Obrazy na stronie

pulling the tall weeds, which, with the previous scarify- and fastened on the superficial. No decisive proof bas ings and hand-hoeings, finishes the process of fallowing been recorded from a majority of similar results, that and cleaning the land. These facts are so undisputed, the produce of grains and clovers is larger from drilled that no further comment is necessary.

land than from broadcast sowing ; and until this proof The benefits of drilling grain crops rest upon a very be made satisfactory for more than one year, on a field questionable foundation. The rows are narrow, and 12 alternated in equal spaces of ground with rows and or 14 inches distant, and do not allow the horse-hoeing broadcast, the drilling of grain must be held as an in any effectual way: a very slight action only can be effusion of fancy, which has no substantial evidence done. The operations of the hand-hoe are equally in- for its support. The farmers of the Border counties effective, by reason of the scuffling of the intervals made trial of the row cultivation, but soon relinquished being too shallow to admit the works of the hoe : the it, finding no benefit from the additional expense, and surface-weeds are cut, but no pulverizing effect is per- that close luxuriant crops of grain produced by the root formed. The plants quickly rise into a height that ex- crop fallowing and manuring were more effectual in cludes all subsequent operations behind a scarifying by smothering weeds than any hoeings of the intervals the horse-hoe and one or two operations of the hand that could be done. It is an application of labour to an tool. These slight processes effect no beneficial pur- object which cannot derive the benefit of the intention, pose, beyond slightly checking the small weeds that rise and therefore the expense is misapplied, and produces first in the spring. All later growths remain undis- no remuneration. turbed, as the tall grains prohibit any work being done. The evidence is much more ample of the superiority The season of performing what can be done is much too of thrashing by machinery over the flail, than of drilling short to produce any benefit.

grain being more advantageous than sowing in broadGreen crops are cultivated to obtain the roots as the cast; and yet the boasted Holkham farmers, and many valuable part, and without maturing the seed—a pur other cultivators of repute, persist in applying labour pose very widely different from the use of grain crops, to non-productive points in using the flail at five times which are sown for the express object of obtaining the the cost of machinery, and in adding the expense of matured seeds as the value that is desired. The latter drilling grain to produce no result—a weakness of plants derive the benefit that has been conferred on the intellect almost incredible in these days of inquiry, when land by the cultivation of the root crops. The very the torture of the rack is unsparingly applied for the opposite nature prevents any similar benefit being con- behoof of agriculture, on every point of tangible apferred by the plants on the land, and the idea of drilling plication,

J. D. corn had arisen with the minds that evaded the solid,

AGRICULTURE AND POPULATION. [TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH OF “LE JOURNAL D'AGRICULTURE PRATIQUE.”] The Academy of Moral and Political Science directed Starting upon the idea that the more agriculture M. Léonce de Lavergne, one of its members, to institute advances towards perfection, the more it replaces and prosecute an inquiry into the actual condition of manual labour by machinery, they are happy to find the rural classes in France ; and, in order to execute his that the origination of great public works in cities has commission, that learned economist has completed a found employment for the rural populations for which series of investigations which, in these late times agriculture has no further occasion. especially, hav attracted the attention of the most The book that M. de Lavergne has recently published, eminent publicists.

entitled “ Agriculture and Population," is, we may say, Amongst these studies there is one which presents a true protest against these fatal tendencies of our rural itself foremost as an essential basis of the researches populations to desert the village. Tracing to their of M. de Lavergne, namely, that of the statistics origin the causes of this desertion, the author places in resulting from the census of the population, as have the first rank the inclemency of the seasons, and the been published officially in 1856. This administra- centralization of expenditure in cities. The first has been, tive document states two facts, both important and he says, the chief determining cause of the general decharacteristic for our epoch ; first, in respect to the population of France, and that of the rural districts in preceding quinquennial period, a relaxation in the in- particular ; but (and this deserves the greatest attencrease of the population during the period from 1851 to tion) it is at the moment in which agriculture has the 1856 ; and again-and this possesses a higher degree of most need of all its resources, to struggle against the interest with agriculture—a manifest depopulation of the fatal influence of the seasons, that, in aggravation, it is country districts, in favour of some large cities, and seen to be simultaneously deprived of arm and capital especially Paris. Consequently, it was very natural that by war and luxury-two causes to which are necessarily in a study of the condition of the rural classes, such attached the centralization of expenditure in cities. facts, stated officially, should stand out in strong relief : The war! it would be out of place to speak of it here, public opinion had previously conjectured it, and the otherwise than to render homage to those rural popu. statistic surprised no one, when it came to be exhibited lations, which, in that great trial of the country, have in figures.

