Obrazy na stronie
PDF
ePub

36

35

webol

...

1855..

per acre

42

The plots with mineral manures only yielded as

1200 lbs. each follows :

200 lbs. each 200 lbs. each of Muriate

Sulphate and Sulphate and and Sulphate Superphos

Muriate of Muriate of lof Ammonia, Mixed Superpho3- | phate and

Ammonia and Ammonia and SuperphosAlkalies. phateof Lime. Mixed

“ Mixed

Superphos- phate and
Alkalies.

Alkalies. phate of Mixed Alka-
Lime.

lies. Bush. Pecks. Bush. Pecks. Bush. Peck 1852. 26 0 28 2 32 3

Bush, Pecks. Bush. Pecks. Bush. Pecks, 1853

27
33 2 35 2 1832.

41
43

45 0 1854.

36
40 2 42 0 1853.

41

42 1 44 2 1855 34 3 36 1 37

1854..

51

63 1 62 3 1856.

16
17 3 19 3 1855.

47 1 50 1 49 2 1657.

32
33 1 39

1856.

25 1 31 2 37 2 Annual average

1857.

49 3 66 2 64 3 per acre 28 3 31 2 34 2

Annual average
per acre
42 3 42

50 3 The plots with nitrogen per acre equal to about 50 lbs. ammonia, with and without direct mineral

2000 lbs. of

2000 lbs. of 2000 lbs. of Rape-cake & manures, yielded as follows:

Rape-cake Rape-cake Superphos100 lbs. each of

and Mixed and Super- phate, and 275 lbs. of Nitrate Sulphate and Muri

Alkalies. phosphate, Mixed Alkaof Soda. ate of

lies. Ammonia.

Bush. Pecks. Bush. Pecks. Bush. Pecks.
Bush. Pecks. Bush. Pecks.

1852..
33 2

38 0 1852.

0 0
36 3
1853.

1 36 04

40 04 1853.

34 1

38 2
1854.

56 2 60 24 60 1 1854.

49

47
1
3

48 3 53

51 3 1855.

50 0

44 2.
1856.

32 23 37 03 35 1} 1856.

28 2

25 0
1857.

60

62 11 62 1857.

47 3

38 3

Annual average Annual average per

44

7 47 2 48 acre ....

0
38 2

In studying these very valuable results, the far

1100 lbs. each mer will not fail to remark the great influence of 100 lba. each 100 lbe. each of Sulphate different seasons in modifying the profitable results Sulphate and Sulphate and and Muriate

Muriate of Muriate of of Ammonia obtained by different dressings. Our reporters
Ammonia and Ammonia and Superphos- allude to this, when they observe that from the
"Mixed

Superphos- phate &M ix-
Alkalies.” (pbate of Lime. ed Alkalies. pervading influence of season, by which the produce

may be double one year that of another, even Bush. Pecks. Bush. Pecks. Bush. Pecks with the same set of conditions supplied by the 1852. 36 0

3
36
38

moreover, when unfavourfarmer, and which

1 1854. 50

60 2 able, the crop most highly manured suffers most, 1855. 44

48 1 it results that the amount of produce obtained for a 1856.

28

0 33 3 1857.. 42

given outlay in manure may be only half as much in

2 57 1 Annual average

some seasons as in others. Then, again, it is evident per acre 39 2

2 46 1 that some of these nitrogenous fertilizers were apThe next question examined by Messrs. Lawes plied in excessive proportions. The reporters, in. and Gilbert was the effect produced by doubling the deed, observe, “ The unmanured, and the only mi. amount of nitrogen applied in the last-described neral manured portions, as a rule, stood up till the series of trials. 100 lbs. per acre of ammonia were time of cutting. The crops with nitrogen equal to therefore employed in the following experiments, 50 lbs. of ammonia per acre were generally more or and with results given in the next table.

less laid, as were also those grown by farmyard ma200 lbs. of

naure. Those having nitrogen equal to 100 lbs. or 550 lbs. of Sulphate and 2,000 lbs. of more of ammonia per acre were invariably laid, and Nitrate of Muriate of Rape-cake. Soda. Ammonia.

in every year excepting in 1857 very much, and in

juriously so, the crops being too heavy to bear any Bush. Pecks Bush. Pecke. Bush. Pecks. moderate amount of rain about or after the time of 1852.

