« PoprzedniaDalej »
Annual average per
Bush. Pecks. Bush. Pecks. Bush. Peck
28 3 31
The plots with nitrogen per acre equal to about 50 lbs. ammonia, with and without direct mineral manures, yielded as follows:
275 lbs. of Nitrate
100 lbs. each of Sulphate and Muri
ate of Ammonia.
Bush. Pecks. Bush. Pecks. Bush. Pecks.
The next question examined by Messrs. Lawes and Gilbert was the effect produced by doubling the amount of nitrogen applied in the last-described series of trials. 100 lbs. per acre of ammonia were therefore employed in the following experiments, and with results given in the next table.
100 lbs. each 100 lbs. each 100 lbs. each of Sulphate Sulphate and Sulphate and and Muriate
Muriate of Muriate of of Ammonia
Ammonia and Ammonia and Superphos-
200 lbs. of
550 lbs. of Sulphate and 2,000 lbs. of
In studying these very valuable results, the farmer will not fail to remark the great influence of different seasons in modifying the profitable results obtained by different dressings. Our reporters allude to this, when they observe that from the pervading influence of season, by which the produce may be double one year that of another, even with the same set of conditions supplied by the farmer, and which moreover, when unfavourable, the crop most highly manured suffers most, it results that the amount of produce obtained for a given outlay in manure may be only half as much in some seasons as in others. Then, again, it is evident that some of these nitrogenous fertilizers were applied in excessive proportions. The reporters, indeed, observe, "The unmanured, and the only mineral manured portions, as a rule, stood up till the time of cutting. The crops with nitrogen equal to 50 lbs. of ammonia per acre were generally more or less laid, as were also those grown by farmyard maThose having nitrogen equal to 100 lbs. or more of ammonia per acre were invariably laid, and in every year excepting in 1857 very much, and injuriously so, the crops being too heavy to bear any
Bush. Pecks Bush. Pecks. Bush. Pecks. moderate amount of rain about or after the time of
40 3 39 0
heading." The effect of these manures in influencing the period of ripening is also a material consideration. The "mixed alkalies" it seems, whether used alone, or in admixture with nitrogenous manures, invariably somewhat retarded the ripening. Superphosphate of lime, on the contrary, whether used
Bush. Pecks. Bush. Pecks. Bush. Pecks.
2000 lbs. of
2000 lbs. of Rape-cake & Rape-cake Superphosand Super- phate, and phosphate. Mixed Alkalies.
35 01/1 62 14
alone or in combination with other manures, always promoted early ripening. The effect, Messrs. Lawes and Gilbert add, was most striking. So much so, indeed, that latterly it has been thought desirable to cut the crops at different times, as they came ripe; those dressed with superphosphate of lime, or with farmyard manure, coming to the scythe more than a week earlier than the others. It will presently be seen, that the superphosphate had a marked effect on the quantity of produce also, and especially on the tendency to corn.
The general conclusions at which these scientific cultivators arrive, will accord pretty well with those of the farmers who carefully study the above tabular statements, viz., 1. That the use of exclusively mineral manures, and especially those containing phosphoric acid, annually increase the produce of barley. 2. That with barley grown continuously on the same land, nitrogenous manures have a much more striking effect than mineral manures. 3. That by the annual supply of nitrogenous manures alone (nitrate of soda or ammoniacal salts) larger successive crops, both of corn and straw, were in these experiments obtained, than by the annual use of fourteen tons of farmyard manure. 4. That within certain limits, even on the comparatively exhausted soil employed in these experiments, nitrate of soda, ammoniacal salts, and rapecake, all increase the produce of barley approximately in proportion to the amounts of nitrogen they respectively supplied. 5. That the effect of a given amount of nitrogen, if not excessive, is considerably increased by the addition of certain mineral manures, especially those containing phosphates.
The composition of barley (examined chiefly with regard to its nutritive properties) grown on different soils, is an interesting branch of the inquiry that has recently engaged the attention of Professor Anderson (Trans. High. Soc., 1858, p. 287). He tells his reader the objects which he chiefly had in view in instituting his experiments, when he observes, that every one who has directed even a limited attention to agricultural chemistry must be familiar with the subdivision of the nutritive principles existing in plants, and required for the food of animals, into two great groups-of albuminous and respiratory principles; the former serving to produce the flesh or muscular fibre of the animals, and the latter being partly consumed in the system in the process of respiration for the purpose of maintaining the animal heat, and partly accumulated as fat to form a reserve against the temporary deprivation of food from want or disease.
