of its centimes les deux kilogrammes ;" &c. disastrous working, both upon the producers and the consumers of meat, we cannot believe that he will long suffer it to continue. The evils are too palpable to be

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ON THE PRODUCTION, OF ANIMAL FOOD.* [TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH OF “LE JOURNAL D’AGRICULTURE PRATIQUE.”] No one disputes the importance of the bovine race of they do not ensure at all.” Next, there is the town due of animals, in connexion with the slaughter-house; nor, on the 2c. per kilogramme, and the abattoir tax of rather more than other hand, does anybody appear to doubt that we have 7c., making in all 15c. 3} milles. taken a wrong course in that great question-the produc- But still this is not all. There is, in consequence of the tion of meat.

law which makes it imperative to bring all the animals to the Both the consumption increases and the price advances markets of Sceaux and Poissy, intended for the supply of continually. People are uneasy at this, and inquire the Paris, at least one purchaser at first hand, who forms the reason, which is very simple : Production remains station- groups of cattle, and conducts them to the privileged market; ary, and is not in accordance with consumption; and it has but there are more frequently two, three, and even four interremained stationary because it is not sufficiently profitable mediate dealers, whose exactions are not less than from 10c. to the agriculturist.

to 15c. per kilogramme each. There are also the commisThe remedy for so serious a state of things is not easy of sioners near the same markets; the guides, to show the application ; for, in some degree, it requires the co-operation way from Sceaux to Poissy, and from Poissy to Sceaux; the of every one, and, above all, the vigorous support of au- hay-merchant; and the lodging-house-keeper : and all these thority, which should have the sole power of effecting a people bave their share of the benefit that the consumer ought reaction in the tendencies of the market.

to pay to the producer. It also raises the price of meat from The most liberal encouragements lavished upon the 6c, to 8c. per kilogramme, on the average. breeders of cattle would not be too much, at this time; I am aware that all these middle-men cannot be suppressed, and they should, undoubtedly, bring the consumption to but they may be considerably reduced in number; and they modify itself to something like what it is in England, onght to be placed on a well-understood footing. Nor can which is at once more profitable to agriculture and to the the production of cattle make any important advance whatever public health than what is taking place in France.

until the agriculturist shall be fully satisfied and secured in In France, the number of horned cattle amounts, in this respect. round numbers, to ten millions ; that of cows being four Light breaks in on every side, and the most interesting millions, and of calves three millions. Of these latter they publications are applying the torch to those questions which kill two-and-a-half millions per annum, which do not yield the interest of the Paris butchers hold iu voluntary obscurity. more than 30 kilogrammes of meat (about 664lb.) per head. Documents abound; and we can obtain from them a knowWe slaughter, besides, 1,500,000 head of large cattle; and ledge of abuses of all kinds, which ignorance alone of the facts this total of four million head yields four hundred million has suffered to exist to the present time. kilogrammes (886,070,000lb.) of meat.

It is to the parliamentary inquiry commenced in 1851– In England, with eight million head, they slaughter only which the political events of that period prevented from being two million ; and that number yields five hundred million completed—to wbich is due the merit of the deep investigakilogrammes (or 1,107,587,50016.) of meat.

tion of this question. The documents collected at that period Yes : in France, four million head yield four hundred are the basis and startiog-point of all the publications which million kilogrammes; and in England, two million yield five have since been issued. They display such a character of hundred million kilogrammes of meat. The cause is that, in bonesty and truth, that we have felt secure in quoting them; England, they kill neither so many calves nor so many old. and they are found continually under the pen of every writer. oxen; and it is this correct and skilful proportion that One of these, amongst others, M. E. Blanc, in bis "Mysteries gives them an economic position much superior to that of of the Butchery," supports by that authority the result of his France in this respect.

personal works. M. Blanc does not draw conclusions in favour The first and most important of the encouragements to of freedom; he would substitute one monopoly for another. be given for the production of cattle is, an entire change in But his statements are, nevertheless, interesting and instructhe preseut customs of the slaughter-house. “Freedom," they tive; and I shall borrow from him some of great importance. say, is about to succeed monopoly in the great market of The price of beef at Paris, in 1820, was from 55 to 60 cents. Paris, and to respond to the incessant and just complaints per pound ; in 1841, according to the report of M. Boulay of the consumers, which is good news. The freedom of de la Meurthe to the Municipal Council, 70 cents. ; and it has the slaughter-house is as useful to agriculture as to the successively risen from that time to 100 and 104 cents. (or consumer ; for it will suppress a part of those intermediaries 10d. to 100. 1-25th per pouud)--an increase of 90 per cent. in who absorb too large a share of the price, and cause the thirty-six years, and that in spite of all the efforts of the Adconsumer to pay too dear for the meat, whilst the producer ministration to reduce the price of meat, and a multitude of sells it too cheap, and is, consequently, disgusted with the opposite measures contradictory and incessantly reviving, market produce.

