Obrazy na stronie

THE PRESENT PRICE OF CORN. In the year 1846 wo find that prices ran from a low

range suddenly to a high one, the extremes being fully The prices of agricultural produce vary more than 100 per cent.; in the following year they again fell in like those of any other description of natural productions. ratio, continuing with slight fluctuations until the war Price and value being two distinct results—the first commenced with Russia, in 1854, and then gradually having relation to the amount produced at market, rising until the year 1857. Thus they remained until the second to the cost of production.

the autumn following, when they again fell to fully 50 The rapid decline in the prices of grain, meat, and per cent. farm produce of this country at the present moment The fluctuations during the present century have are not dependent either upon our home production or amounted to 400 per cent. and upwards. Wheat has consumption, or upon both conjointly; but rather upon reached £10 per imperial quarter, and has fallen large importations, and the checking the ordinary trans- below £2 per quarter, and other produce in nearly actions of merchants, manufacturers, and traders at one equal proportions. “What has happened since may and the same instant, by the derangement of our happen again”-if not to the same extent, still suffimonetary system ; and thus the effects operating ciently to require us to guard against the contingency. upon the corn and meat markets of the metropolis

In commencing this article we adverted to the are transmitted to every other local market of the effects produced throughout the kingdom by the fluckingdom.

tuations in prices upou Mark-lane, and the influence they This centralization of the corn markets of Europe, produce upon prices in local markets. It ought now as exhibited in Mark-lane, is transmitted instantly to to be borne in mind by all agriculturists that the supall the other parts, and consequently value as defined ply of English grain will, during a time of peace, hare by the cost of production, has no relation whatever to but little influence upon prices. Mark-lane has now it in the result. So long as a large supply of foreign become the emporium of Europe for all descriptions of wheat and grain continues to reach our ports, prices grain, and the average prices in that market will be will continue to fall, until the average minimum price governed by the average prices of the continental marof the whole of the imports is attained, and vice versa, kets, subject to the addition of cost, freight and profit. if a diminished supply falls so low as to produce a But inasmuch as the supplies may far exceed the demand scarcity-then and not till then will prices again ad- at certain periods, the losses attendant upon importation vance-probably to an extent far beyond the value. will be extended to the producers of this kingdom, and

These sudden fluctuations affect the farmer more will so continue until a reaction is produced, and supthan any other class of producers, his operations ex- ply and demand have changed their relative positions. tending over a larger space of time than appertains to It, therefore, behoves the British cultivator to weighi others will not allow him to expand or contract his these remarks as they deserve. It is now quite certain operations accordingly; and it mostly happens that that the prices of agricultural produce must depend whenever the price of his productions fall to their upon the quantity imported; and that the prices of lowest point, the cost of producing has been carried out English grain cannot, under the most favourable cir. at its highest rate-especially as regards rent. To the cumstances, in future far exceed those of the continent of rent-charge and labour at least a moiety of the whole Europe. Whilst, upon the other hand, a largo influx cost remains unaltered for a long time after prices have of foreign wheat upon the market may cause them to 80 declined-and more especially the tithe rent-charge, descend far below their intrinsic value, even to such an which from being based upon an average of the seven extent as to prove most ruinous to our home proyears last expired, rises to the maximum point as at ducers. present, and so for a time continues whilst grain is at its minimum price. Tithe rent-charge, by the present arrangement,

TITHE COMMUTATION TABLES. entered upon for obtaining its averages, acts very injuriously to agriculture; and as it in reality produces Mr. Willich, the Actuary of the University Life no beneficial result to the receiver, there cannot be Office, has lately published his Annual Supplement to any reason adduced why an alteration should not be The Tithe Commutation Tables." The value of made in the mode of deducing the averages-and the tithe rent-charge depends on the septennial average merely reducing them from seven to three years would prices of wheat, barley, and oats. As it may interest at once effect an object, so desirable and to be attended our readers, we insert from one of Mr. Willich's tables with equitable and beneficial results to both payer and the annual average prices per imperial quarter during receiver.

the last seven years, viz. : When we review the principal causes of fluctuation in the marketable value of farm-produce, it becomes

Wheat. Barley. Oats. apparent that not only tithe rent-charge, but rent also


d. S. d. ought to be subject to a like adjustment. But bene.

