Obrazy na stronie

carry away the contents of the brooks and smaller it so a trunk or general conductor. A river traverses a streams of water: the river is the chief trunk, and country, and receives the water of many districts; upon it all the ramifications depend.

brooks and rivulets pass through landed estates, and act Rivulets are currents that are inferior to brooks in as trunks for several farms ; while artificial open cuts the quantity of water, and in summer many of these serve the purpose only on one farm, and for several distreams are wholly dry or reduced to an amount that visions of land, and probably only for one field. The scarcely forms a current of any kind. When the bed proper position is in the hollow places to which the of a rivulet constitutes much the most eligible trunk water runs and flows over the surface during floods, to receive the small drainage of contiguous wet grounds, and where no natural bed has been made by the water. the natural depth may be too shallow to receive the In these places, the first performance is to excavate a water from the bottom level of the small drains; in cut of extent sufficient to receive and convey the water that case a wholly new channel will be cut, following that will be directed into it by the small drains, and the old course in all proper directions, and traversing with a fall, to induce the regular descent. The cut may new ground in order to find a preferable situation for receive water on both sides of its course from the sloping the intended purpose. This performance will be often grounds, when it will constitute a trunk of the proper much more eligible than repairing an old course into kind. The width will be settled by the quantity of an imperfect channel, by reason of an originally wrong water that demands a passage ; and the depth must not direction in the natural current of the water. А be under four feet of vertical height. This depth will straight or moderately-curved line of course will thus receive the water of the small drains from the bottom, be procured in many cases, where the old channel will and permit a constant current in the cut, without not afford a more efficient performance in every re- stopping the orifices of discharge. This open cut somespect. Rivulets are seldom sufficient by the natural times constitutes the boundary or division of fields of formation to receive the contents of drainage-- the land, when the size will be made sufficient for that purdepth is too shallow, and the course too much blended pose, and have the necessary fall to discharge the water. and tortuous to evacuate the small drains, and afford a This excavation is an artificial brook or rivulet, and quick and ready passage of the water from the places must be made on the plan that has been previously deof collection. New cuts must be made to suit the sur- scribed. Large quantities of quickly-flowing water will face of the ground, and the intended purpose of access tear the banks of soft alluvial earth, which must be from the small drains, when a much more advantageous guarded by rows of stakes driven into the ground, and course will be obtained, and a double purpose effected. backed with large stones, laid among gravels or coarse

Watercourses will most frequently show the position earths. Rapid descents of water will bollow the of trunks for the conveyance of water, which seeks the bottom and undermine the banks, when the bed must lowest grounds in which to flow, and which must be be pitched with stones flat in shape, or edged as curbs. used for a similar purpose. New cuts will chiefly This consequence shows the necessity of making the deviate from the old channel in passing through the channels rather wide than deep, allowing the water corners and angles of the bended course, lessening dis- room to spread, and thus destroying the power of its tances and producing straight lines—the same ground force. When a heavy current impinges against a bank will be traversed, and the same point reached at last. on either side of the cut, the stream must be directed When rivulets are flowing streams during the whole into the mid-channel, and guarded to flow in it. year, with a considerable quantity of water, and the Artificial cuts being destined to remain as trunks course meanders over a flat alluvial country, the for conveying water, and in many cases to be the management is the same as of brooks, as the terms are boundaries of divided fields of land, the excavation must nearly synonymous. A near following of the old course be done on permanent grounds, by which to drain the is to be preferred in opening a larger passage for water adjoining lands, and effect the purpose of a dividing along a hollow ground: the surface water naturally fence. The banks will be guarded by hedges of thorns falls into it, and the lowest position is generally marked or by a paling-fence on each side, and so far from the by the natural search of the water when left to its bank as not to be sunk by any slip that may happen. own performance. In draining the new cut, the In other cases, the banks will be wholly open and unessential must never be omitted that the course protected, when the cut will form the fence, and must runs in the lowest position, and

account be deep and wide for the purpose. The banks are must leave this most proper and indispensable place. gently sloped, according to the nature of the soil, and Whatever line the course may exhibit, straight, bended, best when the small drains are on a level with the highest tortuous, or curved, this position must be strictly flood that has been known. preserved: the discharge from the small drains will