with the view of remedying the evil. “He has been assured Let us judge of this by the following statement, which is that the butchers of Paris could sell meat retail at 10 ceats. taken from official documents, and which chows that the aver- less per kilogramme than they purchase it, on account of the age price of an ox weighing 350 kilogrammes (775lb.) of net skin and other proceeds."—[Parliamentary Enquiry (Irench) meat is 3141. (£13 ls. 8d.), or per kilogramme 89c. to 90c of 1851, vol. i. p. 32). Now, the mean course of the ave(or about 4d. per lb.) Certainly, there is a considerable dis- rages of the markets this year (1857) quotes meat at 1 franc tance between this price and the selling price of peat; and if, 40 cents. (1s. 2d.), and this price is imaginary—" because the as ought in justice to be the case, the greatest part of it butchers liave an interest in raising fictitiously the price of accrued to the grazier, his advantage would be a powerful eo- live cattle, in order to justify them ia selling dearer by retail." couragement to production. But, besides the indispensable - [Report of M. Boulay de la Meurthe, 1841.] intermediation of the butchers, there are others of all sorts. Let us, however, accept the quotation of 1 franc 40 cents.; There is the Pay Office of Poissy, which charges, besides an the average retail sellivg price has been 1 franc 98 cents., or 58 interest of five per cent. upon the loan granted to the butcher, cents.(53d.) more than the cost price, instead of 10 cents, less. a municipal right of 3c.; which led M. Chale to say, in his The following is, under another form, the butcher's deposition before the Parliamentary Inquiry made in 1851 : amount :“The Pay Office of Poissy is an instrument with which the Cost price of meat

1 40 city of Paris takes 1,400,000f. from the pockets of the agriculturists, under the pretext of ensuring their payments, which

Retail price.... 1 98 • Taken from the second edition of “The Principal Rovine

Selling price.. skin and other

2 82 Races of France, Eogland, and Switzerland," by the Marquis

proceeds.... 034 of Dampierre.

Profit..

0 92 cts.

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But this is not all: we must now state the less palpable we give the prices in the actual returns of the several parts of profits which accrue to this return of 2 francs 32 cents., this calculation. namely

fr.

58 90 1st. The coarse meat imposed upon the purchaser, in spite Os Beef — The skin, average weight 474 kilos. ....

Tallow and fat

50 kilos... 56 0 of the regulations of the Prefecture of Police, amounting to one-fourth, and more frequently to one-third of the weight;

Offal (lights, liver,"spleen, brain, tongue, gall

,

12

and paunch) say 40 cents, per kilogramme.

0 2nd. The substitutions of one class for another, or the deviation of the general amount from the classes, 40 cents. per

Total ......

126 90 kilogramme.

45 50 3rd. The sale to the tallow-melter of the fat from the Cow Beel.-Skin, average weight 35 kilos...... carcase (about 15 kilogrammes per beast); of the loose fat

Tallow

20 kilos........

22 40

8 and skin, charged according to custom, at the price of the meat

Ofal (as before
(1 franc 98 cents. per kilogramme), and thrown into the basket,
then sold a second time (about 10 kilogrammes, at 1 franc 20

Total

75 90 cents. per kilogramme). Total, 25 kilogrammes. Making a

16 50
profit, on an average, of 49 francs 80 cents. per beast, or 1 Call.. Skin, average weight 74 kilos. .....
franc 45 cents. per kilogramme.

Tollow
4 kilos.....

4 80 4th. The sale of 20 kilogrammes of bone allowed to the

Offal (head, tongue, brain, sweetbread, pluck, butcher upon each bullock, and reckoned by the Prefecture of

and stomach).

8 0 Police at 20 cents. per kilogramme, and which they sell at the

29 Total ......

30 price of meat (1 franc 98 cents).