furnished so largely their contingent of men and money, We thus see a country (France), abandoning its But luxury! the centralization of expenditure in cities ! old traditions, and inclining towards English organization, that is another thing; for at the last analysis it is in the predominance of the urban over the rural popula- beyond dispute that amongst the causes that have tions. Is this a symptom of progress ? or is it a symptom attracted our rural populations into the cities, we must of decay?

assign a chief place to this respective position of our There are to be found writers who, in their optimism, cities and rural districts. In the latter, the insuffihave looked upon this change of class in our populations ciency of the barvest, the only resource of the inbabias the undeniable evidence of progressive civilization. 'tants, has produced misery, and closed the workshops of private labour. In the former, the insufficiency of the , what work can be more beneficial than that of rendering harvest has been counteracted, more than elsewhere, by healthy the unfortunate countries which up to the ingenious combinations, tending, on the one hand, to present time have known little of our civilization except sell bread below the normal price, and, on the other, to from the tax-gatherer and the recruiting-serjeant? create public works upon a scale till then unheard of. What unknown miseries exist in these countries! which, Bread and labour assured, what more was required to after all, demand of the State only wbat it has done for attract the populations ? They have only too well the richer ones-namely, roads for traffic and sanitary responded to the appeal, and it is thus that in the five works. years from 1851 to 1856, the total population of France As a general principle, M. de Lavergne is not one of increased only 256, 194, wbilst that of Paris, taken alone, those writers who demand on all occasions the interhas increased to the enormous extent of 305,354 inhabi. | vention of the State in matters of interest, either agritants. From whence, then, arises this excess of the cultural or manufacturing. He does not wish the State Parisian population, if not chiefly from the contingent to do too many things ; for he knows that that system made up of the deserters of our agricultural departo might be construed, to the great detriment of agriculments ?

ture, into an increase of taxes and functionaries. He But this is not all; for we must not only look at the prefers much that the country acquire the babit of figures in this question of depopulation of the country doing by itself, so far as possible, its agricultural and districts:

: we must look also, and above all, at the quality industrial affairs ; for be is persuaded that it is, above of the emigrants. Now, it has been found that the re- all, by the exercise of individual exertion, that a nation quirements of war have exacted the formation of a learns to conquer and preserve all that gives riches, numerous army; here is at once an enormous tribute power, and stability. We can only applaud such doclevied chiefly upon the most effective portion, the most trines, being those of a good political economy. They productive of our rural population. But we must not teach the love of labour, and divest governments of the speak of this, for glory is the consummation of the terrible responsibility imposed upon them by contrary tribute. Let us speak of another portion of the emigra- doctrines, especially in what concerns salaries and the tion—that which has recruited the army from amongst question of sustenance. To this extent, therefore, it is workmen, masons, carpenters, navigators, and other desirable for all, governors or governed, that the doctrine building workmen. Can we believe that the desertion

of individual initiative, thus understood, should peneof these has not been more sensibly felt in our rural trate into all social circles. The result would not be districts, in that, generally, it acts upon those men in that the State would have nothing to do for agriculture; the strength of life, and such as in regard to intelligence it would still be at least evident that the public expen. and activity might justly pass for the élite of the work- diture ought to bear only upon objects with which the ing population of our villages ? Truly such questions citizens, whether separately or in association, cannot be are quite common-place; for there is no one who does employed. Now in the actual state of things, it is cer. not know that in the actual state of popular prejudices tain that many great agricultural works, and operations it is those who are the least favoured by Nature and of public utility, such as the replanting of mountains education who are left in our villages.