LARGE COVERED DRAINS reach the trunk with every facility, encounter no obstacle, but have an uninterrupted descent from the

along the lower ends of fields and lands are placed for extreme first end of the formation, into the last

the purpose of receiving and conveying the water from conveyance that relieves the current, and finishes the

the under-drains. The most general position is along

the inside of the fence, and as near to it as the foundapurpose. Here this rule admits no exception, of placing trunk. just principle that no open drains remain within the

tion will allow; the excavations are covered on the very drains, or conveyances of water, in the lowest positions fences of a cultivated field of land. Open side-drains of the ground. Water must be ever descending, and never stagnate, and far less be directed to the smallest headlands, and prevent the animals that graze the field

cause a loss of ground, an awkward ploughing of the acclivity, as when the trunk-drain leaves the lowest position. In draining of every kind, there must be a

from getting close to the fence for shelter, which in cold

climates is a matter of considerable attention. drain in every lowest position; and the rule is equally

The unexceptionable in the smallest case, on the varied and depth must be 3} feet or 4 feet of vertical height, 3 feet undulated surface of ground, as with the trunks that

wide at top, and 2} feet wide at bottom. The small convey to the rivers the discharges of water from the incidence, and the water must flow into a body of ma.

drains will run into it at a right angle or some smaller small drains of the field.

terials in the larger drain that are open to receive it. ARTIFICIAL OPEN Curs

Where stones can be got, the best provision is a culvert Are made to answer the purpose of brooks and rivulets, of about a foot square, built with sides and cover of to receive the water from the small drains, and convey | durable workmanship. The depth of one foot of broken



stones is laid over the culvert, an inverted grassy turf the current of water in constant motion, and the highest covers the stones, and the loose earth is levelled to the level below the bottom of the drains, in order that a top of the ground. In alluvial countries, where tiles are free discharge be secured to every orifice of water. This used for the purpose of draining, the culvert is formed chief point is ever to be pushed forward for attention. by placing two longitudinal rows of large tiles made for The drainer who knows his business, on having deterthe purpose, which are corered by the usual fillings of mined the line of the small drains of any ground to be the drains. A large tile is turned to receive each small perforated by cavities below the surface, will seek the drain, and with stones an opening is left in the side wall lowest point or points to which the collected waters will to receive the water from the small tributary drains, fall, and look for the outlet by which the discbarge must which fall a few inches of declivity from their own bot- issue. Having found this point, the examination will tom to the large drain. This declivity ensures a free proceed along the rivulet or brook, and ascertain the discharge from the small drains, so that no stoppage can efficiency of these trunks to receive and convey the happen.

water ; if insufficient, the beds must be improved as beFew fields of drained land will discharge more water fore directed ; and if the course be distant from the point than can be contained in a square culvert of one foot, of the collected waters, an artificial open cut must be and when the large drain has a fall to keep the water made, to act as a connecting trunk. When a cut or running, which is done by a very small declivity. The brook, or any secondary channel or water, reaches covered drain will discharge the water into a brook or

another property of land, and finds insufficient outrivulet, of which the depth must freely receive the water let, that property must provide a proper discharge for that comes to be admitted, which m not rise above the current, and transmit the water that comes for adthe top of the culvert of stones or of large tiles. Each

mittance. Water is a burden that must be received from trunk drain that receives water must be fitted for the higher grounds by the lower situations, and conveyed purpose of receiving the contents of the smaller provi. over the extent of the latter, not only without injury to sions of draining. The whole systematic value depends | itself, but also to inflict no damage on the property from upon this aptitude being adjusted and continuously up

which it descends. Every landed estate incurs this reheld. Any breach destroys the connection, and makes a sponsibility. hurtful disruption. In every case a declining level must Having reached the main outlet by which the collected be got and maintained throughout. The damage ceases waters descend from the small drains to the river or when water is delivered into a channel into which no chief conveying trunk, the examination proceeds along small drains are discharged; the course may then be the rivulet or brook, observes every defect, and suggests more interrupted, and the waters move more slowly; the remedy by marking every proper position. When but where a general drainage occurs, every point must the river is reached, beyond wbich no inspection is rebe free and uninterrupted.