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1852 40 9 28 6 that it would not only be objected to, but be absolutely

1853 53 3

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1854 72 5

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1856 69 2 41 1 25 2 that have occurred in the last ten years, it is matter of

1857 56 4 42 1 25 0 astonishment that such prejudices should exist; the The Quarterly Averages for 1837 may interest our reason, probably, arises from the human mind in agricultural friends who have let their land at corn variably viewing past events as not likely again to rents. occur. Hope leads everyone to expect a change for

Wheat. Barley. Oats. the better, and therefore the chances of an advance on

8. d. S. d. prices, without having to make a corresponding ad- Lady-day Quarter, 1857 56 10 45 8 23 5 vance on rent, far outweigh the probability of a decline Midsummer

56 9 42 6 24 9 in prices attended by a corresponding reduction in the Michaelmas

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SWING versus WHEEL PLOUGHS. are an unnecessary complication, and that the weight and

draught are thereby increased." With regard to the latter, it It has been long acknowledged that in the multitude of

was shown at a late meeting of the Highland Society of Scotagricultural implements to be met with on the south of the

land how ill-founded was the prejudice, for the only Eoglish Tweed, there are many which, if not absolutely valueless: lighter than the best Scotch plough exhibited, besides per

plough competing was proved to draw one-third or one-fourth can, at the best, be only desigaated as expensive toys. the present moment, the writer has an instauce before his forming its work in a very superior style. How can it be, ask mind, of a gentleman who is undoubtedly the leading agricul

some, that a wheel-plough can take less power than a swing, turist of the county in wbich he resides, and in whose lum

whilst you have so much more weight to draw ? This bas ber sbed the array of cast off implements (many of them

been a vexed question for years, whilst the thing lies in the brought out by first-rate makers) would form no mean ad

smallest possible compass. All plougbs are constructed with junct to the attractions of a moderately strong agricultural

a certain inclination to go down into the soil. In a wheelexhibition. A prejudice has hence arisen in the minds of plough this tendency to draw into the soil is regulated, or obmany Scottish farmers against the use of any English mauu

viated, by the wheels, wbich turn the weight thus thrown upon factored implements. Now, there are amongst us thrashing them, relieving the friction on the point and sole. On the machines, haymakers, drills, manure distributors, cultivators

other hand, the swing-plough is kept from entering the soil too -pay, even ploughs, which, we besitate not to say, would be deeply by the ploughman, whose whole weight is often rea decided acquisition, if freely used by the go-ahead agricul- quired upon the handles to maintain the proper depth. It turists who can afford to pay such long rents on the other side

will at once be seen that this weight at the end of so long a of the Border.

lever throws much additional friction on the sole, wbich is of It is with the last-named implement that we have at pre

itself sufficient to account for the great difference in draught. sent to do. Often have we, in days bygone, when living at

The objection with regard to complication is purely ideal, the the foot of the Grampians, heard it speeringly observed by width, and in the midland counties of England we bave seen

wheels being readily adjusted to any required depth and Scotch ploughmer, with reference to their English brethren, that "they needed wheels to make their ploughs go staight.”

mere boys usiog them, and making most beautiful and uniform work.

Thos. BOWICK, Now, there is a mistake here; practice shows that there is such—for actions speak louder than words. We have known

Kenilworth, Jan. 141h, 1858. Scotch ploughmen in several English counties; but we have ever seen tbat they speedily appreciated the value connected with the easy adjustment and guidance of a well-made Howard's, Ransome's, or Ball's wheel plough. We have

HOW TO FARM CLAY LANDS. known several cases of Scotch ploughs being imported to the SJR,—"Lucus a non lucendo" is, I believe, something like midland and western counties, though we know not one of a dark lantern, and is well represented in the phrase of “carthem now seeing actual service. In Warwickshire, the fa.

rying coals to Newcastle." vourite plough is that manufactured by the eminent firm, Messrs. Howard, of Bedford. At the last county ploughing

