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is evidently well up in mechanics, will perhaps | past occasion, when a long controversy as to “Who inform a different opinion of my ploughs when vented the Steam Plough ?” took place in your journal, I tell him that, by their construction, they are I took no part therein, feeling convinced that-having capable of being altered in five minutes from a four- proposed and introduced the subject of "Steam Cultifurrow or six-furrow plough to a ridge plough, by simply vation” at the London Farmers' Club, previous to either taking off the first, third, and fifth plough-bodies, and of the disputants taking any part in it, and the publicity substituting a large steel broadshare in their stead. The that was given to that discussion through your paper and work is then performed as follows : The first beam, several others, besides the Journal of the Club—that the carrying a broadshare, cuts and breaks up the soil, but public would give me credit for being first in the matter. does not turn it; the second beam, a plough, cuts its However, it appears that " A Plain Farmer” was not own ground, and turns it on the top of the other; the aware of the fact, and possibly many more like him ; .I others alternately acting the same, throwing the whole therefore consider it a duty I owe to myself to put this into ridges or rafters, and the whole of it being broken matter straight, as I am not only the inventor of the haulup, it lies admirably for exposure to the atmosphere and ing machine, but it will be found that, ultimately, when the frost. Several farmers in Staffordshire told me, on brought to perfection, my system of moving ahead opBeeing it work, “they should like all their land done posite the work will be the best. like it.”
I remain, Mr. Editor, yours faithfully, I ought to apologise, Mr. Editor, for the length of my
J. A. WILLIAMS, letter ; but I know that anything relating to steam culture finds a ready place in your columns. And as on a Baydon, Wilts, Nov. 24, 1857.
THE PROPER POSITION OF THE LABOURING MAN. Reflections arising out of the Rev. C. T. James's , You may add also every variety of sick-club, coaleloquent address and the afternoon discussion on club, savings-banks, &c., for providence and mutual labourers' education have already offered to help, and crown the list with evening-classes for adults, our readers, We shall now give a few more, and time and opportunity for good training for their which, on the contrary, were never likely to occur families, with, perhaps, athletic games and rural sesto anybody from a perusal of what passed at the tivals in which all classes may cheerily mingle. Farmers' Club. Our working-classes, having no news- Still further, every one whose views are worthy of repaper, edited, contributed to, and supported by them. spect acknowledge that farmers are greatly to blame for selves, speaking their views and stating their wants their remissness in many of these matters; that clergyand wishes, read what we write for them, and have men, and squires, and people of influence and power are their case always pleaded by men of a class above accusable of great neglect in some points; and that them. A journal, therefore, like the Mark-lane Ex- landowners and proprietors are impeachable with repress, representing all the interests connected with ference to others. Then again, the good ladies, who, agriculture, whether owning, occupying, or l abouring, like improvised Sisters of Mercy, parcel out their should not be frugal of its devotion to the cause of the poor” into visiting districts, tell us that personal im. workman, while giving due regard to the rights and providence and recklessness in the men, and a want of duties of the landlord and tenant-farmer. The subject ability for cooking, soup-making, and working-up of of improving the educational condition of the agricul. domestic odds-and-ends in the wives, mothers, and tural labourer was or should have been treated, on daughters, are sufficient to account for much of the the above occasion, in its relation to the exigencies of labourers' poverty. Even beyond these, there is the teethe farmer. We would now extend the topic in a totaller charging the brewers and publicans with being somewhat new direction, bearing upon the welfare of at the bottom of more than half the mischief and misery. the labourer himself, and through him of the whole | It is a matter for general congratulation that we at last community.