A few of the mean results obtained by Dr. Anderson will be found in the succeeding tables :The water per cent. in Chevalier barley was, in the specimens examined—
In comparing the value of barley with other grain, as Dr. Anderson concludes, it is obvious that it bears a high nutritive value. In the proportion of albuminous compounds it stands on a level with wheat grown in this country, but naturally from the presence of the husk it is below it in the quantity of respiratory elements; the relative importance of these two groups, however, in a nutritive point of view, has not yet been clearly decided.
These chemical examinations of the composition of barley, and of the effect of various artificial dressings, I repeat, will well repay the farmers for their most careful consideration. The reader should, indeed, ever banish from his mind any lingering suspicion that science has already achieved all the aid that can be rendered to the cultivator of the soil. Let us all rather feel well assured of one certain fact, that many a mystery in the phenomena of vegetation is yet to be explained by the chemical philosopher, that will, perhaps, to the end of time, steadily add to the power and stimulate the efforts of still more enlightened agriculturists than even those of our age.
ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF ENGLAND.
A WEEKLY COUNCIL was held on Wednesday, the 24th of February: present, Mr. Raymond Barker, VicePresident, in the Chair; Mr. George Raymond Barker; Mr. Bosanquet; Dr. Camps; Mr. T. T. Clark; Mr. Dent, M.P.; Rev. L. Vernon Harcourt; Mr. Fisher Hobbs; Rev. James Linton; Mr. Thomas Scott; Mr. Clark Thornhill; and M. de Trebonnais.
Communications were received: 1. From the Earl of Clarendon, enclosing dispatches from Captain Vansittart of H.M.S. Magicienne, reporting, as the result of a search made during a recent visit to the Gallapagos Islands, that deposits of guano do not exist there in ufficient quantities for practical purposes. 2. From Sir Charles Lyell, a collection of works, received by him from various sources, having a bearing more or less immediate on agricultural science and practice. 3. From M. Andreas von Kiss, of Pesth, desiring the opinion of the Council on a question of exhaustion of land underlet by him to peasants, and of which the Austrian laws took no cognisance. 4. From Mr. Murray (of Albemarle-street), requesting on the part of the Baron von Rosenkrone, of Bergen, information for a committee appointed by the Norwegian Government on the best system of inclosure to be adopted for estates in that country.
The Council adjourned to their monthly meeting on
the 3rd of March.
A Monthly Council was held on Wednesday, the 3rd of March: present-Lord Berners, President, in the Chair; Lord Feversham, Lord Portman, Hon. Colonel Wood, Hon. W. G. Cavendish, M.P., Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, Bt., M.P., Sir Chas. Gould Morgan, Bt., Sir Archibald Keppel Macdonald, Bart., Mr. Raymond Barker, Mr. Barnett, Mr. Barthropp, Mr. Brandreth, Mr. Caldwell, Colonel Challoner, Mr. Druce, Mr. Brandreth Gibbs, Mr. Fisher Hobbs, Mr. James Howard, Mr. Hudson (Castleacre), Mr. Jonas, Mr. Lawrence, Mr. Millward, Mr. Paget, M.P., Mr. Pain, Mr. Shuttleworth, Professor Simonds, Mr. Thompson, Mr. Torr, Mr. Vyner, and Mr. Jonas Webb.
Thomas Mills, Esq., of Tolmers, Hertfordshire, was elected a Governor of the Society.
The following new members were elected :Body, Richard Barnard, Hyde End, Shirfield, Reading. Bromley, James, Cockerham, Lancaster. Buckworth, Theophilus Russell, Cochley-clay Hall, Swaffham, Norfolk.
Cotton, Lt.-Col. Hon. Wellington H. S., Cherry Hill, Malpas.
Wheeler, E., Kyrewood House, Tenbury, Gloucestershire.
FINANCES.-Mr. Raymond Barker, Chairman of the Finance Committee, presented the monthly report on
the accounts; from which it appeared that the current cash-balance in the hands of the bankers was £612.