I ventured last year to give some general advice to ono o match, nineteen-twentieths of those entered were of this

your correspondents, who was burdened with 500 acres of clay make ; and we question whether, in the best districts of Scot

land; now, strange as it may appear, I, then an oracle, wait laod, under equal circumstances, better work could have been

for a response on the very same subject. The question I Dow accomplished. In Class 3 were boys that in the north

beg to propose for consideration is how to farm clay land of would not be regarded as fit to do more than rake after a

inferior quality at a profit, with wheat at a low price, and every couple of scythes in harvest, or feed the cows on a small

probability of a still farther decline in its value. Many valued farm in winter. These were ploughing, and ploughing well.

productions I have read, offering all sorts of profitable syg. Now, we do not here enter into the question as to whether

tems and suggestions for the cultivation of clay soils; and in it is desirable to employ such ploughmen or not. That would ject know very little practically as to the capital needed to

many cases I have felt convinced that the writers on the subinvolve several considerations. We only ask whether such a turn-out could have been made with swing ploughs ? We

effect the utter change, both on the part of landlord and tethink not. This then—for the work was well executed

nant, which their advice would require. proves their ready and efficient adjustment. And is not an

First, I wish to explain the nature of the clay soils, for implement the better, and the more manageable for being

the profitable cultivation of which I should be glad to receive readily and easily adjusted ?

suggestions, based on practice, conveying a system wbich any Io the matter of draught, we are unable to refer to any dyna

teuant farmer with fair average means may safely adopt. The

soil I refer to, is met with in large tracts in the Midland counmometrical results, and have only personal judgment to go by. Our belief is, that in drawing a good wheel plough, well set,

ties amongst others, is about five ipches deep, with a yellow

subsoil, and rubble or clay stone below, generally full of water. there is less labour expended than with the swing plough. Then there is the fine level bottom, or floor, obtained for the fur.

Secondly, I must state that, as far as my experience goes, row_" a point in which many Scotch ploughs are sadly defi

circumstances over which there is no control" or "urgent cient." Also tbat most useful adjunct, a skim-coulter, to aid

private affairs” seem generally to be pleaded as excuse for that in burying clover, grasses, or other vegetable matter. Again, indispensable article in expensive cultivation of this descripthe excellent tastening to the coulter, so decidedly superior to

tion of land-viz., "capital.” the stone-and-wedge system. Likewise the case-hardened A tenant with large capital will seldom engage in such an share, wbich, by having its upper surface softer thau its under undertaking, except with a long lease and at a very low rent; one, naturally continues sharp by the act of wearing, and thus and often a landlord's "burdens" prevent him indulging in the saves many a journey to the snithy. Any of the wearing parts improvement of his property at the expense of his income. of the plough are readily renewed by a common country black- Hence, for a tenant with ordinary capital, say £10 per acre, amith, the fittings being obtained from the manufacturers. farming this sort of land and drained in an effectual manner,

It will be observed that these remarks have chiefly referred with buildings and accommodations usually met with, advice to the Bedford ploughs, though they are not, assuredly, in- is respect!ully asked, from some of those who in the time of tended as derogatory towards others. We speak from no low prices, found they could work with a profit. For final personal feelings; the Messrs. Howard we are upacquainted particulars, broad clover, except with the interval of many with, and we have only written as to what we know of their years, cannot be grown with certainty; beans also have not implements. Still, a false delicacy need not prevent us saying depth of soil sufficient to insure a crop. There is one plavt, to Scottish farmers, “Give Howard's ploughs a trial--a fair however, always present to give a relish to the crust the wid and honest trial it will be, for the Scottish maxim is, 'A fair garlic or crow onion. field, and no favour'- and we doubt not but the resalts will If no kind friend comes forward to solve doubts and quesbe satisfactory."

tions that are raised, I must fain hereafter trouble you with a la conclusion, we would quote the words of one who knows few facts drawn from costly practice, and for proof substant:. the subject well, and wbo says, " With many, particularly the ating say " Experto crede.” Scotch, the wheels are a fatal objection ; their plea is, that they

Yours obediently,


MR. RAREY, THE AMERICAN HORSE- over the horse by taking him into a stall, and lying down by TAMER.