5th. The kidneys and false-chines, the normal weight of which is 20 kilogrammes; to which must be added 20 other

Sheep.-Skin in the wool, mean value..... kilogrammes, taken from the first, second, and third classes.*

Tallow, average weight 3 kilos....

3 60 The whole sold at 3 francs per kilogramme.

Offal (bead, tongue, brains, feet, kidneys, and 6th, and above all, we must reckon the skill with which

stomach)....

2 0 the meat is managed, so that there never remains a nor: sel for the fourth class, and but little in the third ; by

Total ......

11 60 which it is estimated that they gain 1 franc per kilogramme

All these figures are taken from authentic sources. on the fourth class.

consider what an enormous bearing they have upon producNow, there is still the substitution of cow beef for that of ox; tion. We would wish that in this point of view it may attract the difference in the price being from 48 to 50 cents. All the serious attention; and that, when once delivered from the butchers kill cows, of which, on an average, 25,000 per annum monopoly, means may be found to make the butchers pay for are killed in Paris; and they are right in doing so, for that all those parts which have a value as bigh and real as the meat meat, although we say it, is as good, and often as fine, as that sold to them. of ox beef, depending on the quality and health of the animal.

Let us now see what influence the price of meat has upon We never, however, find any cow beef amongst the butchers ; they scout, as an insult , the inquiry for it. The reason is, English work, “ The Night Side of London,” has published

consumption, and especially on the qualities consumed. An that cow beef is transformed into ox beef as soon as it ap

some very interesting statistical documents on the consumppears upon the stall, and this fraudulent substitution consti

tion of London. There are eaten in that city annually 277,000 tutes an average net profit of 149 francs 54 cents per cow (or

oxen, 30,000 calves, 1,800,000 sheep, 35,000 pigs, &c. On £6 45. 28.) on all that are killed.

this statement M. E. Blanc makes the following reflections :With all these enormous profits, what are the expenses to be deducted ? They are as follows:

" If we refer to the consumption of Paris, we find that that fr. c.

annual average consumption, for a population which amounts The cost price .....

1 40 0

to only half that of London, is 88,000 oxen (only one-third of The municipal duties

0 12 34

the consumption of London), 77,000 to 80,000 calves (nearly The expenses of the stall..

0 8 50

two-thirds more than are consumed in London), and from

20,000 to 25,000 cows, &c. 1 60 84

« Now, reducing these classes to kilogrammes, we find the These results are so important, that the skill of the butchers following differences between the alimentary conditions of the

two capitals :has been exercised successfully to conceal them up to the present time. It is high time to give a complete statement of of the French oxen, and weighing in net meat a minimum of

“ The 277,000 oxen of London, superior in weight to those them ; for the profits accruing from them ought to be ebared by the graziers, who, up to the present time, have been simple

400 kilos., allow for the 2,360,000 inhabitants of that city enough not to lay any claim to this fifth quarter (cinquieme

47 kilog. per head ; and the 30,000 calves, a food destitute of

all nutritive qualities, 86 grammes only. quartier), which nevertheless amounts to 126 1r. 90 c. per

“ The 88,000 oxen of Paris, on the contrary, weighing on head, or 36 c. 78 m. per kilo., upon 345 kilos. of ox beef; 75 fr. 90 c. per cow, or 3 c. 45 m. per kilo., on 220 kilos. of net

an average 345 kilos., allow to the 1,200,000 inhabitants of

that city only 25 kilos. 300 gr. per head; and the 77,000 calves meat; 29 fr. 30 c. per calf, or 45 c. per kilo., on 68 kilos. Det

5 kilos. ; which makes a difference in favour of the population meat; and 11 fr. 60 c. per sheep, or 64 c. per kilo., on 18 kilos.

of London of 24 kilos. 70 gr. of beef per head, and a difference in of net meat. This mysterious fifth quarter does not amount to less than

favour of the population of Paris of 4 kilos. 14 gr. of real-the from 18 to 20 millions of francs profit per annum to the

former being substantial, and the latter unsubstantial food. Parisian butchers alone. Judge then of its importance to the

“ These statements explain why the work of which we grazier!

speak thinks itself authorized to say, that “ London is the city The calculations which attribute an average profit of 31

in the world where they live the longest. In ten years the cents. per kilo. (34d. nearly) as the result of this fifth quarter,

average of deaths has been 25 per thousand ; and in 1856 that are based upon the average of 1856. Those of 1857 are

proportion was reduced to 22 per thousand.' higher, and exhibit an increase of 22 fr. 10 c. per ox, 14 fr.

