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model farms, agricultural colleges, breeding establish- | Who are those who exhibit at the shows? They are only ments, where the best English cattle are kept; there a few amateur fancy farmers ; and the specimens they are shows, both local and general; there bave even exhibit very often constitute the totality of the stock been some called universal and international. We they have on their farm, and are by no means a sample have heard of a vote of £4,000,000 sterling for drain. of the agriculture of their districts. The farmers, with age; there is a bank of crédit foncier; very large very few exceptions, are not only not exhibitors, but sums of money are spent from the consolidated funds not even vieitors. The schools have been productive and from local resources, in liberal prizes and encou- of very littlo good. As farms, they have been lamentaragement. Surely all these must have exerted a con- ble failures, and the peasants point to them as instances siderable influence upon French agriculture, and given of the folly of modern ideas; in fact they do not pay, an extraordinary impetus to its progress.'
and as model farms they ought to pay." Surely, at any rate, say his hearers, the effort is a And so on. But Monsieur Trehonnais should bear noble one; and if such encouragement does not effect in mind that a whole people do not take to a business something, it ought to. But what says Monsieur? He like this on the instant. It was some years, even, beanswers us with a very terrible simile :
fore our own great agricultural show came to be ap“We have all heard of—and some of my audience, preciated, and for many it had to bear up against perhaps, have seen - a strange and somewhat awful ex- all kinds of abuse and ridicule. We really believe that, perinient performed by means of a galvanic pile upon a whatever the Emperor may have done for France in corpse. Å wire is put in communication with the other ways, his laudable attempts to advance the agrispinal marrow, and life, movement, and action are re- culture of the country have been both judicious and stored to the muscles; the corpse will stand erect, open effective. We may-indeed we must, wait for such a its eyes, move its arms and legs; its livid lips will result; but it will come nevertheless. quiver as if they were going to speak, and to all appear- We could wish to have concurred more fully with the ances death has been conquered, and the corpse lives : tone of this paper. Somehow or other, however, it but only interrupt the mysterious current from the pile, was scarcely suited to an English taste, and there was and the lustre of the eyes will vanish, the arm will not a speaker who followed Monsieur Trehonnais but fall inert, the jaw will hang, the eyelids will close, and that dissented from his deductions and opinions. As the ghastly corpse will fall to the ground, once more a these were chiefly friends of his own, this expression of helpless mass, on the verge of decomposition. In like fecling is the more remarkable. The last few years manner the action of the French Government props up have given many the opportunity of seeing something a show of activity, a show of vitality, in the French of French agriculture, as well as of what the Emperor agricultural interest ; but it exists only on the surface. I is doing for it.
THE GAME LAWS. INJURIOUS EFFECTS OF UNDUE PRESERVATION OF GAME ON OUR HOME SUPPLIES.
At a recent meeting of the Milborne St. Andrew Farmers' not need to be told by me that it is a case which admits of no Club, Mr. Richards opened a discussion on this subject. Mr. snch rule of calculation. Could farmers by any means confine H. Fookes in the chair.