and downs, or the rendering healthy insalubrious counThe arm of ridicule is very powerful in France, but tries, constitute in the highest degree works executed at frequently it is only the shaft of wit against good sense ;

the charge of the whole country. Compelled to become and such is the course of things that, sooner or later

a manufacturing and commercial nation, we have for a too late, unfortunately, good sense carries the day. A length of time already concentrated the strongest part day will come, therefore, in which public opinion will

of our public resources in the improvement of the do ample justice for that strange accusation launched richest districts; and it is time that the poor ones, the against those writers who, in our day, have blamed the

disinherited countries, should, in their turns, also have a extravagant luxury of the cities. They have been repre- place in the budget of public works. To say that these sented as false puritans, as men who do not comprehend poor districts will never reimburse by their own riches the the necessities of our civilization; as pessimists, who, advances of the budget, is to view a great question on for example, would wish to see Paris laid in ruins. This its weakest side, and to forget what those countries, now is, in reality, the disastrous war. It is not necessary provided with roads and openings, were themselves, that Paris should cease to be embellished : the whole

before they became the theatre of great public works. question is, to hold an even balance between the expenses

M. Guillaumin, the deputy of whom I have spoken which may concur in ameliorating a residence in cities, already, said again, in the Corps Legislatif, in continuand those which have for their object the amelioration of ing his idea of public agricultural works: “Suppose the rural viability, the clearing of the downs and moun

that a capitalist, entering upon a healthy soil, comtains, the management of the fluvial waters, &c. We are menced by making costly constructions, by furnishing beginning to engage in this course of reparation towards his stables with selected beasts, by establishing from the poor districts; and M. de Lavergne properly quali-them splendid teams—by creating a museum of perfect fies as a good law that, by virtue of which the State instruments, without reserving capital to purchase charges itself to execute the work of planting on the plains manure, carry out the drainage, marling, irrigations, of Bordeaux to the extent of a sum of 6,000,000 francs. &c., which are, in cultivation, reproductive expenses ;

A deputy of the Legislative Corps, M. Guillaumin, should we not have a right to say to that capitalist, justly remarked, in the discussion on the expenditure of

• You have badly arranged the employment of your the Budget of 1858, that out of a sum total of funds, and have neglected the expenses productive of 1,716,986,190 francs, the budget for public agricultural

riches'?" works figured simply to the amount of 1,850,000 francs; Well! it is not necessary that a State that is called appropriated to the rendering healthy cr renewing the France should subject itself to the same reproach. In forests of Sologne, Doubes, Gascony, Brisse, and other terms, that the expenditures of luxury and utility, Corsica-all countries in which fevers decimate the for the embellishment of cities and those dispersed over population. Certainly, looking at these sums, the first wealthy territories, should at the same time overlook so large and the second so small, we cannot say that the those great blots called La Bresse, La Sologne, and many rural population have taken the lion's share. And yet, other countries. In these there are productive expenses at a period in which sanitary questions, so interesting to

to be incurred. It does not simply consist in increasing the working classes, have assumed so much importance, our grain and cattle, but to carry labour to the band of


the workman in the field; in a word, to enable those much more complex, unites to the production of alimenwho remain in their native country to find something else tary commodities, those of vines, mulberries, olives, there than fern and buckwheat-bread, unhealthy pond- fruit trees, manufacturing and horticultural plants, in water, and, true penance of Tantalus, immense lands to the open fields. The small culture therefore predocultivate, but no labour. And then, when this work of minates over our territory ; and the small culture reparation shall have been accomplished, we might, signifies the rural population in the greatest number. without reverse of the medal, be justly proud of our All these ideas have been developed by M. de country. Instead of progressing towards the English | Lavergne, in several chapters which he has devoted to organization in what relates to the repartition of the the special study of cattle, machinery, agricultural and populations, we shall have preserved our old and strong forest products. Written under the impression of the French organization—the predominance of the rural visits made by the author to the Exposition of 1855, populations over the urban, the scattered populations these chapters are not simply a technical description of over the agglomerated.