quired, the level of that receiving trunk is accurately In many cases the water from the small drains, after taken ; and if the backlying country is flat, the spirit escaping from the orifices, will traverse, before reaching level is applied to denote the rise of every progress from the river, all the intermediate trunks that have been the river, in order to ascertain the descent that can be obmentioned-brooks or rivulets, open cuts, and covered

tained. In this way the descent is traced to the mouth of the drains. The last-mentioned conductor will convey the covered drain which discharges the collected waters of the water from the field where it is collected by the under- under-drainage, and the cutting of each excavation accu. drains, and discharge it into an open cut or brook, rately determined along the whole course. The downward which may immediately receive an adjacent small drain progress from the highest-drained lands to the lowest age into its current. The formation must be capable receiving trunk observes and inspects the courses of not only of receiving a collected stream of water, and water as they are presented to view, and satisfies the conveying it along, but of reducing the top of the cur.

inquiry of necessary outlets. The retracing of the steps rent below the level of the adjacent small drainage, to

adjusts every connection of the streams, and puts the admit the contents freely and without impediment. It

whole arrangement into working order. is best that all small drainage of waters be collected by It is advantageous that the trunk drainings that have a covered drain or open cut, and discharged by one mouth been mentioned are done for a time previous to the exe. into a brook or rivulet. The covered drain being firmly cution of the small drainage that must discharge the colerected no derangement can happen, and there is only lected waters into the channels of conveyance. In all one orifice to be attended. This mouth of discharge situations where the fall that can be got does not amount must bave a very free outlet; and if it joins the receiving to a descent of running water, but barely moving or current on a level, the direction must be turned to the slightly removed from stagnation, the previous performline of the main stream, and join it at a sharp angle. In ance of the trunk drains will afford an inspection of the this way the currents are joined in the flowing of the sufficiency of the executions for the intended purposes. waters, and no pressure is exerted which can stop the If the regular descent is anywhere interrupted, and a continuation of the moving fluid. When a brook re- stoppage is perceived, the whole line of conveyance must ceives the contents of small drains throughout the whole be again very accurately surveyed, and the levels ascercourse from the mouth of covered drains to the passage tained, by what means and in what places the remedy is into the main river, the importance is most evident i bat to be applied, in order to remove the deficiency that exthe trunk affords a ready acceptance and uninterrupted ists, and to promote the intended object. Deepening of conveyance to the collected burdens, which must not be the beds of water-courses can only be done in summer, allowed to stagnate or lose the onward progress. When when the quantity of water is small and the channel the upper portion of a brook in its course is a receiving nearly bare ; hence the intervention of one summer at trunk, and the lower part a conveyance of water, the least is necessary in such cases, that an opportunity may passage of the fluid will be less regarded in the latter be given of deepening the bed of any brook, rivulet, or part; the stream may be deeper, and the movement open cut that bas been seen to be too shallow during the slower and more sluggish. A depth of water will not floods of winter. At least one year should elapse from stop any discharge of small drains, and therefore the the execution of trunk drains to the performance of small course may be less regarded; but in the upper part, drainage ; and both purposes being done in summer, a where the special purpose consists in the trunk receiving winter will intervene to show the capability of the conand conveying water from the under-drainage of wet ducting channels, and the rectification can be performed lands, a most vigilant attention must be exercised to keep during the summer of the small draining. An elevated ground of under-drains may not be any way affected by or elevated positions; the immediate receiving trunk of the non-efficiency of the trunk or trunks; the stoppage the small drains must be in the top level of its water, may not reach the height of the situation, nor be large to below the bottom of the ramifications, in order to convey inflict damage anywhere. But in many situations of away freely the discharged contents. If the current several fields of small drainage delivering the contents does not flow from the orifices in a purling stream, any into open cuts, rivulets, brooks, and even into rivers, stagnation must not rise to cause a reflux into the small the least degree of insufficiency in the trunks of convey- drains. This is the chief accident to be prevented, and ance will rise into damage. In these places a small fault it forms the main purpose of trunk drains. The attenmay cause a large damage, and spread a wide devastation; tion paid to it is equal to the care of small drainage, and in higher situations a large deficiency may do little hurt, it must precede any operation of the latter kind. The or none at all, by reason of the circumstances of the po- object is twofold—the collected water is received and sition. But in every case of high or low grounds, of fat carried away, and stagnations are removed.