his side-knocking his hoofs together-pillowing his bead on

his quarters; with similar feats, not quite so seemly to look at, When the sportsman or the horsemad, who has studied the although all tending to prove his complete subjugation of the animal all his life, and knows too well bis freaks of temper and animal. easily alarmed disposition—when such a one is told that tbe

The horse-tamer declares his means are simply rational and worst-tempered brute that ever was handled, or the greatest kindly treatment. He denies the use of any drug, or appliance savage that ever was put into a box, can be conquered and

that cau in any way injure the proper spirit or true nature of quieted in five or ten minutes—when simply by leaving with

the borse. He maintains his secret can be imparted to others, him, for some snch space of time, an unassuming young man,

and can be as effectually used by them as by himself. And he all the vice is effectually taken out of him-and when he hears,

guarantees that a horse once conquered is conquered for ever. moreover, of there beiog no perceptible means by which this is accomplished, but that the thing is merely" a secret”-When, Majesty and the Court all tend to confirm this. Lord Alfred

It is only fair to say that the receut performances before her we say, a sportsman reads or is told of all this, what in ninety: Paget, to whom the secret bas been entrusted, has already nine times out of a hundred will he do? With a plea:ant appeared as a successful practitioner of the art, while the horses smile, and a slight shrug of the shoulders, he will most likely operated upon have shown no disposition to return to their auswer at once that "it must be humbug.” Or, if he does

former evil ways. not say so, he is sure to think so, which comes to very much

We must repeat there is a good deal in this more than the same.

meny a man who has been contending all his life with vicious Now there is just one step beyond this. He must exercise

and restive horses will like at first to admit. It is suggestive, another of his senses before he quite condemns the discovery. however, at least, that no one who has seen the effect of what By this, thanks to The Times and other channels, he has no

is done, but has gone away with a very different opinion to that doubt heard a good deal of the borse-lamer; but if onr friend is a practical man, as we will take bim to be, he will go a step strolled in to wituess the experiment with very doubting eyes,

he entertained on only hearing of it. Mr. Harry Hill, who furtber, and see him. He will judge for himself, as many have

ended by asking if bis colts could not be broken on such a already. He will go something more than sceptical as to what principle of course they can. Horses shy of water can be is to be palmed-off oo him, and he will come away convinced,

made to face it, and, indeed, to do a vast deal more than mo at least, inere is a great deal in it. We state this as the general impression left on all who have hitherto see the effects of

mean to tell of here, purely because we do not want tv bave Mr. Rarey's system, and we give it as our own. Horse-lamers

our word questioned. On the first available opportunity let aud Whisperers are, or have been, by no means unknown

every one go and judge for himself. Mr. Rarey is accompanied amongst us; and we walked into Mr. Anderson's yard quite experience, will treat every application made to him with all

by Mr. Goodenough, who, we will answer for it, irom our own ready to assure ourselves that we were going to witness some clever trick, or some individual exhibition of persoual power

proper courtesy and respect.-Sporling Magazine for February. of haud or eye, that might be as curious and amusing, perhaps, as a scene in the Circus, and that would be all.

We found the exhibiter, a young well-made American, just SIMPLE REMEDY FOR THE PLEUROrecognizable from the toue of his voice as a States.man, in an

PNEUMONIA. inuer yard in company with a goodish-looking black borse. SIR, -Being a constant reader of your valuable paper, I lo one word, he was duing just what he pleasrd with this ani- have seen several remedies recommended for that fatal disease mal. And there stood Mr. Anderson and Mr. Rice ready to called pleuro pueumonia, which is now 80 prevalent amougst assure you that a week since they, with all their knowledge of cattle aud sheep, io all parts of the country, to the great loss their business-George Rice with all his fiue te u per and line & id almost ruin of many stock masters; and which I think hauds-could do nothing at all with him. He had been sold, may be, in many cases, prevented by a little attention and the and returued as restive and unmanageable, and there was no following treatment, which I have app ied for many years, with help for it but to take him back. He was oue of those sad great success; indeed. I never knew it to fail, if properly brites, that with all the look and power of two or three huo- carried out; and I have had 80che little experience, having had dred kuivea horses, siuk down into street cabs sheerly from the the management of stock and sheep for many years in different impossibility of ever being able to trust theo. Mr. Rarey counties. The pleuro-pneumonia visits us at all seasons, but, Wauted a patient, and here was one that promised to try all his geuerally, most in the autumu or wiuter-no doubt from the