the objects that the several nations had sent to the great Undoubtedly the progress of mechanical agriculture, gathering at Paris. Much higher is their bearing, for like that of mechanical manufacture, tends to the sub- they are in truth a study of the whole of European stitution, so far as it can, of the work of machinery for agriculture. Thus, when the Exposition terminated, that of men. But does it follow that this desirable the author, always pre-occupied with the condition of substitution has been, up to the present time, one of the the rural classes, takes, at setting out, many of those causes to which we are allowed to attribute the depopu. | ideas which, with more or less opportunity, have been lation of the country districts ? Have we a right to thrown into public discussion. say that the thrashing-machine, the drill, the horse-hoe, In many of these ideas appears commercial freethe steam locomotive, the haymaking machine, &c., &c., dom ; that is to say, the suppression, or rather the prohave in any degree whatever diminished on our farms gressive reduction of customs' duties exacted at the the demand for hand labour ? To maintain such affir- frontiers of cach nation. I will not enter into the dismations would be to forget, in my opinion, that the cussion of this so-much controverted question ; and more agriculture is improved, the greater its need of the besides, there is not a single reader of this journal who arm--and let us mark well this fact-the arm of intel. does not know that M. de Lavergne does not in any ligence. This is what appears to have escaped the respect believe that our agriculture is efficiently pronotice of many writers, who, on this question of popu- | tected by the sliding-scale and other fiscal arrangements. lation, have spoken of the wants of agriculture in men, I will only say that, in opposition to many ancient and who understand manufacturing much better than organizers of free exchange in France, who explained to rural economy. More familiarity with this last science us, as was done in England for the agriculture of that would have taught them that amongst the elements that country, that French agriculture was enriched at the determine the choice of systems of cultivation, it is expence of the cɔnsumers, M. de Lavergue has clearly necessary, before all, to accord a very great importance shown that enormous difference which, in this respect, to the amount of the labouring population. Show us the exists between the agricultures of the two countries. least populous country, and forest and pastoral agriculture In fact, the free-exchangists of Outre-Manche might reign there ; ascend a ladder, and you find arable culture justly support themselves upon the excessive dearness mingled with fallows and pasturage ; see, in short, & of agricultural products, and by that argument organize country well peopled, and you are in presence of in- a league against the import duties on cereals. But in tensive culture, culture without fallows, culture with | France to talk of the excessive dearness of commodities, stabulation of cattle, and predominance of roots, artifi- and of the illegitimate profits of agriculture, was in cial forage, manufacturing and garden plants, &c. It truth to place the spirit of system above the reality of is quite true that machines are multiplied in proportion facts ; to discredit political economy; and at all hazards, as the eartb is better cultivated; but as, on the other to ruin the doctrine of free-trade in public opinion. hand, the demands of consumption increase, it bappens Real science, or that which is based on the study of that, up to the present at least, the increasing fertility things, ought therefore to be pleased that M. de of the soil causes the extension of manufacturing and Lavergne has re-opened this question, and placed it upon gardening cultivation, which implies also a greater need its true foundation. Such men advance the sciences of band-labour. And not only are more hands neces. slowly : it is not necessary to repudiate them becuuse sary, but, what is more important for the working they sometimes deceive themselves; but when a principle population, the rural labour formerly concentrated upon is badly advanced, it must be replaced. ihe harvest season has become better distributed over the whole year. Thus workmen are required for spring his own opinion on a measure that would tend to no.

It is impossible that M. de Lavergne should not know tillage, for the autumn harvests, and for winter works thing less than the re-establishment of an order of in the agricultural districts. Hence, less stoppage, but things incompatible with our present habits. Listen to a more equally-balanced labour, better sustained, and better remunerated.