FORMATION OF AN AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION IN ESSEX. A meeting of the committee appointed on the 18th of by the committee. He was aware that objections might posDecember to consider the best means of applying the £336— sibly be urged to the course he recommended them to adopt, part of the surplus subscription for the Royal Agricultural It might be urged that the experiment had been tried, and had Soeiety's Meeting in 1856-to the advancement of the agricul- failed; that not long since there was an agricultural society in ture of the county, was recently held at the Shire Hall, Chelmg-this neighbourhood, which, after dragging on a lingering ford. C. Du Cane, Esq., M.P., presided; and there were pre-existence for a few years, died a natural death. But he would sent-W. M. Tuffnell, Esq., Colonel Brise, W.F. Hobbs, Esq., say to those who adduced this argument that 14 years ago Mr. J. Clayden, E. Round, Esq., J. W. P. Watlington, Esq., and the present time were two very different periods in the J. O. Parker, Esq., J. S. Thompson, Esq.; Messrs. Christy, agriculture of the county. We had witnessed great changesR. Baker, K. Viall, Burrell, Page, &c.

great progress had been made; and in nothing had this taken The CHAIRMAN having read a letter from Sir John Tyrell, place more than in the agriculture of the United Kingdon. ia reply to an invitation to attend, and another from Mr. Gur- Therelore he would hope that an agricultural association, estadon Rebow, expressing their approbation of the proposal to blished at the present period on the basis named, would meet establish a county society, said he thought it would be unneces- a very different fate from that of its predecessor, and would sary for him to make any lengthened introductory remarks on probably enjoy a long and prosperous career of general utility the object for which they were assembled, as they must be all scheers). There was, however, another objection of a more aware that in consequence of the liberal response made by the serious character--that the establishment of one grand county county of Essex in aid of the great meeting of 1856, a surplus association might have the effect of checking the career and fund of £540 remained. At å meeting of the general com cramping the means of the numerous Labourers' Friend Sociemittee held on the 18th of December last, it was resolved, ties established throughout the county, and now pursuing 50 after some discussion, " that the surplus funds, &c., after ap- useful a course. He should be losth to recommend a plan that plying £200 for the erection of a pedestal for the Sebastopol would in any way retard the career of those societies, convinced gun, in the High Street of Chelmsford, be devoted for the ad- as he was of the great practical good they effected amongst vancement of agriculture, and that a committee be formed for the labouring classes; but he thought by confining themselves carrying it into effect.” It was also resolved that a number of in this great society to the branches of agriculture he had mengentlemen named should be a committee for carrying out that tioned, and steering clear of those branches of husbandry object. As chairman of that committee, up to the commence- which it was the province of the Labourers' Friend Societies to ment of the present meeting, he bad power to make additions to foster and promote, they should indirectly, if not directly, conit, and accordingly he had added the names of Mr. T. Kemble, ler on them a great benefit; for the higher the perfection they Mr. T. B. Western, Mr. Cornell, Mr. Mechi, and Mr. Perry arrived at in agricultural implements, the greater would be the Watllington. Now they were assembled here again to day, to demand for well-ekilled labour, and the more would be valued discuss and decide upon the application of the surplus of £336 that industry