these animals, cause them to feed where they would choose, Mr. RICHARDS proceeded – Although the circumstance of and make them eat their way clean as they go, then it may be my bringing before you the subject for our discussion this possible to arrive at something like a correct estimate of the evening originated from a passing joke, yet permit me to value of keep. But this you know to be impossible. What, say that I consider it a very grave and important subject, and then, are the facts ? Take first the swede crop, which, as you one which deserves our most serious consideration. I say then, are aware, is raised at a heavy outlay, and which, probably, gentlemen, it is an important subject—and why? My answer the grower intends as a provision for his sheep in the spring, is, because it involves the question of a most serious loss to the and on wbich he may be solely dependent for food at that country at large, and a perfectly ruinous one to individuals. period. What, then, are bis disappointment, inconvenience, and You who know what quantities of agricultural produce are loos, when he finds that instead of twenty tons per acre which annually destroyed by rabbits and hares, will not be surprised be had on his land in November, he bas, in the month of March, to hear me say that my opinion is, it would be possible to show not more than ten ? and, probably, of the ten tons lost, not that the preservation of game lessens our home produce to more than two or three have been eaten, or even less than this, nearly the extent of our importations. I would not have as you well know that when turnips are bitten they decay, and, you understand me to say that food to this amount is eaten by for one ton actually consumed, five, or even more, may rot in rabbits and hares, but that our produce is lessened in one way the ground. And now, gentlemen, how shall we estimate the and another to this extent. I would now proceed to show in loss arising from such destruction ? The answer of some may what way the preservation of rabbits, hares, and game gene-be, “Why, you lose so many tons of swedes, the market value rally may be said to lessen our produce; to consider the effect, of which is so much.” That I admit is your first direct loss; direct and indirect, to individuals, and to the public; and to but, where a flock of sheep is kept wbich have to be fed on that suggest a means by which an equal amonnt of sport would be farm, who shall say what the loss may be on that flock? And afforded, without the objectionable consequences which now this is only a mere beginning of injuries ; for, if you have but exist in many cases. First, then, in what way is agricultural one-half the amount of keep to feed on your land, you leave produce so lessened by the preservation of game? And here on that land only one-half the quantity of manure which I may be met with the objection that rabbits are not game, would have been left had you fed your entire crop. I need and therefore it is unfair to consider the damage done by them scarcely ask you what will be the effect on your next crop ? under this head. To this I would answer that, in preserving Where hares and rabbits have eaten swedes they will also visit game, the increase of rabbits is almost a certain consequence; barley; and, as by the loss of so large a portion of your turnip and although they may not, strictly speaking, constitute game, crop you have been unable to leave much manure, your corn yet to kill them is an offence punisbable under the game laws, crop grows sparingly, and the consequence is that it requires and an act whicb, on the part of a tenant, would displease a a large breadth to furnish food for these nightly visitors; and game-preserving landlord. It may be said—“Why, it will at harvest you may make up your mind to be content with, it only take so much to keep a rabbit, and so much a hare, and may be, less than half the crop that you would have had but therefore the consumption canuot be so great." But you do for the ravages of these vermin. I do not intend to attempt
to trace these effects to their end, but I cannot stop yet. I overlook a little damage done by hares rather than not have
MEETING OF HOP-PLANTERS FOR THE ABOLITION OF THE DUTY. On Friday, March 18, a large and highly influential meeting, was not paid by the consumer (Hear, bear). It was also of hop-planters and others was held at the Sussex Hotel, Tun. said that they could grub their hops if they found the cultibridge Wells, for the purpose of promotiog the repeal of the vation of them did not pay, and thus relieve themselves of excise duty on hops. There were between 300 and 400 pre- the burden. He had no doubt they all knew, being practisent.
cal men, that there was some difficulty in that matter; they On the motion of Mr. Moses Body, chairman of the com- were aware that they had a large amount of labour upon mittee, Mr. Rutley (Wrotham) was called to preside.