know and adinit these things, and that we treat the It is certainly worth while to persist in urging upon labourers' case in a better spirit than we did. At an sluggish and short-sighted farmers that their interests agricultural meeting, when the hard-handed, hard. would be advanced by doing a little bit of philanthropy headed fellows come up into the dining-hall to receive among their work-people; and there are many igno- the golden honours for prize ploughing, and the careful rant masters yet left, who cannot perceive any good in old servant, housemaid, and the diligent scholar, or making their men more thoughtful as well as more clever little needlewoman from the parish school, handy than they now are. But our intelligent men of share in the distribution of rewards, the benevolent business admit all you can plead on behalf of more vicar or his indefatigable curate makes a fatherly adextended education (that is, of mental, moral, and dress to this élite of the working-classes, fairly and bodily training), and deplore with you that the thing good-humouredly adverting to the above-mentioned remains so scantily and insignificantly done. Shrewd grievances-generally concluding, by-the-bye, with and calculating, as well as right-minded and benevolent an earnest appeal against tobacco and the beer-shop, men, agree that it would be better for all classes if just as the health of the labourer is being drunk labourers could have higher wages, earned more at piece- by their masters with “ three times three.” On work than by the day, and were paid perhaps partly greater occasions, too, our
noble lords and right in bread-corn or barley for home-brewing. If their honourables, as well as plain agriculturists, in dilating homes were more decent and comfortable; if they upon the “ operative" question, invariably enforce universally had rood-pieces for potatoes, grain, and the prihciple that the men who slave for the community, garden vegetables (not omitting foral beauties by for capitalists and gentry, have a right to receive cottage-doors and windows), and did they all possess, education and assistance from the classes above them; if not the poor-man's Elysian blessedness of a milk and that it is the bounden of all, above the position giving cow agisted by the master, at any rate a sleek of being drudges of society, to help their toiling brothers economizing pig or two in the manure-making sty.' in proportion to the measure of their own affluence and prosperity. Thus, it is not only the selfish principle for the work allotted to them, and when that work is (or want of “ principle") within us that is appealed. always such as reasoning, reflecting human beings may Something more is set before us than the mere be satisfied to spend their life in, and earn their living advantage to ourselves of having better-fed, better- by. This, then, is the point we would enforce—that housed, better-taught “ lower orders ;" of having the only permanent and safe condition of the workingfewer pestilential and feverous courts and back lanes classes is when their position is fairly and honestly as to involve our wealthier mansions in their subtle poi- good in its way as that of other classes. When no soning, and having fewer temptations of want and man who is too weak to rise out of this situation in life ignorance and vice pressing the poor to rob and hate need be ashamed of or disgusted with it. and attack the rich. Our sense of fairness and honour, There are two ways of endeavouring to bring this our sympathy and generosity are appealed to, and we about-one consisting in measures for securing the are constrained to declare whether or not it is fair and labourer better payment for his toil, either in wages, righteous that our fellow.citizens, who strain their household comforts, or educational privileges ; and sinews, waste their energies, and hazard their health the other seeking to improve and elevate the nature of and existence most, should eat of the plainest, and be the work itself, rescuing the workman from occupacomforted with the hardest. Or, that they should dwarf tions purely animal or mechanical, and employing him and dwindle on dry bread, while the more for- in such as engage the faculties of his mind. tanate and idle partake of the best of palatable We continually hear suggestions for aiding the forluxuries. Our own sense of justness and fitness
mer, but very seldom for advancing the latter method. and propriety tells us that a condition of society
One of the saddest facts connected with the condition in which the workman obtains the least part of Nature's
of many of our working-classes is, that a worse than bounties, and does not find that he is a worthy of his
the primeval curse has fallen upon them. " In the hire," cannot be in accordance with the perfect and normal government of the universe by a Providence of ment pronounced against Adam and his posterity.
sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread,” was the judgequity and mercy. Let us even confess that there is Alas! how many of our labourers have come to suffer something wrong in our present social and economic this penalty in its narrowed literal meaning-eating arrangements for distributing the profits of the products “bread" and bread only, often not a sufficiency of that, of labour; doubtless permitted by the Ruler of the
in recompence for “the sweat of their brow!" But nations for a wise and righteous end, but which shall be adjusted and compensated for in that millennial age lation, and an enormous consumptive demand for cheap
with the progress of machinery, the increase of popu. to which the world looks ever forward.