and sobriety amongst the labouring classes to agricultural purposes ; and if he for a moment thought which it was their object to promote (Hear). Such was an outthere was likely to be any difference of opinion as to the method line of the scheme he proposed to them, and he should be happy of applying it, be might be inclined to leave the suggestive part to receive their suggestions, assured that at whatever end they of the business to others, and sit down; but as he was in hopes arrived, it would be creditable to themselves as a committee, they would all be unanimous, and believing that all thair and conducive to the cause of agriculture in general (Hear). thoughts ran in the same channel, he ventured to take the Mr. J. CLAYDEN (of Littlebury) said he came from a initiative, and to state at once that he thought the possession of distant part of the county, and having taken pains to this sum, contributed for an agricultural purpose, presented inquire the feeling upon the subject in his district, he them with an excellent opportuuity for the institution of that thought there was a prospect of fair and continued support which was a desideratum in the county-an agricultural asso- for an association of this kind, and if well formed it would ciation (Hear.) Considering the size and importance of the certainly be likely to succeed.' They had had in their discounty, the high rank it held amongst the agricultural counties trict a good society, which was certainly desunct, but its of England, the great names to be found amongst its agricul machinery still remained, to promote the object of an tural meu, he might say renowned throughout Evgland for association of this kind. Much, however, would depend on agricultural and practical skill, he thought an association of the support of the landed proprietors; and he wonld suge this kind could not fail to be a great boon to the county at gest that they issue a few circulars, canvass the different large. Of course it would not be his province to enter into districts of the county, and adjourn to March, when it the details of such an association. These would be matters should be seen what support they were likely to receive; for serious consideration on subsequent occasions. But perhaps for they would require a tolerably good sum, £500 or £600 he might state the kind of association he had in his mind's eye. a-year he should say, to support an association of this kind. It was founded on the model of those he saw established and ii the proposition met the support of the landowners, the working successfully in Suffolk and Norfolk, meeting once farmers, he believed, would respond to it beartily, and he 2-year for the distribution of prizes for agricultural stock and earnestly wished to see it carried out. Perhaps Essex was implements, and such other branches of agriculture as might not so much a breeding county as some others; but with

fat be determined on by the committee. He also thought there and store stock united he thought they might have a good was another point which would be material – that was that the show, and a good society; he should

say, let it not be tog annual meetings should itinerate to the different towns in the circumscribed (Hear). lle moved "That the surplus fund county, such towns being selected as might be bereafter named ' of £336, arising from the subscriptions to the neeting of

the Royal Agricultural Society, at Chelmsford, in 1856, be had better not attempt too much; they should have a good applied to the formation of a County Agricultural Associ- meeting once a year, either in May or June, or perhaps in ation, for the aid and advancement of agriculture, and the September, when they could have an annual ploughing match promotion of enterprise and emulation amongst the owners and a show of good roots, and where seed com would be ex. and occupiers of land.”