He requested only one quarter-of-au-hour's conversatiou loggy and wet state of the atmosphere, which affects the lungs, with the unreasouable creature ; at the end of that time the particular of those that are pre-disposed; therefore, about the black horse was black only in colour. His nature was changed, last week in October, when the stock are generally taken into aod the devil fairly gone out of him. We saw what we write. the yard, I give 10 each beast, according to size and age, from We saw this violent-tempered animal that had been, stand ball-d-pouud to a pound of Stockholm car, and a handful or quietly in the middle of the yard, with a plain hard-and-sharp two of salt, mixed; taking care, at the time, to rub it well in his mouth, aud the rein hanging loose on his neck—and into their postrils. This I repeat once a week, if the disease is we saw the American wheel a beavy barrow straight up to his prevalent near us, only in less quantity; if not, I repeat it head and round him, without the horse fliuching in the least. once a mouth, and at all times, when I buy in a fresh lot of Then the horse-tamer cracked a carriage-wbip over his bead, and beasts, give them a dose of tar and salt. When I first heard still the animal stood as placidly, and, apparently, as uncon- of the disease, we had about 90 head of cattle, and had a t*ccerned as ever. Mr. Rarey next proceeded to mouut him, and yr old heiser attacked, which died in four days. The disease was bere perhaps to a sportsman was the most pleasing part of the very destructive all around the neighbourhood; I gave all the whole performance. With the rein still loose on his neck, the other stock a dose of tar and salt, and we had uo more taken, horse moved and turned, just as the rider moved his hand. We I then recommended the same dose to my neighbours, and had have all seen a “wonderful pony" in the Circus stop and twist the pleasure of seeing the same result. There is no doubt round in obedience to the promptings of a tolerably well. about the disease being contagious ; I therefore advise all perpointed whip. But there was notbing of this sort with Mr. sons who keep cattle, to be particular in keeping the houses Rarey. There was no effort on his part, and there was no- and sheds clean, and lime-washed once a year at least. For thing anxious or nervous in the look of his horse. In fact, he sheep, I give about two table-spoonsful of the same, with the was so calm, bis eye so steady and so much at ease, that it like result. Any gentlemen who may think proper to try this Was difficult to imagine he ever could have been the vicious simple preventive, will find themselves amply repaid for their obstinate brute too many could speak to. "The manner” of trouble, and if they will please to make known to me the rethe horse gave oue more the notion of an old family pony, not sult, I should be greatly obliged. What I have stated is from 80 much subdued, as won over by kind treatmeut and long my own practical experieoce; and if you think it worth a small usage. You got ou him “any-how," and got off him "any- space in your valuable pages, I should take it as a great comhow.”. Que old sportsmen mouated the horse with his hair- pliment to myself, and hope it would prove a benefi to all. cigar in his mouth, and slid down again over his tail. A week

I am, sir, your humble servant, since the same horse would bave kicked his brains out, could

R. MAYSTON, any man have been found fool-hardy enough to attempt such

Bailiff to Mrs. Dixon, Stansted Park Bu aet. Mr. Rarey concluded this demonstration of his power Emsworth, Hants.



GENERAL AGRICULTURAL REPORT FOR have declined to thrash out larger quantities of wheat than FEBRUARY.