0 0 44 2 39 0 1853. 53 1

heading." The effect of these manures in influencing

40 3 39 0 1854.

37 0 56 21 60 3 the period of ripening is also a material considera1855. 49 1 48

48 2 tion. The “mixed alkalies” it seems, whether used 1856..

42 0 36 1 36 3 alone, or in admixture with nitrogenous manures, 1857.

58 0 49 31 64 0 Annual average

invariably somewhat retarded the ripening. Superper acre 47 3 46 0 48 phosphate of lime, on the contrary, whether used

40

1853.

2

14:52 14.82 14.85 12:76

8.10

..

alone or in combination with other manures, always From a gravelly soil (57 lbs. a bushel) promoted early ripening. The effect, Messrs. Lawes

a rich, dark loam (56 lbs. do.)

a red loam (54 lbs. do.) and Gilbert add, was most striking. So much so,

a sharp gravel (554 lbs. do.) indeed, that latterly it has been thought desirable to a light sandy soil (55 lbs. do.) 14.08 cut ihe crops at different times, as they came ripe ; The albuminous compounds in the same specimens those dressed with superphosphate of lime, or with of barley were, in that from farmyard manure, coming to the scythe more than a

A gravelly soil

7 09 week earlier than the others. It will presently be A rich dark loam

691 A red loam

10:30 seen, that the superphosphate had a marked effect

A sharp gravel

8.22 on the quantity of produce also, and especially on

A light sandy soil the tendency to corn. The general conclusions at which these scientific in these specimens were, in that from

The amount per cent. of respiratory compounds cultivators arrive, will accord pretty well with those

66.43 of the farmers who carefully study the above tabu

A gravelly soil
A rich dark loam

66.57 lar statements, viz., l. That the use of exclusively A red loam

65.75 mineral manures, and especially those containing A sharp gravel

70-57

65.15 phosphoric acid, annually increase the produce of

A light sandy soil barley. 2. That with barley grown continuously on The proportion per cent. of woody fibre and ash the same land, nitrogenous manures have a much in these were as follows, viz., from more striking effect than mineral manures.

3. That

Fibre. Ash.

8.28 A gravelly soil

3.68 by the annual supply of nitrogenous manures alone

A rich dark loam

8:57 3:13 (nitrate of soda or ammoniacal salts) larger succes- A red loam

8.00 1.10 sive crops, both of corn and straw, were in these ex- A sharp gravel

5.94 2.51 periments obtained, than by the annual use of four

A light sandy soil

10.28 2:39 teen tons of farmyard manure. 4. That within cer

From three varieties of common barley he obtain limits, even on the comparatively exhausted soil tained the following results :-In this table, column employed in these experiments, nitrate of soda, I. gives the composition of a specimen of barley ammoniacal salts, and rapecake, all increase the weighing 554 lbs. per bushel), grown on a thin produce of barley approximately in proportion to clay soil; II. that of the same kind of barley (53} the amounts of nitrogen they respectively supplied. lbs. per bushel) from a sandy soil. 5. That the effect of a given amount of nitrogen, if

I. not excessive, is considerably increased by the ad

Water

14.60 12:47

Albuminous compounds dition of certain mineral manures, especially those

8.97

9:39

Respiratory principles 64:14 70:33 containing phosphates.