articles of prepared food, manufactured apparel, furniNow, no one will suppose that we are going to ture, and workmanship of art and ornament, there has open up the theories and fallacies of “socialism," or to gradually crept upon the “operatives” a worse form of quarrel with our existing national institutions. All we laborious occupation than is included in this figure of want to impress upon the true labourers' friends is, that the perspiring brow-unless, indeed, the expression be remedial and alleviating measures, good and necessary not only metaphorical, but symbolical. This may be as they are, can only be of temporary effect, and should taken to indicate that fearful, horrible, and cruel wastnot be urged and agitated as if they constituted a com- ing of the souls of men in forms of labour engaging plete solution of that perplexing problem, the “labour only their animal power, and calling for no exertion of question." True, there is plenty of work for us, at their minds, which has become a necessity of actual present, in getting such measures as cottage-building, existence to tens of thousands of pale men rightly piece work, allotments, and schooling, admitted and named "mechanics ;” as also to others proudly classactively set-about in the right quarters; so that presenting themselves in a higher grade of occupation. Our distress may be allayed, present abuses removed, and a
“ mills” and “works” abound with men and women, brigbter prospect unfolded to the sons of toil. But so young and old, who would rejoice might they but vary long as the framework, customs, and regulations of their bodily labours and revive their mental languor society permit and establish an imperfect, unequal,
in work that had thought in it-in processes but the and therefore dangerous appropriation by diffe- least elevated above the monotony of recurrence, reperent classes of the nation's industrial earnings, all tition, and relentless copying. The joiner has scope such measures will fail to reconcile the working- for contrivance and invention in laying-out a windowclasses to their position, or make them as happy sash of a new pattern, or a staircase of novel combinaand contented as they should be. Anyone who tion of curve and pitch ; but look at that workman in coasiders the general condition of society at the the tool-factory, who does nothing for days, months, present day, must see that only by a vast change years, but cut out with a turn-saw rough wood handles in the character, sympathies, and customs of the va. of a shape marked out for him, never finishing or rious classes of the community, can there be a period varying one. Or look, again, at that old man bending inaugurated in which men shall always be able to com- over a saw, and tap-tapping its teeth with its ceaseless mand their reasonable share of the national store of hammer to give them the right “set.” The accurate food and comforts, as well as of leisure for mental touch of his blow is marvellous, but for years and years culture. But in effecting this alteration, there his daily life has been consumed in as unintelligent a is no necessity for any sudden or violent organic task as that of the horse paciog round his infinite millchange in our social or political state. Nei. walk. ther need we wait until the Christian rule of “ doing Bodily toil, even excessive at times, is healthful and unto others as we would they should do unto us” shall | invigorating both to the physical and intellectual be the inspiring motive in every man's heart. By faculties. But to labour your whole day, and every day means of sentiment and habit slowly growing up among for a life-time, at work which has no progress or diverus, and as a step toward the attainment of the pro- sity in it, no space for design or the exercising of the phesied world of honest men, we believe it will be pos- gifts of a man's soul ever so humbly upon it - this is sible for all classes mutually to agree as to their respec- true slavery. In extorting such protracted changetive functions, duties, and just scale of remuneration; less labour of body, or unrelaxed attention, to details so that inequality and oppression shall be individual, admitting of no improvement by the thought of the and no longer inflicted by one entire class upon another. workman, we are making not only a slave, but a maAnd this time will arrive only when men are qualified chine of our brother-causing him not merely to yield us “the service of his body" but to relinquish for our Some readers may fail to see at once how the elevabenefit the right and opportunity of exercising his tion of the nature of his employment is to accomplish mind. We are using his body and soul in lieu of ma- much in benefiting the labourer's condition. But just chinery of brass and iron. Not that we blame capitalists, consider that some masters, as well as men, hold senti. however, for manufacturing and consuming, or accuse ments on this matter, and act in a way