the local millers are able to take off ; still, there is one im

portant element wanting, in the trade, viz., speculation, This has been a remarkably fine month for all out-door which, with moderate arrivals, might again be in the asfarm operations. In most parts of England they have pro- cendant, and give an additional, perhaps an important, tone gressed steadily, and are now quite as forward as in the ge- to the trade. neral run of years. Thus far, matters are satisfactory ; but, Barley continues to be in fair request, and the quotations, if we turn our attention to the state of the grain trade, we compared with wheat, rule somewhat steady, although the shall find matter for serious consideration. Not that the exports of grain-spirit to the continent have fallen off to fall in the value of produce since we last wrote has been some extent. Most other kinds of spring corn have sup. extensive -indeed, the fluctuations in prices have been comported previous rates tolerably well, yet the currencies of paratively trifling --- but in various quarters gloomy antici- inferior oats have had a drooping tendency. From Ireland pations have been indulged in as regards the future. Wheat the shipments of oats and other articles have been on a very is now about the cheapest article of consumption, and pre- moderate scale; but from Scotland, large quantities of sent appearances of the trade certainly indicate future de- wheat, barley, and oats continue to be forwarded the pression, not withstanding that the manufacturing industry south. of the country is recovering from the late panic, that money The cattle trade has been in a depressed state both in is very abundant and cheap, and that consumption has London and in the provincial markets, and prices generally somewhat improved of late. There are, however, influences have given way. The supplies of live stock exhibited in at work calculated to preveat any upward movement in the the metropolitan markets have not increased in number, quotations. In the first place, the stocks of wheat in the though there has been a decided improvement in the weight hands of our farmers are unquestionably large for the time and condition of the beasts ; still the great falling-off in the of year; in the second, the French markets continue to be consumption of meat in Manchester, Biriningham, &c., has heavily supplied with all kinds of produce ; and, in the had the effect of inducing many parties to forward unusu. next, we have as yet received but a limited quantiiy of ally large quantities of meat to Newgate and Leadenhall. wheat from the United States, the growth of 1857. In that These supplies have been disposed of at low prices, and conyear the yield was an unusually fine one, both as to quan- sequently the consumption of London has been chiefly met tity and quality ; but the movement to the shipping ports, by country-killed supplies. owing to the commercial panic, was very small during the Although the supplies of hay and straw have not in. last three months of the season. For instance, since the 1st creased, the demand has fallen off and prices have given of September the shipments of wheat were only about way. Meadow hay has sold at from £2 10s. to £3 16s.; 3,000,000 bushels, against over 7,000,000 bushels in the clover do., £3 10s. to £4 16s.; and straw, £1 4s. to £1 9s. corresponding period in 1856; hence, present stocks in the per load. United States are very large, and prices continue to rule For all kinds of foreign and colonial wool the demand has low. In France, too, nearly the same state of things pre- been in a most unsatisfactory state, yet the decline in prices yails, and the fall in the quotations since the 1st of July bas not been extensive. English wools bave met a slow has been forty-one per cent.; nevertheless, with open ports, inquiry on former terms. The present stocks of colonial in or nearly so, present prices are eagerly accepted by the London are 28,175 boles, viz. : 5,186 Sydney, 7.834 Port growers. The fact is that the French agriculturists and Philip and Portland Bay, 390 Adelaide, 7 New Zealand, millers have been dissappointed as regards the effects of the and 14,758 Cape. In addition to these supplies, there are new law permitting the export of produce. They, at one in warehouse 1,145 bales East India and 297 China. It is time, looked forward to considerable excitement in the trade a remarkable fact that not a single bale of Van Diemen's and consequently to higher prices, as the result of the per- Land wool is on haud. mission given to ship grain and flour; but they appear to The root crops are lasting well, and very large quantities have overlooked the fact that the growth of corn last year, are now offering at low prices. In some parts of the coun. in all the grain districts of the world—and especially in try large patches of turnips are offered for sheep-feeding this country - was the largest on record. True, the partial free of expense. failure of our potato crop inight be taken as a proof that In Ireland and Scotland the wheat trade has ruled heavy, more grain would be consumed ; but as the growth of po- and prices have continued to give way; spring corn, howtatoes on the continent has turned out very large, and as ever, has supported previous quotations. For stock-feeding immense quantities have been shipped to this country during the weather has been favourable. the last two months in fair condition, the losses have been thus partially met by the foreigner. But even on this important matier much might be written, and, if our informa- REVIEW OF THE CATTLE TRADE DURING jion be correct, it would now appear that the actual losses have not turned out soextensive as they were at one time sup