bibited and competed for. He thought Mr. Baker would Mr. R. Baker said he had great pleasure in seconding agree that, as to seed corn and roots, they had not the compe. the motion ; he felt that Essex was standing far behind tition they used to have. There were other points, too, not other counties in regard to agricultural societies at the usually taken up by societies of this description, wbich he present moment. They had had one at Chelmsford, one at thought might be dealt with in a manner beneficial to agriColchester, and one at Saffron Walden, all flourishing for a culture. time; but it happened with local societies that after a time The resolution was put, and unanimously agreed to. competition ceased (Hear). Therefore travelling from town Mr. Perry WATLINGTON moved to town would perhaps be the best mode of embracing the " That the Society consist of president (to be elected stock of the whole county. Still he thought there should annually), vice-presidents, a committee (of which the vicenot be more than three or four towns at which the meetings presidents shall be ex officio members), and members : aud should be held, for transporting stock was an expensive that a yearly subscription of five guineas entitles a subscriber concern, and the places selected should be those most con- to the rank of vice-president, and of half-a-guinea and upwards venient for the railway, or they would find their shows to become a member of the association." would be deficient. The benefits of these societies on a He was no practical agriculturist himself, but he had taken large scale had been and were fully appreciated; those some interest in the various Labourers' Friend Sucieties, and little societies prepared the way for larger ones; and thus he felt no fear at all that such an institution as had been the shows of the society would prepare the county better suggested to-day would do any injury to these societies in the for the Royal Agricultural Meeting (Hear). The details, differeut localities (Hear). In a grand society of this sort, however, of the association would be matters for serious carried out in the way which had been stated, he saw nothing consideration ; but let them once establish the principle, that could interfere with them. and the details would follow, and he believed they should Mr. J. CHRISTY, jun., seconded the resolution, which was go on successfully.

adopted. The CHAIRMAN put the resolution, and it was adopted

Mr. W. M. TUPNELL said he thought there could be no unanimously.

possible doubt that an agricultural society, based on such Colonel Brise said he did not think there was much differ- priociples as would command universal support, must be of ence of opinion as to the objects for which they were met, and

great benefit to the county. He confessed that whatever mishe was happy to think there was to be an association of this givings he might have had on the subject, they had been very kind established, Essex having men eminent in agriculture (Hear), and he was quite sure the best way of promoting the

much removed by the feeling he had heard expressed to-day throughout the kingdom, who would give them the benefit of their experience and ability. The association, he believed,

success of such an association would be by all putting their would be the means of promoting to a great extent the agri- shoulders to the wheel, and having a long pull together (cheers). culture of the county; nor did be thivk, after the appropriate

He was glad to see present gentlemen of great practical observations of the chairman, that it would interfere with the

character in agriculture from all parts of the county, as this Labourers' Friend Societies; whilst it being an itinerating

was more satisfactory than if they were all from one locality; association, going from place to place in the county, would in

and he thought they should take such measures as were necesstil a little competition into all parties (Hear, hear). He

sary to prevent by their subscriptions the society falling into thought a subscription ought to be opened at once, and that

decay. Mr. Clayden, who was as well qualified to give an the matter should be left till they ascertained the opinion of opinion as any man in the county, said they must have £500 the county on the subject. He moved

to support such a society, and therefore he was glad to see

the subscriptions had been fixed at half-a-guinea, as it ap. “ That a meeting of the association be held annually at such

peared to be the opinion of practical men they should thus towns in this county as may hereafter be named, for the exhi

obtain a larger sum than if it were double the amount. With bition of stock and implements, and the distribution of prizes in those and such other branches of agriculture as may hereafter

respect to Mr. Hobbs's observation as to the time of holding be determined upon by the committee."

the meeting, he did not wish to criticise that gentleman, but Mr. W. FISHER HOBBS said he was glad to find that the

he thought they should take the most popular feature in the view he took of this matter on a former occasion had met with agricultural field, and then there would be a large show of fat the unanimous approbation of this meeting; he must also ex

stock. Therefore he should like to see the meeting fixed at a press his satisfaction at the observations of the chairman in

time when the largest quantity of fat stock would be brought opening the meeting, which he had no doubt would have the together. He moved approbation of the landed proprietors and the tenant farmers