JOURNAL.-Mr. Thompson, Chairman of the Journal Committee, reported recommendations: (1.) That Mr. Miles's article in the last Journal on horse-shoeing should be reprinted in a separate form, and sold at 6d. each copy to the public, and at the rate of 2s. 6d. per dozen to members of the Society. (2.) That a bound copy of the Journal should be presented to the library of the Harpenden Laboratory, in acknowledgment of the numerous and valuable contributions made by Mr. Lawes to the Society's Journal, and of the eminent services conferred by him on British Agriculture. On the motion of Mr. Jonas, seconded by Mr. Torr, the discussion of the questions of the amount of salary to be given to a paid editor of the Journal, and the person or persons who should be appointed to discharge the duties of that office, was postponed till the next monthly meeting.
LECTURES ON MILK.-Mr. Raymond Barker, Chairman of the Veterinary Committee, reported that Prof. Simonds, the Veterinary Inspector of the Society, had stated to the committee that his paper for the next Journal, embodying the substance of his lectures delivered before the members on the Anatomy and Physiology of Milk-secretion, was far advanced towards completion, and would be delivered to the Journal Committee by the 15th of next month. Numerous essays and reports, competing for the prizes offered this year by the Society, were received.
TRUSTEE. On the motion of Mr, Fisher Hobbs, seconded by Mr. Milward, Mr. Thompson, of Kirby Hall, and Chairman of the Journal Committee, was unanimously elected one of the trustees of the Society, to supply the vacancy created by the decease of Earl Spencer.
MEMBERS OF COUNCIL.-On the motion of Mr. Milward, seconded by Mr. Torr, Mr. Humberston, of Mollington, and Mayor of Chester, was unanimously elected one of the general Members of Council, to supply the vacancy created by the decease of Mr. Simpson; and on the motion of Mr. Fisher Hobbs, seconded by the Hon. Colonel Hood, Mr. Francis Sherborne, of Bedfont, Middlesex, was elected one of the general Members of Council, to supply the vacancy created by the decease of Mr. Stephen Mills.
CHESTER MEETING.-Lord Portman, Chairman of the General Chester Committee, reported recommendations on the acceptance of Mr. Manning's contract for the works at Chester, and of the Mayor of Chester's arrangements for a dinner for 500 persons in the Music Hall; also on the accommodation of the Judges, and the sale of substantial refreshments at a cheap rate to the labouring classes during the period of the meeting. The Committee also recommended that a Special Committee should be appointed to report, before the selection of the place of meeting for next year, the best arrangements to be made in reference generally to the showyard works.
On the motion of Mr. Fisher Hobbs, seconded by Mr. Paine, a Special Committee of Show-yard Works was appointed.
Mr. Barnett's suggestion that application should be made for the refusal of extra land, should such be required, for the trial of the steam-cultivators at Chester, was adopted.
METROPOLITAN MEETING.-On the motion of Mr. Brandreth Gibbs, seconded by Mr. Fisher Hobbs, the Council decided that it was desirable that the Society should hold a Metropolitan Show, provided a suitable site could be obtained; and on the motion of Lord Portman, seconded by Lord Feversham, that the Show should not be held until after the year 1860, when the circuit of districts for the country meetings of the Society will have been completed, but in the first year afterwards that might be found practicable. The arrangements connected with this subject were referred to the Metropolitan Show Committee.
DATES OF ENTRY.-Lord Feversham adverted to a misprint in the last part of the Journal, which might mislead persons who were not aware of the standing dates at which entries had for many years been made for the shows at the country meetings. It occurred in the last page of the appendix, where, under the head of "Dates of Entry," Live Stock had been misprinted for Implements.
CARD OF MEETINGS, AND ADMISSION OF REPORTERS.-The Council did not adopt Mr. Frere's suggestion for a "Card of Meetings," and they declined to grant Mr. Morton's application, on the behalf of the Proprietors of the Gardener's Chronicle, for the admission of Reporters.