their hands. He, for one, had lately, and perhaps most of The Chairman said it would be his first duty to inform the large planters bad, grubbed a portion of their hops; but them that the meeting had been convened by bills drawn up they could not get rid of the labouring population. That by the committee appointed at the Robertsbridge meetivg. As hung upon them in some way or other, and they must be to the object the society had in view, he could only repeat the maintained ; and he had himself set on many extra hande, advice which he gave the planters at the Roberte bridge meet. because many were literally starving. In fact, he had more ing, namely, that if they wished to secure the public attention hands than he knew how to employ ; but in the country and interest in their cause, they must proceed boldly upon a districts it was not so easy to be disengaged from them, and broad principle, and persevere consistently in one course. It that was one reason why it was so difficult to get rid of their was a matter of very great congratulation that so many per plantations. If a man took a farm of some 200 or 300 acres, gons had assembled. He took the circumstance as unmis. of which 20 were planted with hops, a large proportion of takable evidence of the wide-spread depression-he might the valuation was taken upon the hop ground, perhaps £20 say distress, which they saw around them, and which had or £30 an acre. Therefore a man's capital became locked aroused them to public action. If he understood the objects up in that way; and if he grubbed his hops, he by that of the meeting aright, it was not, however, merely to assert means destroyed his property. Another reason why they their distress and proclaim their losses, but to state publicly could not grub their hops so easily as was supposed was that that they believed themselves to be unjustly subjected to a it was always after a heavy crop that they wanted to grub, heavy and burthensome duty, and to devise the best possible because there was a larger produce than they required; in means to get rid of it, to assert that the hop duty in its fact, they could not regulate the supply. With malt it was apportionment was unjust and unequal as a tax. There was just the reverse—they made as much as was wanted. But no other tax like it upon any industrious class whatever iu the they could not manage the hops in that way, as they did country. He was well aware, however, and he did not wish to not know what produce there would be; but, after all, so ignore it, that there were even hop-growers who would prefer far as grubbing was concerned, the greatest drawback was that the duty should remain as it was, rather than that it should the duty itself. A man had got perhaps ten or twenty be repealed. That desire arose from the circumstance that acres, prices were very low, and the tax something like £20 those growers had many peculiar advantages of soil and situa
per acre, if he grew a ton an acre: He grubbed his hops and tion, and did not feel the pressure to the extent that the majority covered the land with corn, and probably got a profit of £3 of growers now experienced. That was the reason why they or £4 an acre, but the succeeding crop had to pay the tax found those persons were in a position to pay the duty. But upon the previous year's produce (Hear, hear); therefore, he could not consider the mere fact of one particular set of if a man had £300 or £400 duty to pay upon twenty acres plautera in a certain district desiring to maintain the duty was of hops, it ruined him. He must not, therefore, grub. any argument in its favour; indeed, he should rather say no Those were strong reasons, he thought, why they should further proof was necessary that the duty was upjust and un- get rid of the duty; but he had no doubt they all kuew the equal, because one set of men were anxious for its continuance, matter as well as himself. He had been a grower for the while the majority were oppressed by it, and wished for its last twenty-five years, and during late years at a considerrepeal. The persons who were anxious that tbings should able expense. He had found it a most unprofitable specularemain as they were, asserted that hop-growing always had tion ; and he was persuaded that, unless they got rid of the been, and always would be, a lottery ; that it was a great excise duty, they could not continue to grow hops in these specalation, and that all who entered into its cultivation ought counties. If that were so, he would ask, “What would be. to be prepared to meet its contingencies. They had been told come of the labouring population in the hop districts?" He that if they were patient the market would rise again, and was himself at a loss to know. they would have more years of profit. He well knew that Mr. Parker (Tunbridge) seconded the resolution, which they had had such years, and that they might occur again, was carried unanimously. even under the present system. But upon what circuto stances Mr. John Simes rose to propose the second resolution, would that improvement arise? It would be the very conse- which was as follows: "That it is the duty as well as the quence of their present ruin, and the evils which had been interest of all hop growers and others resident in or connected already inflicted by the duty. Planters had been driven to with the hop districts to take all the means in their power to grub their hops, and cease from their cultivation altogether, procure the immediate abolition of this unjust tax." "He was and it was at such a cost and sacrifice that any temporary in the habit of making valuations, and he had been struck at prosperity would be secured. The attendance around him per- the number of farms that had lately been stripped for payment suaded him that they were no looger inclined to submit to tbis of the hop duty. He was also in the habit of receiving rents, unjust imposition.