certain reformers, and they charge the subdivision of

the land with the backward state of our agriculture; they Such is the truth of the case. Machinery has in consequently demand that we introduce into our legislano respect occasioned the emigration of the rural popu- lation the illimitable liberty of willing property at death, lation ; since agriculture, otherwise in presence of larger and the right of entail. What does M. de Lavergne outlets, has never had such extensive need of hand- think on this subject ? A partisan of free competition, labour as since the period of the improvement of he admits only one means of disallowing the sale to the machines. It is therefore not true that the attraction small proprietor, that is, to do better than he, as may of the cities over the rural populations can be a good be done in certain situations. In the background, theretbing; nor is it true that this attraction is a sign of high fore, are those superannuated combinations, which, civilization. On the contrary, this unclassing of the powerless to reascend the course of time, would be useful populations is a fact not to applaud, but to combat with, only in raising new storms. "The law of equal division," in its exaggerations. Let us not forget, as a last gays our author, “ is the flesh and blood of France. We analysis, that it not with French as with English agri- cannot touch it without danger, at least in its essential culture. This latter, whether it be from its markets or dispositions." This is saying plainly that M. de Lafrom the nature of the soil and climate, employs itself vergne does not push the fanaticism of this law of equat little except upon forages, corn, and cattle. The former, division to a disregard of the inconveniences of the 826th article of the Code, which allows to each the tion M. de Lavergne shows himself faithful to all his beritors to demand his part in kind, of the furniture economic antecedents ; that is to say, that his advice is and fixtures of the succession. This régime of absolute not of those who would upset all social order. He has equality has conducted us straight to that of instalments, interrogated the science of political economy. He knows of enclosures of pieces of land; that is, a régime that on what conditions capitals are created and manufactures multiplies inordinately the ditches, fences, rights of prosper. He has confidence also in the good sense of passage, &c.; which hinders tbe reform of bad dis- our rural populations, who, in times of great crises, have tribution of crops, and the execution of great works always known how to get us out of them. He hopes, connected with drainage, irrigation, &c. Here, then, too, that more than one prodigal son will return sooner there is something to do; and M. de Lavergne thinks or later to the village; for, after all, it is there that that, for example, one of the heirs should be authorized France will always reckon upon the most labourers, and, to take possession of fixtures exceeding in value his at need, the most soldiers. share, on payment to the others of three per cent interest, On the other hand, it behoves us to prepare for this and two per cent. redemption, with the power of repaying future. Agriculture will become what agriculturists the whole on the principle of a credit-foncier.

themselves become : like as in all the social circles, high With regard to the soil, the principal element of as well as low, these should be able to treat on a footing agricultural labour, M. de Lavergne demands the re- of equality with the representatives of other professions ; duction, and even the suppression of the rights which and then not one measure of general interest will be taken involve the real property mutations. This is well without the agricultural interest receiving full satisfacspoken, and it was moreover the advice of M. Gasparin; tion. All depends on that; it is necessary that agriculthese rights are, in fact, one of the first causes of the tural France should be able to constantly enlighten the enormous debt of the proprietary. They bar the idea Government, for there are no more certain means of of all improvements; and one of the best means of en- rendering it stable and powerful, to the profit of the couraging agriculture will unquestionably be to facilitate country. Large culture and a large property, above the mutations.

all, have much to do, to march on an equality with the Again, with regard to the soil, M. de Lavergne has small proprietor and small culture. We may say that in met with a publicist who places the existence of com- this respect we are not in equilibrium as a nation. munal property in the list of the most efficacious If the number of cultivators were sufficient for sucmeans for ameliorating the condition of the rural

cess, or rather, to place the agricultural element into classes. Upon this, a protest is urged by M. de LA- position amongst the other elements of national power, vergne, who knows very well that the land that is every it is evident that French agriculture, the employment of body's is nobody's, and who, in that frame of mind, twenty-five out of the thirty-five millions of inhabitunts, reproaches the communalities when they go beyond a would be in a position to make the rural spirit predocertain proportion with the population, for the main-minate in the public mind; and, with the rural spirit, tenance of poverty, idleness, ignorance, and thought all the principles of order and progress which it com. lessness.

ports. But we are not deceived there. If the rural After the soil come capital and labour. Here agricul- spirit exists in our country, let us admit, at least, that it ture is, it may be said, in presence of two deserters, who is much more alive in the subdivided districts than in have given notice of passing over to the enemy. The those of aggregated culture. It is not, therefore, surenemy! that is undoubtedly the true expression, when it prising that it should experience ideas, manners, and is intended to point out those manufactures which do aspirations of the intellectual level of the dominant nothing for the soil, whilst they consume nevertheless its population, of which it is the representative. This is produce.