STEAM CULTIVATOR.-A lithographed circular addressed to the Council, and requiring special information on the subject of the Society's prize for a Steam Cultivator, was laid on the table; and the Council ordered that Mr. Collinson Hall, Mr. Fowler, Mr. Burrell, and Mr. Williams, by whom it was signed, should be referred to the printed rules for trial, to which the Council would adhere.
considered to be interesting as showing the early development of the fœtus).-The Committee of Council on Education presented copies of an Almanac prepared by the Science and Art department. The Rt. Hon. T. F. Kennedy presented a copy of Mr. Spence's work on the practical consideration of the Coal, Smoke, and Sewage questions. Adjourned to March 17.
A WEEKLY COUNCIL was held on the 17th of March: present, Lord BERNERS (President) in the chair; Mr. Alcock, M.P., Mr. Fuller Baines, Mr. Raymond Barker, Mr. Body, Mr. Caird, M.P., Mr. Fisher Hobbs, Mr. Holland, M.P., Mr. Langston, M.P., Mr. Majendie, Mr. T. Scott, Mr. Vyner, Mr. Burch Western, and Mr. Sutton Western, M.P.
Communications were received-1. From Mr. Stallard, of Redmarley, Gloucestershire, suggesting a prize to be offered by the Society, for the best-constructed moveable shade for sheep during the hot months of the year, especially on the red warm sandy soils, for the purpose not only of comfort to the animals themselves, but of preventing their damaging the under part of fences, and their losing flesh during the period of hot weather. The President had fou nd simple awnings con structed of four upright poles, open at the sides, but covered at the top with faggots or brushwood, answer the purpose very well. 2. From Mr. Alcock, M.P., suggesting that the Society should offer a prize of £100 for the largest amount in value of agricultural produce (serving as food for man or beast), in one year, from a single acre of land, provided a fair profit be shown by the cultivator; the application for the prize to be accompanied by a detailed account of the cost, value of the crop, and mode of cultivation, and notice given to the Secretary by any person intending to compete.-These communications were referred to the Journal Committee. Adjourned to March 24.
NOVEL APPLICATION OF HORSE-POWER.The Montrose Standard directs attention to the "performance of a new method of applying horse-power to drive machinery, which Major Rennie Tailyour, of Borrowfield, has introduced at his steading at Newmanswalls. The apparatus, which is very simple in its design, differs entirely from the mode hitherto in use. Instead of moving round in a circle, and drawing the end of a lever attached to an upright shaft, the horse remains stationary, fastened in a stall, and the flooring on which he stands passes backwards under him, as he appears to step forward. The flooring consists of a series of stout boards, lying across the stall, and resting on and made fast to two endless chains stretched round a couple of drums, one at the head and the other at the foot of the stall, thus forming, as it were, a firm but flexible belt, on the upper surface of which, as on a moveable floor, the horse stands. The drum at the head of the stall being somewhat more elevated than at the foot, this moveable floor is slightly inclined; and the weight of the horse causes it to descend towards the lower drum, carrying the horse backward along with it. As, however, the halter by which he is tied in the stall obliges the horse to maintain his position, he is compelled to step forward continuously as the floor recedes under him; and the revolution of the drums thus produced drives whatever machinery it is intended to propel. At Newmans walls it is successfully applied to driving a thrashing machine, a chaff-cutter, and a machine for bruising oats. No driving or watching is required; and we were informed that a horse might work at this species of treadmill without distress or fatigue for eight hours." [The practice is common throughout the United States and Canada. In fact, the wood at every minor railway station is sawn in this manner.]
THE AGRICULTURE OF FRANCE.
At the height of what might have been so delicate a crisis, it becomes us to be especially careful as to what we say of our neighbours. With the notoriety of the Fleet-street Forum by way of a warning, we should be more than usually nice in our parts of speech. There should not be a phrase to quarrel with, or even a word to cavil at. It is difficult, then, to imagine an orator vehement in his denunciation of what is going on over the other side of the Channel-how the higher classes in France are bought and sold with honours-how the monied men are rotten to the core-how the improvements in Paris are made at an unfair expense to the country-how those who would do good have no power-and so on. And yet it has been our fate to hear lately a great deal in this strain; not, however, at a gin-and-water parliament in the City, nor from the over-excited aspirant of a debating club. On the contrary, no less august a body than the Society of Arts gave its countenance to the occasion. Further than this, the reader has only to associate the staid decorum of its discussion-room with the wild Irishman or headlong patriot who rejoiced in so unexpected an opportunity of having his "fling."
