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they had most to contend with, and the process of fallowing | came quickest into leaf, and overcame in the shortest period well, and careful hoeing, aud clearing the drills of the growing that great difficulty of rearing a good crop of turnips—that of crops, was perhaps the only true mode of overcoming these their coming qnickly to the hoe. He ascribed it to this reason : annual weeds, such as wild mustard and chickweed, and worst the land upon the top of the drill was exceedingly mellow of all, that enemy to cultivation, couch grass. The first step, and fine; the manure had been undergoing—not the feras he conceived, in obtaining an entire clearance of weeds of mentation which it got when thrown into great heaps, where this description, is to have the land properly drained; for it dispersed its ammonia into the air, and wasted much of draining was the great cardinal virtue of agricultural progress. its best virtues—but it underwent the slow and quiet proIf they happened to be going over a farm, as was often his case, cess of fermentation throughout the winter, covered up with and saw a spot in a field more brown and less fertile and more soil; and they found in the spring all the soil contiguous to productive of weeds and couch than another, they were told, the manure in a soft and brown condition, having inhaled * That is a wet spot: we can't get it well worked.” But then much of the virtue which the manure had given ott. It was there was such a thing as draining to extract the wet; and in generally the practice to use some kind of extraneous matter other cases they found that if a portion of a farm was very foul, with that from the fold-yard; the manner of doing this was the excuse for this was, “It was a wet summer when it was only to run the drills over with a light harrow of any kind, last in fallow, and we could not get it cleaned." There was but more especially with those little concave harrows of great truth and reason these things; but the only way to which they had seen specimens-one horse drawing two, overcome them was to take the wet out of the soil and to
and doing two rows at one time. This puts the top of the make it uniform in its surface, so that the same manner of drill a little on the bite, and the guano, bone-dust, or other work and the same kind of cropping will be equally suited to manure sown was set up to a top of the drill by passing a the whole of a field. These were subjects that he hardly need double mould-board plough through it. The seed was sown detail to a company like that, because they were matters of upon this portion of the soil; and he believed Mr. Lee and practical knowledge that were before them, and they were other neighbours that might have seen his process would subjects of everyday experience ; at the same time, it was bear him out in saying that the produce had not only been perfectly allowable, when they were met together to endeavour very quick, but very good. He thought this a matter imto improve the managemeot of a district and its farming and portant to be considered, because the quantity of turuip land general produce, that these things should be taken under their in this and other countries was much increased, and natuvery serious cousideration. Another subject--that of fallow. rally so, from the introduction of extraneous and foreign ing, which was one of the greatest possible importance—had manures, which, together with draining, allowed farmers to lately been very much discussed, and great recommendation go over a much sarger surface. If, then, by such a process as bad been given to autumn fallowing. It had been said by this there was an economy of labour, and if that economy very good judges that if they wished them to judge of tenantry was at the same time connected with success in the produclet them look over their farms in autumn, and that the best tion of a good crop, it could not but be a subject worthy of tenant would be seen by the cleanness and style in which the their consideration. He invited discussion, and said he fallowing had been done; he did not mean bare fallow alone, should be very glad to answer any question relative to the but a fallow whieh consisted of green crops, put up in such a subject. On that and all occasions he should be most happy way that horse boes, hand hoes, and all the implements used to do his humble endeavours to promote the welfare and adfor such purposes, could be employed. Last autumn gave a vancement of the agriculture of Tyneside. good opportunity, which he was happy to see made available Mr. Donds had always followed the practice recommended by many farmers, for cleaning the land and advancing the work by the Chairman, of getting his fallow clean in the autumn; for the ensuing spring. The spring might not happen to be and the mode he took to do so was very simple. If the land so favourable as was the autumn. He bad, in his small way- was light, he simply put the grubbers through it, and comit was too small for him to presume to set himself up as an ex- menced harrowing and boeing, and if necessary raking. If ample of good farming—but still, if there was safety, economy, the land was at all stiff, he took an ordinary plough-everal and advantage upon a small scale, that advantage and economy had been invented, but they only added a great many implemust tell in the same proportion upon a larger scale. It hap- ments to the farmer's stock, and were expensive to obtain pened to him that he had only a small patch of ground, in