Fibre

11.10

5.25 The composition of barley (examined chiefly with Ash

1:19 2:56 regard to its nutritive properties) grown on different In comparing the value of barley with other grain, soils, is an interesting branch of the inquiry that has as Dr. Anderson concludes, it is obvious that it recently engaged the attention of Professor Anderson bears a high nutritive value. In the proportion of (Trans. High. Soc., 1858, p. 287). He tells his albuminous compounds it stands on a level with reader the objects which he chiefly had in view in wheat grown in this country, but naturally from the instituting his experiments, when he observes, that presence of the husk it is below it in the quantity every one who has directed even a limited attention of respiratory elements; the relative importance of to agricultural chemistry must be familiar with the these two groups, however, in a nutritive point of subdivision of the nutritive principles existing in view, has not yet been clearly decided. plants, and required for the food of animals, into These chemical examinations of the composition two great groups—of albuminous and respiratory of barley, and of the effect of various artificial dressprinciples; the former serving to produce the flesh or ings, I repeat, will well repay the farmers for their muscular fibre of the animals, and the latter being most careful consideration. The reader should, inpartly consumed in the system in the process of deed, ever banish from his mind any lingering suspirespiration for the purpose of maintaining the animal cion that science has already achieved all the aid that heat, and partly accumulated as fat to form a re- can be rendered to the cultivator of the soil. Let us serve against the temporary deprivation of food from all rather feel well assured of one certain fact, that want or disease.

many a mystery in the phenomena of vegetation is A few of the mean results obtained by Dr. yet to be explained by the chemical philosopher

, that Anderson will be found in the succeeding tables :- will, perhaps, to the end of time, steadily add to the

The water per cent. in Chevalier barley was, in power and stimulate the efforts of still more enthe specimens examined

lightened agriculturists than even those of our age.

II.

[ocr errors]

ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF ENGLAND.

Chair ;

A WEEKLY COUNCIL was held on Wednesday, the, the accounts ; from which it appeared that the current 24th of February : present, Mr. Raymond Barker, Vice-cash-balance in the hands of the bankers was £612. President, in the Chair; Mr. George Raymond Barker; JOURNAL.-Mr. Thompson, Chairman of the Journal Mr. Bosanquet ; Dr. Camps; Mr. T. T. Clark ; Mr. Committee, reported recommendations : (1.) That Dent, M.P.; Rev. L. Vernon Harcourt; Mr. Fisher Mr. Miles's article in the last Journal on horse-shoeing Hobbs; Rev. James Linton ; Mr. Thomas Scott; Mr. should be reprinted in a separate form, and sold at 6d. Clark Thornhill; and M. de Trebonnais.

each copy to the public, and at the rate of 28. 6d. per Communications were received : 1. From the Earl of dozen to members of the Society. (2.) That a Clarendon, enclosing dispatches from Captain Vansittart bound copy of the Journal should be presented to the of H.M.S. Magicienne, reporting, as the result of a library of the Harpenden Laboratory, in acknowledgsearch made during a recent visit to the Gallapagos ment of the numerous and valuable contributions made Islands, that deposits of guano do not exist there in by Mr. Lawes to the Society's Journal, and of the emi

ufficient quantities for practical purposes. 2. From nent services conferred by him on British Agriculture. Sir Charles Lyell, a collection of works, received by On the motion of Mr. Jonas, seconded by Mr. Torr, him from various sources, having a bearing more or less the discussion of the questions of the amount of salary immediate on agricultural science and practice. 3. From to be given to a paid editor of the Journal, and the M. Andreas von Kiss, of Pesth, desiring the opinion of person or persons who should be appointed to discharge the Council on a question of exhaustion of land under the duties of that office, was postponed till the next let by bim to peasants, and of which the Austrian laws monthly meeting. took no cogoisance. From Mr. Murray (of Albe- LECTURES ON MILK.-Mr. Raymond Barker, Chairmarle-street), requesting on the part of the Baron von man of the Veterinary Committee, reported that Prof. Rosenkrone, of Bergen, information for a committee Simonds, the Veterinary Inspector of the Society, had appointed by the Norwegian Government on the best stated to the committee that his paper for the next system of inclosure to be adopted for estates in that Journal, embodying the substance of his lectures decountry.

livered before the members on the Anatomy and Physi. The Council adjourned to their monthly meeting on ology of Milk-secretion, was far advanced towards the 3rd of March.

completion, and would be delivered to the Journal Committee by the 15th of next month.