This would make the offence complete; but luckily the Society is saved the more serious part of the charge, It is no wild Irishman who talks like this; no ferocious Cuffey bound on re-organizing, not merely his own country, but all the world over. For the very reverse, take a plump, really contented-looking gentleman, who speaks with an accent so decidedly foreign that it is difficult to follow him-who announces himself as a landed proprieter in Normandy-and who, in fact, is a Frenchman, just giving his opinion on the political economy of his own country. The Society of Arts is inexpressibly relieved, and the "reading" proceeds with far more equanimity than had Brian Boru or some home-bred Hampden been in possession of the chair.
it should have been his peculiar province to have directed the excellence of ours to the wants of his own system. Unfortunately he did not dwell enough upon this very essential matter. The first part of a long address was devoted to the agriculture of France, traced as far as three hundred years back, and of course dependent upon the authorities of those times. The second section, which touched more upon the present condition of the country, partook rather of an essay upon political economy than one directly referring to agriculure. In fact, the subject itself was little more than incidentally touched on, and what was said of it was tinged with something very like, utter despondency. According to Monsieur Trehonnais, the farming of France is as bad as it possibly can be-worse than it was three hundred years ago. This would appear to be mainly attributable to two grand causes-want of labour, and want of capital. France, be it remembered, is essentially a military nation; and the continual drain of able-bodied men must of course tell upon the cultivation of the country. The two arts never yet flourished together, Monsieur Trebonnais further attributes this scarcity to what he considers the present injudicious centralization in towns. The embellishments of Paris, for example, are made at the expense of agriculture. The 300,000 additional inhabitants of a few years chiefly consist of mechanics and labourers removed from the country. The want of capital naturally follows. He speaks of the amount of treasure lavished on the city-the disproportionate expenditure for public works in Paris compared with the whole of France. The chief cause of this want of means for improving the land-at least, the one generally received as such amongst us-he will not admit. He believes the evil influence consequent on the division of property to be more apparent than real. At the same time he allows that share for share does take place: the daughters receiving an equivalent in money, and the land reStrangely enough, the text-word of this address was maining with the son. Under such a system, it is Agriculture. Now if there is one thing more than almost impossible to imagine anything but the soil being another that we Englishmen should be inclined to continually mortgaged with these "equivalents," and regard with a feeling of satisfaction, it is the effort left without a franc for its own improvement. In this France has lately been making in this way. If there country no man now does so badly as the one who just be any one cause that has induced more than another hangs on to his own bit of land. With the small octo kindly intercommunication between the two coun- cupier, either owner or tenant, no great progress can be tries, it has assuredly been this desire to improve the attained; and France is overrun with these small holdcultivation of France. The international shows are still ings. Monsieur Trehonnais thinks it only right they fresh upon our recollections. The manner in which should be thus limited in accordance with the means of the English were received, and the way in which they the people. He must remember, however, that nothing endeavoured to return the compliment-the individual can be done without capital, while the greatest bar to its courtesies of the Emperor to men distinguished amongst use is the perpetuation of these little properties. Men us in the pursuit-His evident sympathy with the art-in such a position can never command it. If we needed the prices he gives for stock-the example he is setting any illustration of this, we have only to look to Ireland in farming-when we come to reflect on all these re- as it was, and as it is. It is hard to suppose that the cent manifestations, one might suppose a glance over agriculture of France can be materially advanced the agriculture of France would surely by this time without some more decided action of the law of priturn to the sunny side of the picture. mogeniture.
Stranger even still, perhaps, there was no one, who by his antecedents stood better recommended to read a paper on French farming than the introducer of this subject. One of the first points in his favour was that he was well known to English farmers; another, that he had a natural taste for the occupation; and, a third, that he is now pursuing it in France. Monsieur Trehonnais was just the man to have made a practical comparison between the cultivation of the two countries. With his intimate knowledge of either,
Monsieur Trehonnais himself unintentionally supports this view of the case. He will have everything depend upon individual exertion-a sound conclusion enough, although he rather over-impresses it. It strikes but harshly to hear the recent efforts of the Emperor characterized as worse than useless:-"But, I may be asked, has the French Government done nothing to revive agriculture? There is a Minister of Agricul ture; there is a large and influential staff of agricultural inspectors; there are innumerable Government