and had therefore bad opportunities of noticing the difficulties Mr. Moses Body then rose to propose the first resolu- with which those payments were met, and in many cases could tion, which was, “ That the excise duty on hops is most op- not be met in consequence of the tenants having had to meet pressive to the grower, unequal in its pressure, most uncer- the hop duty. He was well aware that there was a difference iain in the amount of revenue derived from it, and most un- of opinion upon the subject, and he was very sorry that it was just, liops being the only agricultural produce subject to so. It was only a few, however, who objected to the present taxation in the hands of the grower, upon which the duty movement, and they were only those who were seeking to reis levied irrespective both of the value of the article and the tain a monopoly : they were trying to drive the industrious cost of production.” He did not stand before them as an classes out of the market. If they made a fair calculation advocate of free trade in hops, for he did not know that they they would fnd that in the Weald of Kent and Sussex they could grow hops under that principle. Some told them had been paying sometbing like 35 or 40 per cent. more than that the duty was a tax upon the consumer, and that it did the Mid-Kent people. There lay the question. Let the Kent not press much upon the grower; but they well knew that people, who were so bigotted in their opinions, and who tried they had very recently been selling hops at 17s., 18., and all they could to drive others out of the market, have 40 per 20s. per cwt., and he should like to know who had paid the cent. put(upon them. How would the question appear then, duty on those, if the grower had not. It was very clear it he should like to know; he was sure that they would soon be
rowing in one boat, and all would go hand and heart together statement as that, of which he vouched for the truth, would in the endeavours to get the tax removed. All they wanted not make them active, he did not know what would. Alluwas a fair stand up fight. At present he was quite satisfied sion had been made to the customs duty, which he did not they were labouring under free-trade prices, and had at the think they had any right to have ; for what had they to be same time a heavy duty hanging over them, and they need not afraid of, when he told them that the customs duty upon expect to get anything during the next two years in the shape hops sent into this country year before last, and charged at of new profit. The duty consumed them more than free trade. 45s. per cwt., only amounted to £22,546? It did not If any of them had anything to say on the subject he hoped amount to £10,000 of their duty, and were they willing to they would do it manfully, and let the public know that they pay £417,526 to keep that £10,000. He recommended they were unanimous. They must give a " long, pull, a strong should call a meeting in every parish, and get up subscrippull, and a pull altogether,” until the tax was laid under their tions in every possible way. He for one would pledge feet.
himself to get subscribers to the amount of £50. Many Mr. J. KenWARD (Uckfield) rose to second the resolu- people he was aware agreed with Mr. Dodson, M.P., that tion. It might not, he said, be deemed prudent on his part members of parliament did not know very much about the to do so, as he had been on the opposition side, but he now subject of the hop duty; but he begged to assure them that found that he had been travelling on the wrong road. He made from many interviews he bad bad with those gentlemen it his business, however, to attend that day, and render bis ag- they did know something of the subject and were taking a sistance in endeavouring to get rid of the tax.
lively interest in their welfare. He was happy to tell them Mr. J. WIBLEY (Sevenoaks) said he was a grower of high- that he had received many promises from members that priced hops, but he heartily agreed with the two resolutions they would vote for the repeal (renewed cheers). Ile that had been proposed. He was an old free-trader, and did hoped therefore the planters of Sussex would set a firstnot fear the importation of foreign hops in the least. He rate example, and they might depend upon it that others thought the high-priced men in Mid Kent and East Kent would follow them, for they were all beginning to feel the would benefit more from free-trade than any part of Sussex or prossure and would be glad to work alike. He had gone the Weald of Kent; the consumption would increase accord- the length and breadth of the three kingdoms; and knew ing as hops were lowered in price. Why should they be the general feelings of the country. If the planters would ruined in their prosperity year after year, merely to be pro- help themselves, everybody else was ready to assist them. tected £l 6s, from foreign hops ? it was a complete bugbear; Mr. BARCLAY seconded the resolution. He observed it was all very well when hops were eight guineas a cwt. that let him go where he might, and the subject of the hop
Mr. Body begged distinctly to state that the society they duty was mentioned, people who knew nothing about it had formed was not established in any respect as a free-trade frequently said, "What did it signify to the planters? They society, upon free-trade principles. They had nothing what- got their prices for the hops, which included the duty, or ever to do with free-trade. He had made those few observa- they would not grow them.” That was a point to which tions from fear that some wrong impression might go abroad they should turn their particular attention. The growers upon the matter.
knew and felt that they paid the duty, and that in many Mr. Waibley said he did not think anyone would volun- instances they never got back again any sum of money teer to go to Government for a repeal of the Customs' duty; which at all represented it. There were too many of them they did not ask for the repeal of that duty, but the question held hops of 1855, and there was very little doubt that a was one of a free trade character.