THE PAST MONTH. posed. At all events, there is no actual scarcity of English Notwithstanding that the metropolitan market has been potatoes, though we admit that their quality is not such as very moderately supplied with beasts and sheep, more espeto command what may be termed a ready market. What, cially with the latter, during the whole of the month, trade then, shall we say in reference to the probable future range generally has beeu depressed, and a fall of from 20. to 4d. per in the value of wheat and other articles ? It must be ad-gibs. has taken place in the quotations. Even at that amount mitted that there is no scarcity of supply either here, in of depression, the butchers have purchased cautiously, and France, or in the United States. The supply, we are of wholly for present wants. This state of the trade has induced opinion, will be found more than equal to general consump the opinion in some quarters that consumption in London has tion, and if the system-still persevered in to an unusual greatly fallen off. Such, however, we believe is not the case, extent, more especially in reference to the importations from since we find that the receipts of meat from our provinces, as the north of Europe- of selling at any price, be continued, well as from Scotland, have been considerably in excess of it is impossible to say at what figure the downward move- most correspondiug periods of the year. No doubt consump: ment in wheat will stop. But even with preseat abun- tion in our manufacturing districts has seriously declined, and dance, it appears to us that it is absolute folly for the foreign this fact has induced those who have been in the habit of supgrowers to inundate our markets with more produce than plying Birmingh Manchester, &c., somewhat liberally, to the demand can take off. Fortunately, onr farmers have turn their attention to London, and the low charges by the Acted upon the defensive principle ; in other words, they various railway companies for the copreyance of meat, viş., One perny per lon per mile, have had the effect of increasing | increased, but in France meat is still ruling high. Apparently, the supplies to a considerable extent. Then, again, we must therefore, there is no prospect of our receiving large importanot forget that wool, bides, and ekios are worth more in some tions between this and ihe end of the year; indeed, it is parts of the country than in the metropolis ; so that, although possible that we shall have to report even a further decrease meat in Newgate and Leadenhall has been sold at very low in them. The demand, therefore, will be chiefly met from prices, there has been no actual loss, in a comparative sense, home sources, and it occurs to us that the late fall in the quoin the present increased mode of supplying the wants of tations will be shortly recovered, though we admit that prices London.

during the coming season are likely to rule moderate. In Holland, and on some other parts of the continent, stock is now relatively dearer than in England; consequently the importations into Loudon have exhibited a further decrease. Last month they were as follows:


FAIRS, &c. Sheep


APPLEBY HORSE FAIR.—A few very good animals Calves


were shewn, and for some, good prices were obtained.

BANBURY FAIR.— The supply of beef and mutton, of all Total

2,320 head.

kinds, is very good, and altbough sales are complained against Same time in 1857

4,720 head by a few, yet the trade done may be considered satisfactory, 1856


prices being much the same as last fair. The quality of the 1855


cattle is really excellent, and best things met with a speedy 1854


sale. 1853


BEDALE FAIR.-We had a thin sbow of fat stock, which 1852


sold readily at rather bigher prices. In lean stock and in1851


calvers there was also a short supply, but they sold well, and Thus it will be seen that we have received an unusually prices remained unaltered. Beef, 6s. to 78. per stone; mutsmall importation, the falling off, compared with February, ton, 5d. to 6d. per lb. 1853, being over 10,000 head.

BEVERLEY FAIR had a good attendance of buyers. A The total supplies shown in the great Metropolitan Market limited supply of first-class horses had ready sale; a good have been as under :

sbow of medium and inferior ones bad dull demand and prices

low. A very limited number of cattle had slow sale, and Beasts ....

18,276 head.

prices still lowering. Cows


BRIDGNORTH FAIR was very depressed, the supply of Sheep


stock being very small, and the attendance of dealers smaller Calves ..............


than usual. Sheep sold from 7d. to 74d., and some fine ewes Pigs .......


went as high as 7}d. Cows sold from 6d. to 64d. Cows aud COMPARISON OF SUPPLIES.

calves were about the same as last fair. Pigs continue low. Feb. Beasts. Cows. Sheep. Calves. Pigs.