why we find in it, in so high a degree, that love of Once more we must not be misunderstood. Manu- family and property, and all those domestic virtues, facture and agriculture cannot be enemies under a reign which, in a word, are, without dispute, one of the of free competition ; but their productiveness may be most solid bases of our social order. But by way of singularly changed in a social state in which the urban retaliation, it is not amongst these laborious populations, populations have remained longer protected than the almost constantly bowed down to the soil, that we must agricultural population. Indeed, such is the primitive seek for those connected ideas, that knowledge of gene. idea, resulting from the economic studies of M. de La- ral interests, and that superior education which our vergne. Centralization has so far ruled our situation modern society requires. Consequently it is no longer in France, that almost all causes have combined to de. there that we must seek for that useful counterpois, velope the riches of the cities rather than those of the which, amongst the English, places the defence of agri. country. Thus professional instruction occupies itself cultural interests under the protection of men who can, with recruitment of the army, with medicine, with the know how to, and will, cultivate them. bar, with the arts and manufactures, rather than with It is, therefore, essential that we should not confound that of agriculture. So again, the majority of the great the rural spirit of large culture with that of small cul. families reside in the cities, where they find life more The latter guarantees order in this respect, that agreeable. And we are astonished that capital and la. small workmen have neither time nor even desire 10 bour desert the fields, wben they have so high an exam- employ themselves with anything but their harvests, ple set them. We are astonished that the peasants, sur- cattle, sales, and purchases. The former, quite as rounded with lands wbich should be the best investments strenuous for order, more particularly guarantee profor rural savings, have become the bolders of railway gress in this sense- - that, sharing in the movements of shares and debentures of French and foreign stocks ! general interest, it can give the impulse to public

O progress of the age! Formerly, when the country opinion, and does not conform itself to receiving the notaries made out inventories of inheritance, what did word of command. In a word, if there were in a state they find in the house of the easy peasant ? Good clo- only small cultivators, the big-wigs of finance, manufacsets furnished with good linen, and granaries well fur- ture, and commerce would easily gain the ascendancy; nished with corn. What do they find now? Papers which would be a misfortune, for it would be the absoand public deeds negociable at the Exchange. It is the lute reign of certain interests. fulfilment of the proverb, “Other times, other manners." It will not be thus : science and capital come to the It remains to be seen which manners are the best. fields; and, thanks to these levers of progress, there is But what can be done to alter all this? On this ques- ! amongst our rural society a class of men who, without


the rights of seniority, majorats, or estates in tail, will regards manufacture, it is unnecessary to suppose know how to prevent the excessive sub-division of the that he has placed it in antagonism with agricul. soil. To this class of men we may address the language ture : far from it. A man of profound views, he has of M. de Lavergne ; for, precisely because it loves the arrived through political economy at rural economy, truth and disdains false complacency, because it desires through the whole to the part. That is to say, he is employment for the workmen and preaches by example, not exclusive, and loves all the branches of human there are none, who better than they, have the right of labour. He has been, I repeat, struck with the deponot being suspected of a bad spirit, when they raise their pulation of our country districts ; he seeks by the light voice in favour of useful reforms, and point out certain of science, and in the domain of individual energé rather dangers to the citizens. M. de Lavergne has found an than in the intervention of the State, a remedy for this echo in this part of the population. It is, I think, an public danger. In short, M. de Lavergne has made excellent proof that he has in his writings known how once more one of those good books, which displays to to unite moderation of language with firmness of us all the grandeur and utility of the part that agriculopinion. Let us not, however, consider him exclu. ture is called upon to play in France, and that to the sively as the advocate of large culture : that would advantage of our population, whom it beboves to prebe to forget all that he has justly said in favour serve its rural character. E. Lecouteux, of small culture, for which he professes, with

Former Director of the Cultures of the truth, a very particular esteem. So alsoin what