“That the Chairman be requested to write to gentlemen in of the county generally. The remarks of Mr. Clayden and various parts of the county, asking for their individual ccMr. Baker proved the feelings of the farmers on the subject, operation with the association, and requesting that they will and he would reiterate their statements as to the feeling of the

ascertain #bat support will be given to the establishment of agriculturists iu his own neighbourhood. His object, however,

such an association by the owners and occupiers of land in in rising was to suggest that they should not bind themselves

their own immediate neighbourhood; and that Mr. Burrell be as to where they should go in different years. Let them admit invited to act under this committee until such a time as a the principle of itinerating, but he should rather suggest that regular secretary be appointed.” the towns should be left to invite the society; not that they Mr. J. O. PARKER said, as to the small societies, the cause should ask the towns to allow them to hold their meetings there. of their failure had been pointed at; the petty jealousies of With this understauding, he should be happy to second the these societies bad led to their failure, but here they took a resolution. Before, however, they could get the society in large field and aimed at great results. He looked on these working order there was a great deal that was required to be societies as following in the steps of the Royal Agricultural done, and much would depend on the intelligence and activity Society, their objects being to confer some benefits on agriof the secretary (Hear, hear). He must be å man known to, culture, and he would rather not see any fat stock, for breedand mixing up with, the agriculturists, so as to be at all times ing was the great object, and he believed Essex was growing able to communicate with them and solicit their subscriptions. into its place as a breeding county. In a remote part of this They would also require a good working committee, not a large county the other day he saw some good home-bred stock one, for the purpose of framing the rules of the society; and stalled, a fine home bred bull in a corner of the yard, petted it would be necessary to meet day after day before anything by the occupier, and a number of home-bred animals on the could be prepared for the general meeting. It was a question, farm. Tois showed what was doing; and he thought that too, whether there should be one general meeting or two in they ought to promote the breeding of stock on the Essex the year. They had tried both in this county, and sometimes farms, and that as a society they should have nothing to do they had succeeded and sometimes not. There had been a with a ploughing match or a wool fair, or anything of that spring meeting for store animals and the sale of wool, and sort. If they introduced anything connected with the then at Christmas a fat stock show. He thought at first they I labourers, they should trench on the objects of those local societies, which they were so anxious not to infringe on. stock and sheep. If they had the meeting in the summer they (Hear).

would have but little fat stock, if in winter but little breeding Mr. CLAYDEN said he thought the latter end of May stock ; but in May they would have sufficient fat stock to give would be the best time for holding the meeting, and he should eclat to the show, though they could not expect a great quansay put breeding stock in the first rank; but at that period tity. The great object, however, should be the improvement of the year much fat stock had often been held over, the of breeding stock. In the old Society he brought the subject weather was not too hot, and they would no doubt have a of breeding before the committee, for at that time he had not good show of fat stock at that time.

seen a calf weaned in the county ; now breeding was carried Mr. Fisher Hobis called attention to the importance of on to some extent,and if they introduced a good breed, and good holding out encouragement to the production of good agricul- short-horns were spread over the county, they would soon see tural implements, Essex had a number of small implement- a different state of Essex breeding. makers as well as large, and they were rising up year by year, The resolution was carried. having, through the meetings of the Royal Agricultural Society, an opportunity of competing with the leviathan makers.

A general committee con sisting of sixty influential gentleMr. R. Baker could not but think something might be done men was appointed. for the agricultural labourers, that they might have something Thanks were voted to the Chairman, which Mr. Du CANE for the prize-man recommended by each local Society. He acknowledged; and the meeting adjourned to Friday, the 26th thought the greatest erscouragement should be given to neat I of February.