which may be the upper classes of living by such repression and de- stigmatised, without harshness or extravagance, as a gradation of the lower. By no means; for we are all species of brutality. They care only to keep their men in fault. And the factory-girls spend years in tying at hard work, no matter at all what the nature of the threads, in order that the poor housewife elsewhere work may be, provided it answers their purpose of may procure cheap calico; and the lad grows up to profit-careless that human minds should be smothered manhood in the din of the railworks, feeding strips of in mere bestial occupations, with the natural result of metal into the cutting engine, in order that we may debasing both the slaves and their task-masters. Such save in building and constructing. Machinery has employers never consider what sorts of labour are good wonderfully extended knowledge and a high order of for men, and would have men and women dragging skill among workmen. Still at the same time it has ploughs and harrows, if it were only legal, customary, made immense numbers of human beings into mere
and would pay. machines; and we believe that one of the best But we ought not to reckon our labourers as so many means of inaugurating a happier condition of the " hands” merely, as the statisticians do. We are not to labouring-classes, is to introduce wood and metal calculate the water-power, wind-power, steam-power, wherever it can be economically made to take the place horse-power, and manual-power on an estate, as all of human nerves and muscles and a low order of mental alike in value, according to the number of pounds attention, contining manual labour to operations re- avoirdupois it can raise one foot per minute. We are quiring thought, and exercising beneficial effects on blaspheming the work of God to do so-who“ made the character of the workman. One of the finest man in His own image." Rather let us say, We have pieces of education is to instruct a youth in the use, so many minds on our estate, each capable of more or and entrust him with the care, of a machine or process less exercise in invention and study; and the aim needing the energy of his mind; and one of the worst should be to produce the highest result of yield and kinds of intellectual degradation is to bind him ten or profit from the land, with the least barm and greatest twelve hours a day to labour, for which the “unthinking improvement to the mental and moral powers of the horse" or other dumb beast might be equally fitted, workmen. had it hands instead of hoofs. What a difference in Again, reflect that if the masses of our population ability and independence of thought between the turner (who have the heaviest of the national work to do) are who holds the tool to the lathe, or the potter who ever to be thinking, well-cultured men, and everybody shapes the vase upon the wheel, and their men who must wish they were so, for the sake of humanity, merely actuate the crank! What a distance of inferiority morality, and religion, they must have work that they between the labourer that carries bricks to the scaffold- can take pleasure in. If labour is to continue to be ing, and him that lays them in lintels or "string- so extensively only a mechanical slavery, the further courses" of his own designing!
you extend education and power for thought, the more While many have pitied poor Hodge, or rather the
dissatisfied will labourers be with that drudgery ; and smart intelligent ploughman and carter that he is ra
all the wisdom and power of the rich and titled will pidly becoming, we do not know that anyone ever dis
not hinder them from rebelling against it. Men have covered the superiority of Hodge's kind of work over
no right to be made to toil in that which they abhor, many tasks performed by the quick-fingered "division
and which holds down their mental energies, if there be of-labour” factory-folk. But think of the variety of his any means for making machinery perform it instead. toils—of his judgment in guiding a team, or feeding a
And there are many cases in which, if mechanism canbullock-in straightening a furrow or paring a sheep's
not be economically applied in such work, the product foot-in managing a drill, or sloping the banks and
can be dispensed with. We honour those who preach lovelling the bottom of a ditch! Is there not selection
the dignity of labour, and strive to introduce whatever and calculation in the plashing of a hedge; and taste,
means may avail to make the workman's toil more as well as tact and skill, in the building of an elegant
pleasant to him. and noble rick? True, there is still the old toil of consider that if “education,” when left only to earliest
Let our readers meditate on this subject. Let them filling dung-cart, for which strong-armed and weakheaded men are proverbially said to be fitted. But the youth, to evenings and spare hours, yet brings bappy progress of agricultural mechanics is gradually re.