PRIZE Essays. Numerous essays and reports, A Monthly Council was held on Wednesday, the 3rd competing for the prizes ofered this year by the Society, of March : present—Lord Berners, President, in the were received.

Lord Feversham, Lord Portman, Hon. Colonel TRUSTEE.-On the motion of Mr, Fisher Hobbs, Wood, Hon. W. G. Cavendish, M.P., Sir Watkin seconded by Mr. Milward, Mr. Thompson, of Kirby Williams Wynn, Bt., M.P., Sir Chas. Gould Morgan, Bt., Hall, and Chairman of the Journal Committee, was Sir Archibald Keppel Macdonald, Bart., Mr. Raymond unanimously elected one of the trustees of the Society, Barker, Mr. Barnett, Mr. Barthropp, Mr. Brandreth, to supply the vacancy created by the decease of Earl Mr. Caldwell, Colonel Challoner, Mr. Druce, Mr. Spencer. Brandreth Gibbs, Mr. Fisher Hobbs, Mr. James MEMBERS OF COUNCIL.-On the motion of Mr. Howard, Mr. Hudson (Castleacre), Mr. Jonas, Mr. Milward, seconded by Mr. Torr, Mr. Humberston, of Lawrence, Mr. Millward, Mr. Paget, M.P.,

Mr. Pain, Mollington, and Mayor of Chester, was unanimously Mr. Shuttleworth, Professor Simonds, Mr. Thompson, elected one of the general Members of Council, to supMr. Torr, Mr. Vyner, and Mr. Jonas Webb.

ply the vacancy created by the decease of Mr. Simpson ; Thomas Mills, Esq., of Tolmers, Hertfordshire, was and on the motion of Mr. Fisher Hobbs, seconded by elected a Governor of the Society.

the Hon. Colonel Hood, Mr. Francis Sherborne, of The following new members were elected :

Bedfont, Middlesex, was elected one of the general Body, Richard Barnard, Hyde End, Shirfield, Reading.

Members of Council, to supply the vacancy created by Bromley, James, Cockerbam, Lancaster.

the decease of Mr. Stephen Mills. Buckworth, Theophilus Russell, Cochley.clay Hall, Swaffham, CAESTER MEETING.- Lord Portman, Chairman of Norfolk.

the General Chester Committee, reported recommendaCotton, Lt. Col. Hon. Wellington H. S., Cherry Hill, Malpas. tions on the acceptance of Mr. Manning's contract for Davies, Robert Craddock (Banker), 187, Shoreditch, London. the works at Chester, and of the Mayor of Chester's Fanton, Edmund, Hill Farm, Torridgton, Devon.

arrangements for a dinner for 500 persons in the Music Hagen, Jacob, Roplay, Alresford, Hampshire.

Hall; also on the accommodation of the Judges, and Hall, Thomas, Duke's Oak, Brereton, Coogleton.

the sale of substantial refreshments at a cheap rate to Hodge, Henry, St. Levan, Penzance, Cornwall. Lee, Thomas, Brown Edge, Congleton, Cheshire.

the labouring classes during the period of the meeting. Lichfield, Earl of, Shugborough, Staffordshire.

The Committee also recommended that a Special ComPerry, Sir Thomas Erskine, Bart., West Court, Berkshire.

mittee should be appointed to report, before the selection Simonds, Thomas, Marske, Redcar, Yorkshire.

of the place of meeting for next year, the best arrangeSeals, Charles William, Leigh-Delamere, Chippenham. ments to be made in reference generally to the showSmith, John, of Sevenhampton, Gloucestershire.

yard works. Starmer, Charles, Hogsthorpe Rectory, Alford, Lincolnshire. On the motion of Mr. Fisher Hobbs, seconded by Taylor, William, Pool House, Groby, Leicestershire.

Mr. Paine, a Special Committee of Show-yard Works Walker, James, Bigbrook Hall, Kidlington, Oxon.

was appointed. Watney, Drniel, Reigate, Surrey.