which with a few broad shares, and it could be used with or without was about ten acres of turnips each year, and he had only one the mould-board. He got out the twitch with great facility pair of horses to do that, carry his coal, and everything he by simply cutting the roots with the mould-board of the wanted. It therefore required him to economise the labour ; plough; but a little bit of sheet-iron instead of the mouldsome part of his land was rather strong and heavy, not very board would make the twitch come out much more readily congenial for turnip soil, although he had a portion of that too, than if turned over altogether on its back, or left lying. After though if it were worked and laid dat in the common way in the going over it once with grubbers and hoes and rakes he spring, and then should get a very heavy fall of rain, it would grabbed it again. The land cleaned much more easily in run together in such a way that his poor pair of horses could autumn than if the tools were left to ramify during the winter. never again overcome it, or put it into such a condition as they If they set to work immediately after harvest, especially on all knew was necessary for the production of a turnip crop, dry lands, to get out the twitch, the work would be greatly because the small seed of the turnip would not vegetate, and lightened in spring. could not grow well if the soil into which it was put was not Mr. LORAINE wished to impress the importance not only of equally minute in its particles, and as near in a state of powder destroying the weeds, but of destroying them at the proper as might be; but if land with a little dampness or tenacity in time. The greatest enemy to the farmer was the thistle-a it requires to be worked up late in the season, he needn't tell weed whose seeds blew far and wide caused an immense exthem, practical farmers, what a difficulty there was in over- pense, and caused the corn to reap badly. When thistles coming that loss of time, and in getting a crop of turnips. were not cut till they were a certain height, they ripened, and The plan he had followed—and he hoped they would not think the seeds were blown in all directions. He asked Mr. Grey to it presumptuons in him to name it to them, and they could suggest the right time for destroying thistles. follow it or not-was this: He began, as soon as the crop was Mr. BIRD said he had about seventy acres of land, ten of stored, or as soon as possible, with skim-ploughing the sur- which were in turnips. The great seminarium of twitch grass face, harrowing and raking it together, and carting it off, put- was the seeds. On dry lands he pushed on his seeds as well ting it into the fold-yard to be the nucleus of the manure heap as he could, with a little assistance from nitrate of soda ; he for next year. He then gave the land a deep ploughing, har- cut them before they were well seeded, and then he afterwards rowed it, and put it into drills ready for the manure. When got a crop of turnips. Then came barley and seeds, and he the manure was put in he reversed the drills, and so it lay, took care to cut them before they were shedding their seeds, and nearly one-half of his turnip land was now in that condi- and in time also to get a very good crop of turnips. Then he tion, drilled, manured, and exposed to all the changes of the came with barley afterwards, and sent his work-people to see atmosphere during the winter. It came to be found in a mellow if any weeds were left; they found very few left; and after condition in the spring, and the turnips were sown upon this; he had had four years' experience of this practice, he had no whereas, as he told them before, if the land required to be worked necessity to gather a weed, because the land was clean. A up in a damp state, he could not make turnips of it at all, and farmer, having a sixteen-years' lease, could save the expense for the few gears he had practised this, he had never failed in four times over before the lease was out. finding that the turnips down upon that portion of the land Mr. LEE found no difficulty in letting grass remain two years and having the land clean. He did not find "quickens” side, and the storms broke up the furrows, and washed the so great an enemy as wild oats and mustard. In a crop of best soil to the bottom of the hill. He quite agreed with Mr. barley there was a difference of four bolls an acre where mus- Grey, that the manure should be laid on fresh. tard grew and where it did not. A few years ago he had a The CHAIRMAN believed there was a time when they might loss of £3 an acre where wild oats and mustard grew in a field destroy thistles, but it was neither at their earliest growth nor of fifteen acres of wheat. Weeds were a great nuisance, and when too ripe, but when the stem near the ground was so far took a great deal of nourishment from the turnips.
matured as to be a little bollowed, so that the first rain fell Mr. Cook showed that the practice in the valley of the into it and rolled it down. He believed there were no means Tyne would not work well on the hills,
of eradicating wild oats or mustard but by first allowing them Mr. Smith had tried for a good many years a system of to vegetate and then pulling them out. Wild oats might be laying manure in the back end of the year, and drilling up the one bundred years in the land, and still vegetate when brought land; he found it entirely fail ; but his land was on the hill. I to a certain distance of the surface.
LABOURERS' REGISTRATION OFFICES versus STATUTE FAIRS.