results, how much more may be done by altering and lieving the labourer of his more excessively mechanical exalting the character of such occupations as absorb all toils. He is delivered from the long winter discipline of like and material! We have alluded to the introduction
a man's day in what is strictly and rigidly machinethe flail; relieved of shaking-out grass and raking it up again as hay. He has been partially freed from the lightened the pressure of the labourer's work; but
of improved farm-implements as having in many ways hoe; the steam engine, in large farmsteads, cuts, grinds, there are other measures required-such as the relieving and crushes for him, leaving him to study the wants and comforts of the animals under his charge. The demoralizing system of field gang-work; the substitu
of boys and girls, and also women, from the painfully reaping machine has well-nigh saved him from the tion of contract-work for much that is now unnecessarily racking scythe and arduous sickle; the steam plough done by the day, and other methods of giving the will soon make tillage-labour his pleasing occupation labourer a direct personal interest, and therefore of instead of his burden. There might also be a satisfactory comparison between the amount of happiness and pleasure, in the task he is performing. We only urge mental satisfaction which Hodge finds in the nature
a greater attention to the principle of employing men and objects, and in watching the successful issue of his
as much as possible in suitable operations, affording toil—the beasts turned-out fat for market, the crop they may possess—leaving practical suggestions and
scope for the greatest exercise of what thinking faculty prospering under his toil and attention, and so on, applications for business people to discover in the against the mere knowledge of having knocked-off so many pens or buttons per day, and seen them packed
course of their daily arrangements and pursuits. in boxes, never more to be heard of.
THE EDUCATION OF THE LABOURING CLASSES-CONSIDERED
AS A NATIONAL QUESTION.
The education of the poor has ever been a stumbling-, as the state is bound to provide ; beyond this, it is the block, and so it must continue, so long as sectarian duty of the parent to provide, as the means of furdifferences continue to exist, and to counteract the thering the progress of his children through life; efforts of each other. An exemplification of this took neither is it necessary, as it cannot be expected that all place at the last discussion of the London Central men and women should be equally endowed with Farmers' Club, where the different speakers took mental ability-the different grades of society do not entirely different views of the question; while the require it, neither would it produce what Mr. James testimony of what had taken place in their localities ex- so strongly contends for-skilled artizans and labourhibited how badly the present plan worked, and the That department of education does not pertain necessity of a general revision of the whole system. I to the schoolmaster, but devolves upon the parent to The Rev. Mr. James appears to have imbibed the same complete, either by his own tuition, or that of others opinions that pertain to his class, that it is the bounden appointed by him to the task. duty of the upper classes to provide education for the In rural districts the necessity or carelessness of poor. As a Christian duty, it undoubtedly is so ; but parents is the main obstacle to the education of their at the same time we must admit that it is the first duty children. We know that the utmost difficulty exists of parents to provide education for their children, and in procuring scholars for the schools, and even when when unable from poverty, it then becomes the duty of procured the irregularity that prevails prevents the the state to supply it. It is to the wellbeing education of the child proceeding steadily, or conof a civilized community, that all its mem- tinuing long enough to become of any material bers should be educated and trained in their re- advantage. The ideas that prevail among the ligious and moral duties, as well as provided dissenting classes of the poor too frequently operate with the means whereby afterwards to obtain a subsis- to their own injury, especially if the school happens to tence. So that the present system, as supported by be an endowed one, or in any way under the control voluntary subscriptions, which always press heavily of a clergyman. On the other hand, the strict disciupon the charitable and well-disposed portion of the pline enforced by the latter in the teaching of children community, should be equalized, and borne by the has the effect of driving away many from the school property of the country, and be paid through the same that would in its absence have been too glad to have channel as other national charges. Until this attended. . system is adopted education never can become general. Such is the difference in the natural endowment of We cannot admit that knowledge is power, without at the human mind, that education becomes only the the same time admitting that knowledge is wealth- stepping-stone by which men become advanced—the therefore the educating a child is in fact conferring most skilled artizans are those who frequently have upon it the benefit that it would derive were it given been the least educated—the same also holds good with the sum of money considered as the equivalent. our agricultural labourers; and so long as the one con