Mr. Barnett's suggestion that application should be Wheeler, E., Kyrewood House, Teubury, Gloucestershire,

made for the refusal of extra land, should such be reFinances.- Mr. Raymond Barker, Chairman of the quired, for the trial of the steam-cultivators at Chester, Finance Committee, presented the monthly report on was adopted.

Mr. Hudson (of Castleacre) suggested that the general considered to be interesting as showing the early dequestion of the Society's purchasing a suitable pavilion, velopment of the fætus).- The Committee of Council to be retained as its own property, for the purpose of on Education presented copies of an Almanac prepared the great dinner of the Society at its successive country by the Science and Art department. The Rt. Hon. T. meetings, should be referred to the special committee F. Kennedy presented a copy of Mr. Spence's work on on show-yard works.

the practical consideration of the Coal, Smoke, and Additional Special Prizes offered by the Chester Sewage questions. Local Committee were accepted, and ordered to be Adjourned to March 17. included in the Prize-sheets of the Society. On the motion of Mr. Jonas, seconded by Lord

A Weekly COUNCIL was held on the 17th of March : Feversham, Mr. Milward, of Thurgarton Priory, was unanimously elected one of the stewards of the cattle

present, Lord BERNERS (President) in the chair; Mr.

Alcock, M.P., Mr. Fuller Baines, Mr. Raymond Barker, yard at the country meetings of the Society.

Mr. Body, Mr. Caird, M.P., Mr. Fisher Hobbs, Mr. On the motion of Lord Portman, seconded by Lord Holland, M.P., Mr. Langston, M.P., Mr. Majendie, Feversham, it was decided that the Stewards of the

Mr. T. Scott, Mr. Vyner, Mr. Burch Western, and Mr. Stock-yard be requested to report to the Council, at

Sutton Western, M.P. a Special Council to be held as soon as possible after

Communications were received-1. From Mr. Stal. the entry of stock, the number of Judges required for lard, of Redmarley, Gloucestershire, suggesting a prize stock. METROPOLITAN Meeting.-On the motion of Mr. moveable shade for sheep during the hot months of the

to be offered by the Society, for the best-construeted Brandreth Gibbs, seconded by Mr. Fisher Hobbs, the year, especially on the red warm sandy soils, for the Council decided that it was desirable that the Society purpose not only of comfort to the animals themselves, should hold a Metropolitan Show, provided a suitable but of preventing their damaging the under part of site could be obtained ; and on the motion of Lord fences, and their losing flesh during the period of hot Portman, seconded by Lord Feversham, that the Show weather. The President had fou nd simple awnings cons should not be held until after the year 1860, when the structed of four upright poles, open at the sides, but circuit of districts for the country meetings of the covered at the top with faggots or brushwood, answer Society will have been completed, but in the first year the purpose very well. 2. From Mr. Alcock, M.P.; afterwards that might be found practicable. The ar

suggesting that the Society should offer a prize of £100 rangements connected with this subject were referred to

for the largest amount in value of agricultural produce the Metropolitan Show Committee.

(serving as food for man or beast), in one year, from a Dates Of Entry.-Lord Peversham adverted to a single acre of land, provided a fair profit be shown by misprint in the last part of the Journal, which might the coltivator; the application for the prize to be acmislead persons who were not aware of the standing companied by a detailed account of the cost, value of the dates at which entries had for many years been made crop, and mode of cultivation, and notice given to the for the shows at the country meetings. It occurred in Secretary by any person intending to compete.—These the last page of the appendix, where, under the head of communications were referred to the Journal Committee. " Dates of Eatry,” Live Stock had been misprinted for Adjourned to March 24. Implements.