In the agricultural discussions of the past year, a The farmers, on the other hand, see no great harm in paper by Mr. John Marshall, of Riseholme, Lincoln. them and maintain, moreover, that it would be diffishire, on the maintenance of farm-servants, occupies cult and inconvenieiit to do without them. This very deservedly a very prominent position. Himself a argument is now being discussed in Mr. Marshall's own practical man, residing in one of the best. cultivated county. At the instance of the clergy, a meeting has districts of the kingdom, Mr. Marshall spoke more been held within these few w-eks, in Lincolo, with the especially to his own experience. This would appear, object of establishing a “Servants' General Registraindeed, to have had only one drawback-it was almost tion Society," that is to say, a register-office which shall too good. The hinds of Lincolnshire were certainly embrace equally in its operations domestic servants and the happiest race of peasantry under the sun, farm-labourers. The Bishop of Lincoln opened the prowhile rumour went on to say they were also the ceedings. After speaking to the defective education of the best servants. They really showed some return poorer classes, his Lordship went on to say, “ There is when well cared for. In detailing his practice another disadvantage to which our farm-labourers are Mr. Marshall went to say how he paid subject-the early age at which they leave home. his men, and where in accordance with the custom of I do not mean simply the early period at which they the country he obtained them. He referred of corse are sent out to work; but the youthful age at which to the district Statute or Hiring Fairs. He stated at they are put out to service at a part of the county very what times his people were permitted to attend them, for far from their home, so that long before their character the purpose of finding fresh places. And he did all is formed they are removed from the reach of those inthis without in any way denouncing the means which fluences by which character ought to be formed-not lead to such an end. On the contrary, it would come only from their parents, but from those to whom they rather as part of a system, which as a whole was have been taught to look up-and they are often thrown proved to work remarkably well. In the autumn of in contact with bad characters, whose influence begins this same year the reverend Mr. James read another to act upon them. Added to this is the great dispaper on much the same subject, and at the same advantage, as I must think it, though it is to a great place--the Central Farmers' Club. In the course
extent perhaps inevitable, of the annual changing of of this, the latter took occasion to directly de- situations. This, I am aware, cannot, to any great nounce these Statute Fairs as “the labourer's curse" :- degree, be obviated, because as the boy's or girl's “Let us consider that dangerous age when our lads labour becomes of greater worth in proportion as they think themselves their own masters and beyond control; grow older, and as their masters or mistresses may when they leave the roof of their parents, or first em. not require just that kind of labour, they must ployers, and sauntering forth perhaps to a statute fair seek to better themselves elsewhere. But I have (which is, I maintain, the labourer's curse), let them- reason to believe that the almost universal pracselves out for a mere twelvemonth to any master who tice of these changes arises in great degree may engage them; at the expiration of that time from the custom of the country, and from the will setting off again to meet with another master, a new of the children themselves, who seem to consider it home, and new companions, bardened perhaps in crime quite right that every year they should remove to a and villany, considering themselves mere migratory different situation. However this may be, I believe beings, with now little or no religious character, no that this practice, conjoined with that of not requiring sense of Sabbath duties or Sabbath observance, and character at these hirings, is the cause of an almost innondescript in feelings, habits, and views, instead of calculable evil. It results from this—and I beg you, the upright, handy, diligent, skilful, trustworthy gentlemen, to mark my words—it results from this, servants of which we talk, but take so little pains to that a good character is of little or no value to a farm produce.” Now there is palpably a great deal of this
We know that in the case of ordinary domesin direct opposition to what Mr. Marshall had already tic servants, their good character is their capital. It is told us. He showed us that lads and men hired at that on which their success in life depends. They know statutes might be, and were, steady and diligent; that that if they lose it they must be content, perhaps for they did attend church; and that, perhaps, in no other the whole remainder of their lives, to put up with way were they so certain of becoming skilful and trust- worse situations, both in point of comfort and remuneworthy labourers.
ration. But our farm servants are without those It is only right to say, however, that Mr. James, as a motives. Hired without any inquiry into their cha. clergyman, by no means stands' alone here. Indeed, racter, they feel that it is of no consequence to them to the two classes seem very much inclined to join issue acquire a good character in their present situation, on the subject. The clergy say these hiring fairs are because they leave it at the end of the year, and it is of most terrible evils, conducive to all kinds of vice, and no greater advantage to them in their future situation, that they ought accordingly to be done away with because in all probability it will never be asked for.