"If, in order to complete the comparison, we consult the 95 c. per cow, 6 fr. 33 c. per calf, and 2 fr. 22 c. per sheep.

mortuary statistics of Paris, we find in them, by the state

ments of the English work, a sad contrast in the constant They consequently increase proportionally the profit, estimated too low at 34 c. per kilo., raising it 36 c. 78 m. for ox beef,

progression in the deaths, the average of which was, in 1831 34 c. 5 m. for cow beef, 45 c. for veal, and 64 c. for mutton.

to 1840, 26 per thousand; in 1841 to 1850, 28% per thousand; In order to complete this useful information for the graziers, and in 1851 to 1855, 31 per thousand.

Perhaps the price of meat at these different periods will By the law in France, the butchers are bound to divide their

explain to us the cause of this deplorable mortuary promeat into four classes, and sell it, according to the quality, at a

gression." certain price, fized by the Prefecture of Police. - [Translator.]

"From 1831 to 1810 meat gold at the stall from 60 to 65

1

cents. (6d. to 6 d.) per lb. It rose from 1841 to 1850, to 3rdly. The creation of one market only, within reach of from 70 to 75 cents.; and we have seen, froin 1851 to 1855, Paris, and thereby the suppression of the 8 or 10 centimes and afterwards, it has attained a rate assuming from day to which tas the meat of animals usually driven from day more of a prohibitory character.

Sceaux to Poissy, from Poissy to Sceaux, or from Sceaux or “Is it not expedient here to recall that fearful declaration Poissy to Paris, to the great injury of their health, their made before the Commission of Inquiry of 1851, and quoted | weight, and the quality of their meat. By this arrangement, in page 101 of this work, that when the consumption of meat again, we might look for a more strict and real attention than decreases, THE MORTALITY INCREASES IN AN ANALO- that which a director of Abattoir intimated in tbe following GOUS PROPORTION ?”

terms in the Legislative inquiry of 1851:-"It is certain that We have here certainly matter for serious reflection, and

the inspection of the markets is completely illusory; for the motives for endeavouring to bring back the production and inspectors in spect nothiog at all. They do on the market just consumption of cattle, that source of public health, to con

as they please, and the public find in it no guarantee. There ditions equitable for all.

come animals in the most deplorable condition; the inspectors Could agriculture produce meat in a profitable manner, by

never see them; and then even if they did see them, it is a producing more, and at the same time considerably diminish- question whether they would prevent the sale of them." ing the price to the consumer ? Certainly yes; but, in my

The establishment of a single market, and within reach of opinion, three conditions are necessary, in what relates to the Paris, might involve other desirable measures; for instance, butchery of Paris, and these measures would have an imme- the verification of meat, wbich every one declares to be of a diate and decided influence upon the butchery of the rest of quality frequently wretched; and by this means the preFrance, which, without reaching the impositions of the Paris vention of the entry into Paris of dead meat, or that of butchery, tends to copy its proceedings in its own. These animals killed beyond the Barriers, most frequently diseased, three conditions are as follow :

and killed clandestinely. The consumption of meat under 1st. Free-trade for the butchery—that is, competition. A such circumstances assumes a frightful proportion ; for in 1856 vigilant authority may, by measures more efficacious than

it reached the amount of 17,150,000 kilos., being a third of those which now exist, survey more closely the quality of the

the consumption of meat proceeding from the Abattoirs; meat. It could not make the matter worse, in any case, how

whereas in 1818 it was only 366,000 and in 1846 4,653,000 kilos. ever evidently disposed to do go; for fraud has been intro

All meat which has not passed under inspectiou alive ought duced everywhere, and the existing monopoly lives only by the

to be proscribed : it is the only means of insuring a healthful violation of the laws and regulations which govern the matter.

alimentation. 2ndly. The suppression of all the middle-men and all the Such is the state of this great question of the butchery, so duties which are placed between the producer and the con- important in all points of view for agriculture, and so worthy sumer. Let there be only the butcher, and the municipal and of engaging the attention of all reflecting men. abattoir charges, reduced to 5 or 6 centimes.