CARD OF MEETINGS, AND ADMISSION OF REPORTERS.—The Council did not adopt Mr. Frere's suggestion for a “Card of Meetings," and they de- NOVEL APPLICATION OF HORSE-POWER.clined to grant Mr. Morton's application, on the behalf | The Montrose Standard directs attention to the “performaof the Proprietors of the Gardener's Chronicle, for ance of a new method of applying horse-power to drive the admission of Reporters.

machinery, wbich Major Rennie Tail your, of Borrowfield, STEAM CULTIVATOR.-A lithographed circular ad

has introduced at his steading at Newmanswalls. The dressed to the Council, and requiring

special informa- tirely from the mode hitherto in use. Instead of moving

apparatus, which is very simple in its design, differs ention on the subject of the Society's prize for a Steam

round in a circle, and drawing the end of a lever attached Cultivator, was laid on the table; and the Council

to an upright shaft, the horse remains stationary, fastened ordered that Mr. Collinson Hall, Mr. Fowler, Mr. in a stall, and the flooring on which he stands passes backBurrell, and Mr. Williams, by whom it was signed, wards under him, as he appears to step forward. The should be referred to the printed rules for trial, tó flooring consists of a series of stout boards, lying across the which the Council would adhere.

stall, and resting on and made fast to two endless chains The Council adjourned to their weekly meeting, on

stretched round a couple of drums, one at the head and the March 10.

other at the foot of the stall, thus forming, as it were, a firm but flexible belt, on the upper surface of wbich, as on

a moveable floor, the horse stands. The drum at the head A WEEKLY COUNCIL was held on Wednesday, the of the stall being somewhat more elevated than at the foot, 10th of March ; present : Mr. RAYMOND BARKER,

this moveable floor is slightly inclined; and the weight of

the horse causes it to descend towards the lower drum, V. P. (in the chair), Mr. Dod, M.P., Mr. Gatty, Mr. Brandreth Gibbs, Rev. L. Vernon Harcourt, Mr. the halter by which he is tied in the stall obliges the horse

carrying the horse backward along with it. As, however, Fisher Hobbs, Mr. Allen Ransome, Mr. Thomas Scott, to maintain his position, he is compelled to step forward Mr. P. Simpson, Professor Simonds, and Mr. George continuously as the floor recedes under him; and the revoWood.

lution of the drums thus produced drives whatever maMr. Bailey Denton made an application in reference chinery it is intended to propel. At Newmanswalls it is to his intended draining operations abroad. – Mr. successfully applied to driving a thrashing machine, a Eddleston alleged his discovery of a cure for Pleuro-chaff-cutter, and a machine for bruising oats. No driving pneumonia and Potato disease, and his willingness to

or watching is required ; and we were informed that a communicate it to the Council under certain terms of

horse might work at this species of treadmill without disremuneration.-Mr. Spencer Trower, of Stansteadbury, throughout the United States and Canada. In fact, the

tress or fatigue for eight hours.” [The practice is common presented a foetal foal, 46 days in embryo, taken from a

wood at every minor railway station is sawn in this mare 21 years old (a specimen which Professor Simonds | manner.]

THE AGRICULTURE OF FRANCE.

[ocr errors]

At the height of what might have been so delicate a | it should have been his peculiar province to have crisis, it becomes us to be especially careful as to what directed the excellence of ours to the wants of his own we say of our neighbours. With the notoriety of the system, Unfortunately he did not dwell enough upon: Fleet-street Forum by way of a warning, we should be this very essential matter. The first part of a long more than usually nice in our parts of speech. There address was devoted to the agriculture of France, should not be a phrase to quarrel with, or even a word traced as far as three hundred years back, and of course to cavil at. It is difficult, then, to imagine an orator dependent upon the authorities of those times. The vehement in his denunciation of what is going on over second section, which touched more upon the present the other side of the Channel-how the higher classes condition of the country, partook rather of an essay in France are bought and sold with honours-how the upon political economy than one directly referring to movied men are rotten to the core-how the improve. agriculure. In fact, the subject itself was little more ments in Paris are made at an unfair expense to the than incidentally touched on, and what was said of it country-how those who would do good have no was tinged with something very like, utter despondency. power-and so on. And yet it has been our fate to According to Monsieur Trehonnais, the farming of hear lately a great deal in this strain; not, how. France is as bad as it possibly can be-worse than it ever, at a gin-and-water parliament in the City, nor was three hundred years ago. This would appear to from the over-excited aspirant of a debating club. On be mainly attributable to two grand causes-want of the contrary, no less august a body than the Society of labour, and want of capital. France, be it remembered, Arts gave its countenance to the occasion, Further is essentially a military nation; and the continual drain than this, the reader has only to associate the staid de- of able-bodied men must of course tell upon the culticorum of its discussion-room with the wild Irishman or vation of the country,