large proportion of them would never be sold, and the Mr. THIRKELL said he was a large grower in the Weald of growers would therefore not see the duty, to say nothing of Kent. He trusted they would wake out of their sleep, and the expense to which they had been put.' What they had make vigorous exertions to obtain the repeal of so unjust a tax. to do principally was to show, as nearly as they could, the The resolution having been unanimously carried,
situation in which they were with regard to the duty. They Mr. Nash (Rochester) said he had been called upon to
were called upon to pay it whether the hops were sold or move-" That a society having been formed to promote the not, and under any circumstances ; if the hops were spoiled repeal of the duty upon hops, this meeting pledges itself to
the duty must be paid out of their pockets. But the take the most active measures to support that society in business in which they were at present engaged was as imthe attainment of its object." He stood before them as a
portant a matter as any hop-grower could undertake, for Kent planter of more than twenty years' experience; he they ought to get rid of the excise duty if they could by had grown hops in the hill distri as good as most
any possibility; for he was sure there were very few farmers men grow, at least they had fetched as good a price-and
who did not feel that heavier than any other payment. It he must say that he did not wish to see any gentleman grub
was asked for in large sums, and at a time when they had his hops. He had been to Somerset-house and made
sold the article for which it was claimed. If they did not extracts from some of the books. He would have them
care for the duty, and he believed there were a few in that clearly to understand that there were altogether three situation, he would say, don't subscribe ; but if they did, duties--the old duty, the new duty, and the 5 per cent., subscriptions would enable them to get rid of it. and he would tell them what had been the amount of each for
The resolution having been carried unanimously, every year. In 1711 the old duty of ld. in the lb. was put
Mr. BARCLAY proposed a vote of thanks to the chairman. on; 1778 the ld. per lb. was continued, and the 5 per cent.
The CHAIRMAN acknowledged the compliment, and the was put on ; in 1780, 10 per cent. was added ; in 1783, 15 meeting separated.—(Abridged from the Sussex Express.) per cent. was added; and in 1786, 1fd. and 2-20ths was added; in 1801 it was 24 d. ; in 1806, it was reduced to 2d. ; in 1840, when all exciseable articles were taxed, 5 per LANGUAGE OF INSECTS.-I have frequently obcent. was laid on; nearly all the latter tax had been re
served two ants, meeting on their path across a gravel walk, moved, the only articles on which it remained being paper, one going from and the other returning to the nest. They malt, and hops : he believed that was a fact. He had taken
will stop, touch each other's antennæ, and appear to hold a the three years 1855-6-7, and he would give them the re
conversation; and ( could almost fancy that one was comturns for those years, as he had taken them from the House municating to the other the best place for foraging. This of Coinmons. The amount of the new duty and war tax in Dr. Franklin thought they have the power of doing, from 1855 was £294,643 10s., and the additional 5 per cent. on
the following circumstances: Upon discovering a number that was £34,661 10s. 4fd., making £329,305 0s. 4 d. The of ants regaling themselves with some treacle in one of his planters had been called upon to pay that above the ld. per cupboards, he put them to the rout, and then suspended the Ib, duty. Those were startling items, but correct ones. In pot of treacle by a string from the ceiling. He imagined 1856, the new daty amounted to £197,869 2s. 4 d.; and he had put the whole army to flight, but was surprised to the additional 5 per cent, £23,267 is. 34d.; making see a single ant quit the pot, climb up the string, cross the £221,136 3s. 8d. In 1857, the new duty was £168,999 133. ceiling, and regain its nest. In less than half an hour several 103d., and the additional 5 per cent. being £19,879 155. 64d, of his companions sallied forth, traversed the ceiling, and making £188,879 9s. 5d, The total of the last three years, reached the depository, which they constantly re-visited of what he would say they were called upon to pay in until the whole of its contents were consumed. -Jesse's excess of the 1d. per lb. was £739,320 13s. 5d. If such a Gleanings in Natural History.