I have to add to this the subject which is more imme- man had a right to make the best bargain he coulddiately before us at the present meeting the evils of the master in getting his labourer, and the labourer in statute-hirings—or, it would be more correct to say, disposing of his services; and both of them had the the evils of the statutes at which our farm servants are best chance in these statutes, where a large number of hired; for there could be no objection, of course, to them met for the purpose. He thought that the stahiring at statutes were it not for the sights and scenes tutes had been overtaxed with an enormity of crime. to which these young people are exposed on such oc- He was free to admit the immorality that prevailed on casions. Those you know better than I do; I will such occasions, but he meant to say that whenever her only call to your mind that at the annual statute these Majesty's subjects met together in large crowds, there young men and women-or rather, boys and girls—was the same sort of thing—whether it was a statute, have their one great holiday in the year, when, re- or country fair, or an excusion train (which he believed lieved from their labour of the past year, they are presented the worst scene of all), or at Epsom or Donexcited and more liable to impressions from without caster Races." than at any other time; that they meet together in Then, again, as to what certainly looks at first like a crowds in one of the towns, without the eye of their weak place in the system, Mr. Torr explained thatparents or friends upon them, surrounded with temp- “ The changing of servants was a matter of necessity tations which the publicans and others put in their rather than choice on the part of both masters and serway, and without any check upon them, or very little, vants. He found, as a master, that if he hired a boy for the fear of losing their character, or the wish to to mind a pair of horses, and kept him a second year, maintain one they have already obtained. You are when he would have to mind four horses, he was not as well aware that it is scarcely possible to pass through well served ; so he gave him a character, and the boy a town, or a road in the neighbourhood of a town got another place, and the change was better for both where these statutes are going on, without seeing parties. He (Mr. Torr) would be sorry to do anything enough to show how much mischief and immorality that would tend to lower the agricultural status of this they must occasion; and I believe there is many a county, believing that they had an excellent lot of laman and woman who has had to rue to the end of bourers now, and that registration offices would by no their lives the evil which they have learned there."
means improve them. He had the lowest possible The Bishop concluded by thus summing up the assumed opinion of the existing registration offices.” Mr. Skipadvantages of the new plan : “ It gives a value to worth had also “a very poor opinion of registration. character (and that is a very great point); it renders It would be impossible for a man to hire all his launnecessary, at any rate, the hiring at statutes ; and it bourers in that way: he would be travelling two months encourages-indirectly certainly, but still it does en- in the year to select his servants. As to character, when a courage-the servants to remain more than one year in youth conducted himself well, the master or his foreman the same situation."
was there at the statute to say so, and a more truthThe next speaker was one of the best farmers in the ful character was obtained in this way than could be county, the well-known Mr. William Torr of Aylesby. procured by any registration-office. The remedy proIt will be impossible for
follow him posed was totally impracticable.” There were other throughout the whole of his very telling address, but speakers for and against, but the argument is almost we may give the chief points in answer to what had altogether embraced in the speeches of the Bishop and already been advanced :-“The hiring of farm servants Mr. Torr. As the feeling of the meeting was seen to was a different thing to the hiring of domestic servants.