E. DE DAMPIERRE.

PRESENTATION OF PLATE.

TESTIMONIAL TO MR. R. T. BECKETT, OF TARPORLEY. On the occasion of the rent-day in December last, in con- to Mr. Richard Trim Beckett, as a token of their admiration nection with the estates of Sir Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton, of bis courteous conduct, and of their high regard as an honest Bart., M.P., a general feeling was expressed by the tenantry and efficient agent for the last twenty-three years.

10th that some mark of their appreciation of the honest, courteous, February, 1858.” The ladle, spoons, &c., each bore some part and exemplary conduct of Mr. R. T. Beckett, the agent, was of the inscription, denoting that they formed portions of the called for; and uo sooner was the sentiment expressed, than ar- testimonial. raugements were made for bringing such good wigbes into a

In order that the tenantry generally and the friends of Mr. tangible shape. A committee to obtain subscriptions and

Beckett might bave an opportunity of paying their personal arrange details was formed, consisting of Mr. J. Vernon, of respects on the occasion of presenting the plate, it was decided Willington (chairman), and Messrs. Warburton and Barnes,

that a dinner should be held at the Red Lion Inn, Eaton, near of Eaton ; Messrs. J. Barker, Finchett, and II, Siddon, of Tarporley, on Wednesday last. Early in the day, the indeRushton; and Mr. Rigby, of Fenna Wood. Mr. William fatigable secretary, Mr. Wm. Vernon, bad tastefully set out Veruon was appointed secretary. The intentions of the com

the articles of plate in a small room at the Red Lion, where mittee were at once announced, and tenants on the Oulton, they were inspected by nearly 300 of the ladies, gentlemen, Broxton, Astbury, and Upton and Chester estates, all came

and labourers living in the neighbourhood. At two o'clock forward with their contributions from £2 to 1s., to pay a tribute of respect to the man who for 23 years had discharged

THE DINNER the onerous duties of land-agent with fidelity to his employer, took place in the large room of the inn, when about 90 of the and at the same time with benefit to the tenantry. So uvanimous was the feeling, that in a week or two £140 was sub

tenantry sat down. Amongst the company present we noticed scribed ; and to add to the general gratification, Sir P. Egerton and Mr. W. Beckett, Northwich; Mr. Moss, Shaw Farm;

Mr. John Vernon (chairman), Mr. R. T. Beckett, Mr. Beckett, expressed his hearty approval of the whole proceedings. Af. ter some little consideration, the committee determined that deley, Leadbeater, Robinson, and Bivy, Aatbury, Messrs.

Mr. Hicklin, Chester; Mr. Brown, Broxtou; Messrs. Badthe testimonial should consist of a handsome, but useful col. lection of silver-plate. The articles comprised a dozen silver

Bithell and Beecroft, Upton; Messrs. R. Taylor, Rigby, and table forks, a dozen dessert ditto, a case containing a dozen Law, Ruscoe, Finchett, aud Barker, Eaton; Messrs. Bebbirg

Hyne, Little Budworth ; Messrs. W. C. Warburton, Barues, dessert knives and forks, four silver tablespoons, two gravy ditto, massive soup ladle, salt cellars, kuife rests, cruet stand, Egerton Hall; Messrs. Hitchens and Bretley, Rushton:

ton and Siddon, Broxton ; Mr. Shrigley; Mr. Johnsou, liqueur frame, bread basket, cake basket, a richly chased flower

Messrs. Ellwood and Rowe, Kelsall; Mr. Davies, Egerton;. bordered salver, an elegantly embossed kettle and stand, a &c, &c. dozen Queen's pattern teaspoons, and a splendid gold watch and chain. A purse containing 30 guineas was also added to

After the dinner had been disposed of, the Chairman prothe above-mentioned articles. Accompanying the present was

posed the usual loyal and complimentary toasts ; after which a beautifully emblazoned and engrossed list of the articles, and

the bealth of Sir P. Egerton (the landlord) was drunk with also the names of the various subscribers to the testimonial. three times three. On the kettle, salver, and watch, the following inscription was The testimonial was then placed by Mr. Butt in front of engraved—“ Presented, with other pieces of plate, by the The CHAIRMAN, who rose and said-Mr. Beckett, the tenantry of Sir Pbilip De Malpas Grey Egerto", Bait, M.P., 1 committee formed for the purpose of providing eome substan.

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