Agronomic Institute of Versailles,

THE LATEST PATENTS FOR PLOUGHING BY STEAM. The next patent machine for tilling and preparing is the inethod by which various adjustments can be and, adapted to “steam traction,” which we have to given to these ploughs: they can, for instance, be lifted notice, is that of William Smith, of Little Woolstone, vertically out of or adjusted to any distance from the Bucks. (Patent dated September 7th, 1853. No. of soil in which they work, the ploughsharcs being atpatent, 2,121. Price of specification, 64d.) The in- tached to a series of horizontal bars (a) running from vention claimed in the patent is the manner of com- end to end of the framing of the machine; these bars bining implements, such as the patentee has before used being provided with eyes sliding up and down on vertias subsoil ploughs, into one. The implement repre- cal guide-bars (6) fitted to the back of the framing. sented in the drawing is in general appearance like the Three of these plough bars or beams (a) are stated by cultivator or grubber. The tines, or “ implements” as the patentee to be a convenient number. To the front they are designated in the specification, are three in of the framing, vertical guides (c), corresponding to (6), number. Of these, the central is the only one pro- are fitted : these are provided with bluck pieces (d) vided with handles ; the frames or bodies of the other which slide up and down. To projecting rings or ears two are in all respects similar to this central implement. made on these block pieces (d) the extremities of the Two cross-beams (a a) are provided for combining the horizontal plough bars (a) are jointed, the ends of the three into one. The fore parts of the beams or bodies plough bars being furnished with a double eye or fork. of the implements are connected with a bar (b) which By this arrangement, if obstacles present themselves to runs parallel to, and some distance before, the cross- the ploughs while in operation, the ploughs give way beams (a a). At each end of the bar (b) a vertical to the obstacles ; the plough bars (a) rising behind, screw, with an eye at its upper end, is placed ; through and turning on the jointed block pieces (d) sliding on the eyes of these rods the draft chains fixed to the stems the front guide bars (c), the plough bars, with their of the cutting implements are passed, and extended attached ploughs, are listed simultaneously out of conforward and attached to the whippletree connected with tact with, or adjusted to any distance from, the soil by the bar (b). The whippletree is inclined, as required, the following means. At each end of the framing carto either side, by chains attached to each end : these rying the guide bars (6 c) a set of loose pulleys (e) are are taken up and hooked at points in the handle of the hung; chains connected with the plough bars (a) at central implement, so as to be within reach of the at- each end pass over these pulleys; the chains (f) at. tendant. Wheels are provided, one to each of the two tached to the ends of the plough bars at the back of the outer implements; and in some cases, on stiff land, the machine being at once connected to lever handles (g) patentee states that each implement has its own wheel. placed within the reach of the attendant. The chains The height of the wheel and of the implements are ad- | attached to the front end of the plough bars (a) pass justed in the frame in manner similar to the coulter over their corresponding pulleys, and are connected and wheels of the plough. The tine, or cutting part of with rods or links which extend along the framing, and the implement, resembles in form the tine of the ordi- are connected at their opposite ends to the chains (f) nary grubber or cultivator.

connected with the lever handles (9). By depressing The patent next in chronological order which we these handles (9) both ends of the plough bars are propose to notice under the present division of our sub. raised simultaneously. The lever handles (g) work in ject, is that granted to John Allen Williams, of Bay- segmental slides provided with holes, through which don, Wilts. (Patent dated 17th of June, 1854. No. of pins pass, and are made to regulate the extent of “lift" patent, 1,325. Price of specification, ls. 6d.) This of the plough bars (a). Each plough bar is also capainvention relates to an arrangement of plough or culti- ble of being lifted up independently of the others, by vating apparatus for working land,“ Whereby,” says means of a small handle fixed to the back end of the the specification, a much superior cultivating effect bar. The vertical guide bars (c) are capable of being is obtainable than is possible with the common or other slightly inclined, so as to give a corresponding lateral existing forms of ploughs or cultivators.” The culti- inclination to the coulters and turn-furrows of the vating implements represented in the drawings attached ploughs, and to enable them “to turn the furrows more to the specification resemble closely in arrangement and efficiently en ploughing a hill-si or sidelong detail the ordinary plough, with its share, mouldboard, ground." The lateral traverse of the frame which gives and coulter. The peculiar feature of the arrangement I the inclination to the guide bars (c) above referred to,

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