The two arts never yet headlong patriot who rejoiced in so unexpected an op- Aourished together. Monsieur Trehonnais further atportunity of having his “fling."

tributes this scarcity to what he considers the present This would make the offence complete ; but luckily injudicious centralization in towrs. The embellishthe Society is saved the more serious part of the charge, ments of Paris, for example, are made at the expense It is no wild Irishman who talks like this; no ferocious of agriculture. The 300,000 additional inhabitants of Cuffey bound on re-organizing, not merely his own a few years chiefly consist of mechanics and labourers country, but all the world over. For the very reverse, removed from the country. The want of capital natake a plump, really contented-looking gentleman, turally follows. He speaks of the amount of treasure who speaks with an accent so decidedly foreign that it lavished on the city-the disproportionate expenditure is difficult to follow him-who announces himself as a for public works in Paris compared with the whole of landed proprieter in Normandy-and who, in fact, is a France. The chief cause of this want of means for im. Frenchman, just giving his opinion on the political proving the land—at least, the one generally received economy of his own country. The Society of Arts is as such amongst us-he will not admit. He believes inexpressibly relieved, and the “ reading proceeds the evil influence consequent on the division of property with far more equanimity than had Brian Boru or to be more apparent than real. At the same time he some home-bred Hampden been in possession of the allows that share for share does take place : the daughchair.

ters receiving an equivalent in money, and the land reStrangely enough, the text-word of this address was maining with the son. Under such a system, it is Agriculture. Now if there is one thing more than almost impossible to imagine anything but the soil being another that we Englishmen should be inclined to continually mortgaged with these equivalents,” and regard with a feeling of satisfaction, it is the effort left without a franc for its own improvement. In this France has lately been making in this way. If there country no man now does so badly as the one who just be any one cause that has induced more than another hangs on to his own bit of land. With the small octo kindly intercommunication between the two coun- cupier, either owner or tenant, no great progress can be tries, it has assuredly been this desire to improve the attained ; and France is overrun with these small holdcultivation of France. The international shows are stillings. Monsieur Trehonnais thinks it only right they fresh upon our recollections. The manner in which should be thus limited in accordance with the means of the English were received, and the way in which they the people. He must remember, however, that nothing endeavoured to return the compliment—the individual can be done without capital, while the greatest bar to its courtesies of the Emperor to men distinguished amongst use is the perpetuation of these little properties. Men us in the pursuit-His evident sympathy with the art- in such a position can never command it. If we needed the prices he gives for stock—the example he is setting any illustration of this, we have only to look to Ireland in farming-when we come to reflect on all these re- as it was, and as it is. It is hard to suppose that the cent manifestations, one might suppose a glance over agriculture of France can be materially advanced the agriculture of France would surely by this time without some more decided action of the law of priturn to the sunny side of the picture.

mogeniture. Stranger even still, perhaps, there was no one, Monsieur Trehonnais himself unintentionally supwho by his antecedents stood better recommended ports this view of the case. He will have everything to read a paper on French farming than the independ upon individual exertion—a sound conclusion troducer of this subject. One of the first points in his enough, although he rather over-impresses it. It strikes favour was that he was well known to Euglish farmers; but harshly to hear the recent efforts of the Emperor another, that he had a natural taste for the occupation; characterized as worse than useless :-" But, I may be and, a third, that he is now pursuing it in France. asked, has the French Government done nothing to Monsieur Trehonnais was just the man to have made revive agriculture? There is a Minister of Agricula practical comparison between the cultivation of the ture; there is a large and influential staff of agricultutwo countries. With his intimate knowledge of either, ral inspectors; there are innumerable Government

« PoprzedniaDalej »