COMPOSITION OF FISH MANURE AND SOME SORTS OF
Although the importance of all sorts of animal | There can be no doubt that, if fish manure, of matter as a manure has long been familiar, and has equally good quality, can be produced, a large debeen frequently insisted on, both by science and mand for it will soon be created. It is, in fact, a practice, the immense quantity of such refuse has very valuable manure, and its price may be estihitherto become very partially available. The main mated very readily, according to the mode emdifficulty which has stood in the way of their pro- ployed for Peruvian guano, by taking the comfitable application has been the want of a good pro- mercial value of each of its important manurial cess by which they can be converted into a portable constituents as derived from other sources. The form. The enormous quantities of fish refuse values usually adopted by chemists have been at annually produced in Newfoundland, and even on the rate of Id. per lb. for phosphate, and 6d. per lb. some parts of our own coasts, has been frequently for ammonia; or, expressed in tons, £6 for the forpointed out as a source from which agriculture mer, and £56 per ton for the latter.
Upon this might derive valuable assistance. Considerable plan, and taking all the phosphates under one cateinterest was excited, some time since, by the pro- gory, we estimate the value of 100 tons of the fish posal of various methods by which the desirable manure as follows :object of rendering fish offal portable might be at:
13.68 of ammonia at £56
£766 tained, and very important results were anticipated
10.11 of phosphate of lime at £6
60 from them. As yet, these anticipations have not been fulfilled, material difficulties having been en
Value of 100 tons
£826 countered in carrying most of the processes into operation on the large scale, some of the plans pro- or almost exactly £8 58. per ton; and this will posed having proved too expensive in practice, probably be its average value. At the present time, while others are so obviously unpractical that no however, owing to the high price of bones and one has been found willing to invest capital in ammonia, its value would considerably exceed this. carrying them out. The error, in most cases, has Sulphate of ainmonia is now selling at £16 per ton, lain in the employment of expensive machinery, and at this price ammonia is worth £64, and phoswhich the conditions under which such a manufac-phate of lime can scarcely be reckoned under £10 ture must be carried out may be said to preclude. per ton, bones at present selling as high as £6, or It is probable that the quantity of fish offal to be even £6 10s. If these data be taken for calculation, obtained at any one spot will not generally be very the value of the fish manure comes to be large, and will be chiefly collected at one period of
13.68 of ammonia at £64
£875 the year, so that the machinery would require to be
10.11 of phosphate of lime at £io
Value of 100 tons
£975 the plans have hitherto failed; but I have recently or £9 158. per ton. In connexion with this subject, analyzed a sample made by a patent procees, which it may be well to observe, that there are many is said to be simple and inexpensive; and should sources of animal matter which must, at the present the manufacture yield, on the large scale, a material moment, be entirely wasted, although they might, of uniform quality, and equal to that I have ex with a little management, be turned to good acamined, it will undoubtedly prove a very important count. Of these, perhaps, the most prominent is addition to the list of ammoniacal manures. The the blood, and other offal of slaughter-houses, in manure was in the form of a yellowish powder, in our small towns and villages. In the larger towns, grains about the size of fine oatmeal, remarkably the blood is collected, although not very carefully, uniform in appearance, very dry, and almost devoid and finds its way to certain classes of manufactories of smell. Its composition was :
in which it is employed; but in country places it Water,
8.00 is, for the most part, allowed to escape. It would Fatty matters,
7.20 be a matter of some interest to ascertain the annual Nitrogenous organic matters, 71.46 value of the blood and offal thus lost, which is unPnosphate of lime,
8.70 doubtedly very large, and a great part of which Alkaline salts,
3.80 might easily be saved by a very small expenditure Silica,
0.84 of care. Such, however, is the carelessness of the
workmen employed in slaughter-houses, that I
100.00 have been informed, that, even in the large towns, Nitrogen,
11.25 it is with difficulty that they can be persuaded to Equal to ammonia,
13.68 save the blood, although its price is really considPhosphoric acid in the alkaline
erable. Fresh blood contains nitrogen, equal to salts equal to 1.41 phosphate
about 3 per cent. of ammonia, and is worth about of lime
0.65 2d. per gallon, or nearly £2 per ton; and any far
of the year.