be going against the proposal, an attempt was made to In the first place it was positively essential that the show that in the establishment of register-offices there farmer should see the men he wanted to hire. . In
was no desire to abolish the hiring fairs. If, however, order to do this, there could not be a better arrange
the movement meant anything, it must have tended ment than having a day when both classes should directly to ignoring the latter. And the farmers, to meet and have a choice. The Bishop said that cha- whom, as the Bishop admitted, the consideration of racters were not reckoned of any consequence on such the subject most properly belonged, would not have occasions; but he (Mr. Torr) believed that characters the proposition on any terms. The formal resolution were generally inquired about in the case of the better
to establish a “Servants' General Registration Society" class of servants. He was free, however, to admit that
was met with an amendment that the institution be characters had not been sufficiently attended to, but that
rather called “The Lincolnshire General Servants' was not the fault of the statutes; it was the fault of Amelioration Society". and the amendment was the masters, who did not attend the statutes, and carried by a very large majority, the numbers being who were consequently not there to speak to the cha- thirty-one to seven. racter of the servant who was looking out for another We confess that our opinions go very much with this place. Now, supposing registration offices were es- majority. There has been a vast deal of overstrained tablished throughout the county (though he did not be- sentiment about our “ white slave markets''-Where lieve them to be practicable), how would a farmer be Will stands with a bit of whipcord in his wide-awake, able to make his selection ? Say there were two names or Jack mounts a curl of wool from his last place; and down-one William Smith, who had lived 19 years Mary comes in hopes of getting a better place than she with Mr. Brooks, and the other James Brown, who had ever would in her own hamlet. Beyond this, we do not lived 19 years with Mr. Iles, both wanting situations as quite see the sin or danger of a boy or girl going a little waggoners, and having good characters. He (Mr.way from home. It is well known that our domestic Torr), wanting a waggoner, might pitch upon William female servants never do better than when they are out Smith ; and when he had an interview with him might of reach of the meddling influence of “mother," or find that he was knock-kneed, very weak in the back, the continual promptings of some neighbour Busybody. with an excellent character, but not an atom of use as We are not so sure, either, but that boys may become a waggoner, while he had lost the chunce of obtaining sharper, quicker, and abler men from the same change the other man Brown, who was a strong active fellow, of scene-one, that in a higher station of life is consiand just the man he wanted. Such a system would dered almost a necessary part of their education. Of never do. But in the statute you could pick your man course they are never left entirely to their own control, out. It might be called a white slave market ; but he and we cannot but refer again to Mr. Marshall's maintained that it was the best way of doing it. A essay as to how they do really fare and prosper.
The immoralities of the Statutes might, as was "He had had the good fortune to visit nearly every suggested, be corrected ; although even these we fancy part of Her Majesty's dominions, and he had taken a have been a little overcoloured. Moreover, if Jack and special interest in the rural population of the three Gill are not suffered to go to "a statty” they will go kingdoms; and he could say, without fear, favour, or to a pleasure fair, or have their holiday out some way affection,' that the Wolds of Yorkshire and North Lin. or other. These wholesale attempts to interfere with or colnshire possessed a peasantry equal, if not superior, revolutionize the habits of the lower classes have never, to that of any other district. The only place he could so far, resulted in much good. The Statute fair pay point out as their equal in such a respect was the north be made more orderly, but for either master or man it part of Northumberland, where the cottage system is about the most just principle that has ever yet been existed in its perfection. He should be sorry to see the devised.
north of Lincolnshire copying from the south of EngPerhaps of all districts Lincolnshire was the last land, where there were no statutes, but where the in which we might have expected to have wit- labourers were in a most miserable condition, The nessed such an agitation. The county has long been farm servants of North Lincolnshire were, however, proverbial for the excellence of its agricultural ser- comfortably housed and really well kept." vants, the good terms on which they stand with Is it not rather dangerous to interfere with the custheir employers, and the liberal manner in which they toms of people doing as well as these are ? are treated. As Mr, Torr said, and said well, too :
USE OF GAS.LIME.
[In all our larger towns where gas is used for lights, there that we may readily comprehend how some gas-limes may is a considerable quantity of waste lime thrown out from be quite harmless if applied in moderate doses even to the gas-houses, lime being used for passing the gas through growing crops, while others, rich in these soluble and
deleterious matters, destroy all vegetation. ta purify it. We have various reports from farmers who
It has been supposed that fresh gas-lime is valuable en have tried this, some in favour, some that it has no effect,
account of the ammonia it contains. When the gas-lime is while others have condemned it as rank poison to crops. emptied from the purifiers in which it has been exposed to Several inquiries have recently been addressed to us, one the gas, it has quite a pungent odour of ammonia; but the of which, from F. S. Hawley, of Binghampton, N. Y., we quantity, though enough to affect the nostrils, is in reality forwarded to Prof. S. W. Johnson, of the Yale Analytical quite too small to have any great manuring value, and quite and Agricultural School, requesting an opinion. His reply ning, of this laboratory, found in a specimen of perfectly
disappears after a few days' exposure to the air, Mr. Twiwill throw some light upon the subject.]