THE TRADE AND COMMERCE OF CHICACO IN 1857. We again avail ourselves of the information for compared with 1856, and an increase over 1855. Grain warded us by the commercial editor of the Chicago is the most important branch of the trade of Chicago. Daily Press, in his Sixth Annual Review of the The receipts' in the year 1857 was 21,856,206 Trade and Commerce of Chicago for the Year 1857. A bushels : this shows an advance over 1855, which was year of more than ordinary calamity, in which some of only 20,487,953 bushels, yet 1857 wanted about the old and wealthy cities on the Atlantic seaboard have 3,000,000 bushels of being as large as 1856. The shipbeen obliged to succumb to the financial crisis, but that meats of grain and flour, reduced to its equivalent in has left this city of Chicago, which is only the growth of wheat, was, for 1857, 18,032,768 bushels, or 2,818,618 the past dozen years, as sound as ever in its commercial bushels less than those shipped in 1856 ; but it is relations, and with a vigour and elasticity which 2,000,000 over the quantity shipped in 1855. These promises to be equal to any and every emergency numbers give the general totals of all cereals; but if we True it is that the trade of Chicago, being dependent look at the great staples (wheat and flour), we find that on the produce of the surrounding agricultural country, the increase of shipments of 1857 is over that of 1856. poured into its stores and warehouses along three thou- Thus, of wheat they exported 9,485,052 bushels ; or, sand miles of iron road, was on a more solid basis than 1,147,632 bushels more than in 1856, and 3,286,897 many of those other cities which bore the traces of the late bushels more than 1855. In flour likewise there is the commercial ruin. Still, we were prepared to see in its large increase of 40,000 barrels more shinped than in returns symptoms of the general stagnation in trade ; 1856, the numbers being, for 1857, 259,618 barrels. while we find the fact to be, that the prudence displayed The provision trade of 1857 shows also an important by the bankers and traders of Chicago, aided by their increase over 1856 ; the number of cattle slaughtered solid capital—the accumulations of the energy and suc- in the past year being 19,127, or 4,000 over 1856. It cessful commerce of the last twelve years—has preserved is stated that before the scarcity of money occurred, the her credit, and enabled her to achieve a commanding packers calculated on 30,000 head as being the quantity position amongst her sister-cities of the Union. The required. The quantity of live cattle shipped was report says :

25,000, or 3,000 over the business of the previous year. • Though some of our country banks were forced to close The figures given above will show our readers the imtheir doors, and all the banks in Illinois and Wisconsin, portance and the rising position of this vast grain empoexcept the Marine and the Chicago Banks of this city fium. The grain trade of this prairie city, and its rise which, to their honour be it said, paid the coin on demand and progress, to those who have seen it in its infancy, for all their issues-virtually suspended specie payments, appear a miracle. In 1838 it commenced by the shipyet our bankers received at par the bills of all the country banks, and thus saved the business of the city from it has attained the magnitude of over 20,000,000 bushels

ment of 39 bags of wheat. In 1857 (not twenty years) utter stagnation and ruin. The position which our bankers assumed towards our business men, and that of business of all kinds of grain. Yet this is as nothing to what the men towards each other, was not one of hostility, but position of Chicago promises at its full and future deveof mutual forbearance and support; and never, in commer- lopment. It is yet but in its infancy. From its situacial as well as in all other matters, was the motto more tion—" the key and natural outlet of the great northbeautifully illustrated— In union there is strength.'" west”-it must become the mightiest interior commercial

The consequence of this “union" was that, during port of America. As the railways creep up still more the worst weeks of the panic, the shipments of wheat north and west, so will the trade of Chicago increase, were one hundred thousand bushels per day, and

all and that from the actual producers of the soil; so that cereals averaged nearly two hundred thousand bushels.

to the merchants of the old world it must become the By a reference to the commercial tables, we find that cheapest and best supplied market.

The reviewer the exports last year, in spite of the low prices which proudly saysprevailed, have not materially fallen of. They have "The grain trade of Chicago, it must be remembered, too, more cattle than in the previous season; and a large the East, Chicago will not long remain. The markets of exported more wheat, packed more beef, and shipped in this connection, has a much brighter future than most

As a mere depot for the grain trade of surplus is reported in the country for this (the coming) Liverpool, Glasgow, Hamburgh, and the whole Continent of season's business. The prospects of this year are stated Europe are fed by 13; and it" is not natural to suppose that to be such as will far outstrip that of any previous one. The grain trade of 1857 bas been active, and, contrary in length will carry our ships of a thousand tons burthen

we will remain an inland port when a canal of about fifty miles to all expectation, shows but a very slight falling-off as laden with grain to the St. Lawrence, and thence into the

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