The horse fair was ill supplied; and what stock was there was 1857.... 17,629 457 74,430 1,172 1,975

in very bad condition. The highest price fetched for small 1856.... 19,642 495 99,950 673

2,614 waggon horses was 301. 1855.... 17,436 385 91,180 596 2,705

BROUGH FAIR.—There was a large show of well-bred 1854.... 20,091 520 92,441 1,023 2,279

beasts, and a number of influential buyers and jobbers, but all 1853.... 19,308 470 86,910 2,098

seemed inclined not to give the prices asked, which soon 2,420

caused a different aspect, and the market became flat, and was This comparison shows that the supply of sheep disposed much down compared to the fair held in January; except of has been smaller than during the last five years.

calvers, which went off well. Groups of cattle were unsold. From Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, and Cambridgeshire, 10.020 CARLISLE HORSE FAIR.—The display of horses on Scots and short-horns came to hand during the month. From this occasion surpassed anything of the kind for the last thirty other parts of England the receipts were 3,850 of various

or forty years, both as to numbers and quality, the market breeds, from Scotland 2,340 Scots, and from Ireland 1,012 being quite full. The number of saddle borses was not very great, oxen and heifers.

neither was the quality of this class first-rate. We do not About 1,200 shorn sheep have made their appearance in the remember having seen a smaller number of old and low conmarket, and which bave sold at from 6d. to 8d. per 8lbs. dition animals on a similar occasion. The amount of business beneath those in the wool. It is to be regretted that shearing transacted was not so extensive as might bave been expected, should be commenced et so early a period, because it frequently and price had a downward tendency. happens that the loss upon each head is fully 2d. per gibs., as DEVIZES FAIR.—The show of worked-off oxen, suitable the butchers are never disposed to purchase stock out of the

for grazing purposes, was large, and sold at about £2 in £20 wool during inclement weather. Wool may be worth more less than last year; at this reduction a fair trade was done, in some parts of the conntry thau in the metropolis ; but our although a few lots were taken away unsold. Barreners, inimpression is that the flockmasters lose money by early shear- calvers, and milch beasts were in short supply, and sold at ing-that is to say, if the sheep are intended for immediate about £l per head less money. Beef, from 10s. to lls. per sale.

score. The great feature at this fair was the worked-off oxen; Beef has sold at from 33. to 4s. 6d.; mutton, 33. 2d. to 58. and it is admitted, we believe, on all bands, that a few years 2d. ; veal, 4s. to 59.; pork, 3s. 2d. to 48. 6d. per 8lbs. to sink at the plough is decidedly beneficial for grazing, and improves the offal. In the corresponding month in 1857, the best beef the flavour of the meat if not worked too long. As regards realized 58., the best mutton 6s., the best veal 5s. 8d., and the the horse fair, we cannot say much. Mr. Edmonds, of best pork 53. 2d. per 8lbs. The fall, therefore, compared with Wrougbton, sold two or three good cart horses, and we heard last season, is a serious oce, and many of the graziers who of one or two useful pags being sold in the stables; in other bought store animals at high rates are now losing money. respects little business was done.

Nearly 40,000 carcases of meat bave been received up to DORCHESTER FAIR was scarcely so large as on Newgate and Leadenhall markets during the month. The previous occasions ; but business may be fairly said to be trade generally has been in a most depressed state at drooping brisk, and on every description of stock prices were good, currencies.

and a more than average amount of business was done. Beef has sold at from 23. 10d. to 4s. 4d. ; mutton, 3s. to DUMFRIES HORSE FAIR. -The number of horses 48. 6d. ; veal, 3s. 6d. to 4s. 6d. ; pork, 3s. 20. to 4s. 6d. was at no time greater than 300, or about a fourth less than per 8 lbs. by the carcase.

the number brought forward last year, and, as usual, they Letters from Holland state that the supplies of stock likely were almost entirely draught horses. The general proportion of to be shipped to this country during the present year are still very good horses was not great, and the fall in that class was limited, that prices rule high, and that purchases of both not more than 15 per cent. from the rates of last February. beasts and sheep still continue to be effected on French On secondary stock the reduction was at least 20 per cent.; account. In the north of Europe the supplies have rather on third class about the same; while for lower graden there

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