fresh gas-lime, from the New Haven gas-works, but eight
tenths of one per cent of ammonia. In a gas-lime from the TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST. The various contradictory opinions held among practical the air for one week, he found but about four-one-hundredths
gas-works at Waterbury, Ct., which had been exposed to farmers, with reference to the value of gas-lime as a manure, of one per cent. are justified by the extreme variableness of its composition. When perfectly fresh from the gas purifiers, it is in general
Fresh gas-lime may be advantageously used in composta rather dangerous appplication to any growing crop, or in ing swamp muck, &c. contact with seed. Mr. Solomon Mead, of New Haven,
By full exposure to the atmosphere, as when scattered Connecticut, informs me he once applied it in the hill to
over fallow-ground, after a time it becomes innocuous. potatoes, and they never came up. A gentleman in Wal. The soluble caustic ingredients are converted into no less lingford, Ct., applied it to grass land and to the roots of valuable a substance than gypsum (plaster); and then, peach trees. The trees were destroyed, and the grass after its odour and bitter burning taste bave disappeared, severely scorched, so that it did not fairly recover until the it acts precisely like a mixture of lime and gypsum. How ensuing year.
rapidly these changes take place, I have no means of knowIt may be used in the fresh state upon naked fallows, ing without making actual trial; but should presume that especially when it is desirable to free the soil from slugs, if a dressing of gas-lime be incorporated thoroughly and injurious worms, or couch grass. What its action is upon uniformly with the soil one week before sowing or planting, vermin may be inferred from the fact that when fresh it no harın could result to the crop. contains a substance (sulphide of calcium) which is the actual ingredient in the depilatories and cosmetics, which it, if he can get it more cheaply than other lime, at the rate
In conclusion, your correspondent is recommended to use are articles employed for removing hair. There is an account of its being thrown into a bog-pen with the intent bushe's on light soils, making one application in three or
of fifty bushels per acre on heavy soils, or ten to twenty that the swine should incorporate it with the compost heap four years. If fresh it should be put on the bare soil, and This was effectually accomplished, but at the expense of the bristles and hair of the hogs, which were, in a great scattered between the rows, and worked in at hoeing time,
not on a crop. In case of corn or potatoes, it may be measure, removed by the operation.
If the gas-lime is white and tasteless after exposure to air It is thought, too, that the odour of the coal-tar, which is for a time, it may be sown like gypsum, mixed with the gas-lime in greater or less quantity, serves It should be remembered that a wet soil will not be much to dislodge insects and vermin ; and it is sometimes sown
benefited by lime, nor by any manure, unless in a dry in small quantity over young turnip-plants to prevent the attacks of the turnip-fly In Scotland, it is largely applied unless a good supply of organic matter be maintained in it,
season; and that a light dry soil is soon spoiled by lime, to moss-land which it is intended to reclaim.
by means of stable manure, muck composts, or greenThe quantity of easily soluble matters (sulphide of calcium, manuring. Lime and plaster, too, are at the best, even sulphite and hyposulphite of lime) is so variable, ranging, when they exhibit their most extraordinary effects, but according to analytical data, from 24 to 15 parts in 100, partial fertilizing agents.
S. W. JOHNSON.
DRILLING OF CROPS.
It was observed by thel late Earl of Leicester, better | ture, and easily dried, and crumbly 'and cloddy from known as Mr. Coke, of Holkham, that the Scotch far. clay, and easily penetrated by drought. The Scotch mers were most excellent cultivators of the soil, in that mode of twice drilling the ground, by opening and they drilled every root crop, as he had adopted that sys. reversing the drills, has been found to dissipate the tem from them; and at the same time they were the moisture, by exposing the land so much during the driest very worst imaginable in sowing the grains in broadcast, season of the year; and on this moisture the success of for he had used the drilling in rows of the culmiferous the turnip crop almost wholly depends. crops. The same very enlightened and patriotic indi- It has been adopted to sow, on the flat and drilled vidual strongly advocated leases of twenty years, and ground, the artificial manures with the turnip seed, by continued the threshing of grain by flail. The judicial means of machines with lengthened coulters, which make Lord Kames of Scotland, who lived about 1770, very ruts in the soil at stated distances to receive the constrongly recommended leases jof twenty years, and as tents of deposition. This method sqws the seed in a strongly urged the superiority of the ox over the horse parched dust on the top of the ground, which is always for farming purposes, wondering all the while that a made during dry weather on tilled lands, and the rows wilful blindness of daily growth seemed to prefer the being flat, the equal opportunity is not afforded, with horse, which was superseding the ox. The quick per- ridglets and hollows, of cultivating