The middle classes of this kingdom are sufficiently tinues an artizan and the other a labourer, education aware of the importance of education as to induce simply considered would not have produced a better them to bestow it upon their children sufficiently to workman. Not that we advocate the opinion of some enable them to enter into the pursuits of after life, masters that the “weak in the head and strong in the similar to their own. It is one of the most ex- arm make the best labourers,” but we contend that pensive charges that they have to contend with, skill and tact are natural abilities that become advanced as it very frequently happens to persons of slender by practice, rather than by education. But if we look means, averaging from £100 to £200 per annum, that more deeply into the question, we believe that educathe education of their children, even when carried out tion by teaching a man his duty, enables him the better with economy, amounts to one-third of their entire afterwards to fulfil it; and if the education of the incomes. In times of pressure, such have fallen upon the school is supported by the example and teaching of the farmer, the amount of education conferred on their parent the greatest benefit must inevitably follow. children has been totally inadequate to their require- The greatest obstacle to morality with the labouring ments, and far below that frequently bestowed upon youth arises after they have quitted school, and before the children of their labourers, in such parishes as they become settled in life. So soon as they can earn have schools endowed, or supported by the donatiuns sufficient to emancipate themselves from their parents, of well-disposed persons.
an era which usually commences at the age of fifteen, We maintain, therefore, that it is the state that is they become their own masters, and without any control bound to provide education for the poor-not only to from their parents, seek at the alehouse, that cominsure it-but also to coinpel all persons having pro- fort which in most instances could not be found at perty to contribute in fair proportion to their means, home-a comfortable fireside and “jolly companions." whether inclined or not, to promote so desirable a During the interval betwist that period and manresult. As a state necessity, and still further to ensure hood, the good instruction bestowed upon
them preit, parents ought to be assisted, to enable their children viously becomes too frequently lost. to be educated until they attain the age of twelve The advantage derived by evening schools has years at least, or until they are enabled to read and been insisted upon, but this would be made avail. write sufficiently well.
able to a large proportion of the labouring We are of opinion that it is unnecessary to teach youth; during the winter months only, could any the children of the poor anything beyond reading, attendance at all be obtained, and even then many writing, and simple arithmetic, accompanied with hours would require to be filled up beyond those sound moral inculcation and religious teaching, such actually spent hero. In all populous villages the schoolroom might be converted, at other times, into a from most of our unions not having sufficient land upon reading-room, and at the trifling expense at which which to train them in such employment as they may be books can now be procured of an amusing and in- called upon in after-life to perform. structive character, the experiment is well worthy the In conclusion, we can only state, that although in. attention of the benevolent, and would probably, in superable difficulties appear to invest the question, proportion to the outlay, be one of the cheapest modes we believe that they are more imaginary than real; and of supplying the wants of the labouring classes. if the task of laying down a system of national education
The experience produced by our union schools is not was only set about in earnest, and with a desire to prevery satisfactory, the children are instructed in the vent our prejudices operating so as to overcome our elements of learning but are perfectly helpless, as , reason, we should very soon becoine convinced that it Mr. James expressed, of the best manner of using' was no very difficult task, and feel surprised indeed, their arms and legs. This arises in a great measure that it could have been so long delayed in execution.
THE STEAM-ENGINE AND OTHER MACHINERY TRIALS
THE CHESTER MEETING-SUGGESTIONS.