the intervals with the ception and powerful intellect of these gifted and en- horse-hoe. But on the lands above-mentioned, it is lightened individuals failed to rid the prejudice that preferable to exposing the land by being twice drilled. threshing machinery diminishes labour, and to see that all light lands are best sown with artificial manures, grain crops only.reap the benefits of the root crop pre- which may be best used in drills 27 inches apart, made paration, and do not confer any benefit on the land. with one furrow of the common plough, and the seed The same organ which established the very large benefit being immediately sown, and the drills rolled, nearly of twenty years'] leases, failed to perceive that nature a flat state will be produced, and a fresh tilth will be has decided the superiority of the horse over the ox, for enjoyed by the seed, without exposing the land to farming purposes, in the muscular formation of the drought by lying in open drills. Two common ploughs animal, and that quick motions are in almost every kind will employ Hornsby's drop-drill, which splits the ridge of operations more effectual than sluggish actions of lets, and deposits the seeds deeply. It is an excellent distant repetition. The late George III., farmed for implement. Light lands may be wholly prepared from thirty-two years at Windsor for the express purpose of the winter furrow by means of Finlayson's harrow, and showing that oxen were superior to horses, and the very being reduced by grubbing and rolling, and never turned contrary was proved ; just as the chemists discover new up to exposure, the moisture of winter will be retained, things, or contrary things, in the progress towards an and do much to secure the crop. The farmyard dung object which was intended. When prejudices surround may be mixed with the land by the grubbing of the and encumber such minds as have been mentioned, no implement, and the ground drilled and sown as abovewonder need be made that the common cultivators are directed. tied and manacled by apathy and mental servitude, The root crops used in Great Britain are, potatoes,
The question between thrashing by machinery and turnips, cabbages, and beet-root, which grow in roots flail is soon settled : the very object of machinery is to in or close to the ground, and do not rise to height and diminish labour on non-productive points, and to apply impede the cultivation in pulverizing the soil and it to the increase of production, and not to the cost of clearing the land from weeds. The horse-hoe can work manufacture, than which there can be no greater blunder during the whole season of summer and autumn, and the in social economy. It relieves manual labour from the hoe and the hands of the weeders can be employed over most brutifying performances, and leaves to it the nicer the matured growth of the plants in cutting and pulling operations that are beyond its sphere of application ; the weeds that grow upon the land. This admission for machinery has its limits prescribed. The question of the tools of cultivation, throughout the season, conof leases needs no discussion, but the drilling of crops stitutes the great value of these plants, as the soil is may admit some useful notices.
thereby thoroughly pulverized and cleaned by the opeThe drilling of root-crops at the distance of twenty- rations. Beans allow a partial cultivation in the early six to thirty inches is certainly the most eligible summer ; but the plant soon rises to height, and expractice that has yet been devised for the purpose of cludes the implements. The crop is, therefore, only a cleaning and pulverizing the ground, destroying the half-fallow; and the best use of it, in the county of weeds, applying the manure, and preparing the land for East Lothian, in the south of Scotland, does not form a the future rops. The drills are opened by the common substitute for the bare wheat and turnip fallows, The plough, the dung is spread evenly along the hollow drilling of peas and vetches is excluded, by reason of intervals, the drills are split by the plough, and reversed the plants quickly growing over the intervals, and proover the dung, when the seeds are immediately deposited hibiting any cultivation; and the use of the plants conin the freshly-stirred soil. This mode is most admirable sists in a close crop, thoroughly covering the ground, in Scotland and the North of England, where the and smothering every vegetation below the shade. The climate affords frequent rains and many dews, and land is mellowed on the surface, and freshened with where the soils are cool from being fresh-water loams of moisture, and enriched with the decomposition produced alluvial formation, that are superimposed on the primi- by the exclusion of air and retention of moisture, tive rocks. Over the southern half of England an arid The very decisive advantages of drilling root-crops climate succeeds, and a totally different geological series arise from the plants growing close by the ground, and of deposits ; marine clays, polites, chalks, and green- thereby allowing the most complete fallowing of the sands' afford a most varied mixture of soils, which re. intervals, and the cleaning of the whole ground from quire very different implements and courses of cultiva- weeds. When the luxuriance of the crop does cover tion. The soils are in many cases very open in the tex- the intervals of the drills, there is still a liberty of hand