I have been much interested, as also greatly amused, that more ought to be required of them; all other matby reading the various observations and suggestions ters should be left to their discretion. The trials, I made by the respective manufacturers of steam-engines, presume, are intended to ascertain and prove the value thrashing-machines, mills, chaff-cutters, &c., &c., rela- of the engine under trial, with all its merits or demerits, tive to the triennial trial of these classes of machines, as and with all its improvements and additions, be they already arranged to be tested at the ensuing meeting of good or bad, as exhibited before the judges by the sanguine the Royal Agricultural Society, to be held at Chester. exhibitors. The Society should be provided with every How they are to be met I cannot conceive; and yet very necessary scientific apparatus to test the power, to prove many of them are truly valuable. I will try and combine the quantity of water used, and the amount of evaporathe sense of them, and perhaps indulge in a remark or tion. Indeed, every aid must be offered by the Society two upon them in passing.
to insure a perfect trial; but every manutacturer should Triennial Trials. The first observation I shall be left perfectly free to take his own course in the connotice is that of triennial test of merit, by which a struction and manufacture of his engine. It is for the larger number of implements and machines may have a judges to say if he has succeeded in producing the best chance of a more extended and a more efficient trial. Iin bis class. I take it as a necessary adjunct that exbi. find this plan is generally approved of in its essence, but bitors shall be required to state of what and how such grave objections are made to its full efficiency. These parts of their engine is constructed, wbich does not apobjections will certainly lie. It is not right that every pear to the view of the judges; beyond that, the judges trial should invariably be made at the time of the meet. should detect any defect, or note any progression, and ing, whether circumstances are lavourable or not. the Society should always have the power to take to Ploughing, for instance, should only be done when the pieces any engine for examination, if required by the soil and season are suitable. Reaping should only be judges. In arranging for the trial of these engines, the performed upon ripe crops.
coal should be of the best bituminous quality, equally Medals or Diplomas — The next thing I shall no- broken and clear from rubbish or dust, all accurately tice is the suggestion to set aside money-prizes as a weighed from the same heap. The trials should take token of merit, and substitute medals or diplomas. I place under a suitable shed, containing the engine and don't like this. A money-prize is undoubtedly no great dynamometer. object to a large and wealthy firm : a medal is always in Thrashing Machines.-The grain to be thrashed view; but how many poor, hard-working men have should all be from the same stack, and the sheaves should come out as clever inventors and mechanists, to whom be weighed as well as counted. The trial should take the chance of a money.prize has been a great incentive, place also under a suitable sbed, and should extend to and, when obtained, a great help! Besides, Old John fifteen or thirty minutes each, during which time every Bull looks to the money : his pride does not consist in a circumstance in the working and dressing must be caremedal encased in morocco : he loves to hear the chink; fully noted by the engineers and judges, and the produce on hearing which he will work.
weighed as well as measured, thus making a double test Trial of Steam Engines. The trial of steam- -the weight and quantity -- the greater weight proving engines I will next notice. It is one of high importance the better dressing. and is the most valuable investigation to be made Mills of all kinds.—At the Lincoln Meeting a standard at Chester. It deserves the utmost care in perfecting all sample was crushed or ground, and time given for exthe arrangements for a satisfactory and conclusive trial. hibitors to adjust their mills to this standard, and from For this purpose the society puts forth certain con- this point the adjudications were made. At Carlisle, ditions to be observed by competitors. This is right the best samples produced with the least waste of power enough, to a certain extent: it is quite right to cause was the chief guide. This was carefully tested. I reexhibitors to particularise and define the amount of collect seeing a mill there dancing about under trial horse-power, the thickness and quality of the boiler- most amusingly, owing to ill-regulated power. This is plates, the diameter of the cylinder, the length of stroke a great point for consideration. They should have of the piston, the number of revolutions of the crank- thirty minutes each for a trial, and time for adjustment shaft, the diameter and weight of the fly-wheel, for different qualities of flour and meal. and also of the driving-pulley and its width and speed, Chaff Cutters. These are very various in make together with a sectional plan of the boiler, showing the and adaptation, and qualified for cutting different lengtbs. action of the fire upon the flues, and stating the area of In trial all should be set to accomplish the same kind of fire-surface, and the clear water-space between the tubes; work, and to cut the same length of chaff; otherwise no this is perfectly correct, but beyond this I don't see real test can be given. It is suggested that some foreign