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tion above the holes or meshes. The holes in a shaker / wards, so as not to choke. But, seeing that corn may may be small, yet the straws dropped through are many possibly ride over this latter riddle upon the thick, inches in length. In riddling, all these straws must though tortuous, interstices or partitions, although no be prevented passing through holes large enough for pulse can penetrate through, and that straws may cer. the corn; and this can be done only by causing them tainly drop between the angle-bars 'of the other riddle, to travel across the screen without jumping and falling or lodge across the wires between the slats of that first upon it as they do in a shaker. Revolving riddles, mentioned, our readers will be willing to receive our desirable as their even regular motion may be, cannot special approbation of a slat-riddle constructed as fol. answer, unless, by means unseen at present, they are lows: The slats are to be of hard wood, half-inch stuff, made to avoid the rolling and tumbling of the pulse before planed up, and say one and three-quarters inches upon the meshes or slat apertures; and contrivances deep; make them into a riddle, by letting their ends for drawing or pushing the stuff across fixture riddles into a rectangular deal frame as wide as the machine are also completely objectionable, from their heaping will allow, and of sufficient length (to be noticed proand gathering of the corn within lumps of the cavings, sently); the slats lying square across the frame, and instead of thinning all out as much as possible, in order inclined at an angle of about 45 degress; the distance to facilitate the escape of grains and chaff. We cannot apart, measuring from middle to middle of the imagine anything for the purpose better than the hori- (parallel) slats, is to be one and a-half inches at the zontal jogging motion given to our present riddles, the inner end of the riddle, and gradually less till it is one riddle itself being slightly sloped so as to give every and a-quarter inches at the outer end. Thus far we have particle of stuff upon it a tendency to travel in one simply a slat-riddle, made slightly to vary in the size direction over its surface. If all the bits of straw, &c., of aperture, according to the bulk of stuff upon it were of one length, and all traversed the riddle in the at different parts, this being of course much less tosamo posture, lying either lengthwise or crosswise, it ward the outer end, when most of the corn and chaff has would be easy to shape slats or other divisions of the been parted with, than it is when first entering upon the riddle into apertures that would be bridged and slipped riddle. But now fix wires (rather fine), lengthwise of over by the straws while admitting the corn and chaff the riddle, upon the top of the slats, crossing them at to pass through. But the difficulty is, that the stuff right-angles, fastening each wire to every slat by small lies in all directions, and is of innumerable sizes. wire staples; the wires to be one and a-quarter inches The aim must therefore be to form the apertures of a apart. This improved form of riddle, contrived by a shape-say round, square, or but slightly varying from mechanically-gifted farmer in Cambridgeshire, and these figures—80 as to present equal impediments to since adopted by some great manufacturers (in one the entrance of the straws or ears in every direction. case strips of cane being substituted for the rusting A wire screen with square or hexagonal meshes, or wires and their tiresome staples) works to perfecsheet metal perforated, might answer the purpose very tion, or comes very closely to it, whether for wheat, well for a short time-that is until it became clogged barley, oats, or peas. It is just possible that imwith caught and doubled straws-provided that no provement may yet be made in avoiding still furstraws dipped and poked their ends beneath the wires, ther the wear, or liability to damage, of a riddle and so became gradually jogged underneath (that is, rather tedious and expensive to make, and rendering through the riddle, instead of being conveyed over the it utterly impossible for short ears to drop through top. Hence it is indispensable that sloping walls or or catch under the wires at the corners. At partitions should be given to the apertures, at any rate present there are a few refractory bits that will make on that side opposite to and meeting with the advance of their way through, and require to be arrested by the the stuff, in order to hinder the passage of straws in a smaller chaffing riddle to which the corn, &c., is next downward direction, and by their inclined surface raise conveyed. And we may say here, that no riddle must up any dipping-ends on to the riddle again. This is a ever be expected to be absolutely perfect in its action, most important point in the riddling apparatus ; and and that therefore we ought not to trust to a single we advise purchasers of combined thrashing machines riddle, but employ a second (of smaller dimensions and to be very particular in their choico; for wheu the rid- diminished apertures) to rectify the occasional omissions dles have any tendency to clog and block up, and con- of the first, besides the extra facility we may thus get tinual attention is needful in clearing them, not only for chaffing. We have alluded to the length of the time is lost in frequent stoppages, but waste of corn is riddle. It is a common error to have them much inevitable. Now, for passing off the straws endwise too short, and adapted pretty well perhaps to a steady without any poking through, and at the same time for and regular supply of stuff. But the supply is often presenting apertures that no mass of chaff and corn very irregular, partly owing to sudden thrusting in of can by any possibility choke up, we have the slat rid- whole sheaves at once by the man feeding, partly to dle, resembling a Venetian or louvre shutter, with the the gathering together of lumps of stuff (especially slats inclined say at 45 degrees. This form was origin- when damp) either upon the riddle or on the way to ally intended also for having a blast underneath, which it; and we ought to provide for such extreme and ex. blowing up through the spaces, and meeting the corn travagant amounts of stuff at any instant, if we would and chaff, should separate the latter, as well as tend to prevent waste and prodace a pure sample. The farmer lift and throw off the pulse above. But we do not ap- above-named has his riddle 44 feet long, and would prove of this principle, preferring (as we shall hereafter like to stretch it another foot at least, to make it equal show) to separate the pulse by simple straining or to every emergency. His chaffing riddle, which stops bisting, and reserve the whole force of the blast for the escaped odd pieces of pulse, is about 2 feet in length, chaffing in a different manner. To prevent straws made with slats at similar intervals to the other, only from dropping through transversely, wires were intro- the wires are 4 inch instead of 14 apart. Instead of duced, passing through holes pierced in the slats. To crowding the stuff upon a restricted surface, let the gain more aperture space, and obtain the raising ac- principle be to spread and open it out as much as postion of the inclined slats on the opposite side of the sible, by causing it to pass quickly over the riddle, and spaces, angle-bars, with their edge uppermost, have hence a considerable length is necessary in order to give been adopted; and another application of the princi- it due time for letting fall the chaff and corn. Another ple of a sloping passage, or aperture, is seen in the rid- point to be borne in mind is, that corn may ride upon dle, made by boring round holes in a slab of hard wood, or within a knot or braid of doubled or intertwining the holes slanting toward the blast, and widening down. straws, and so be carried over with the cavings; there
fore it is well to make the riddle in two or more suc- under the fall, in order to receive the stuff and transmit cessive steps, say of 1 or 2 inches fall each, to break it in its newly-arranged posture by horizontal sliding the masses of stuff, and present fresh surfaces, as it (produced by the jogging of the riddle) to the apertures were, to the action of the riddle. Of course there must further on, as any falling or jumping upon the riddlo be a part of the riddle free from holes immediately is likely to pop pieces of the cavings through.
BEANS FOR HUNTERS. As regards the propriety of giving hunters beans with their Horses going a journey is now a thing spoken of as one of oats, I do not consider they should be given indiscriminately the strange acts performed by our ancestors and their horses. to all horses in any way; and, to such horses as may require It was then ten miles and stop; ten miles again, the stoppage them, most certainly not will the oats. Most horses are ex- repeated; ten miles and a long stop to lunch or dinner; and cessively fond of the taste of beans; and thus habituating then another ten miles brought horses and travellers to their them to get this addition to their oats is very apt to make resting-place for the night. Horses subjected to the profuse them refuse a feed without them. The way I recommend sweats a heavy carriage and execrable roads produced, and beans being given is with three or four double handfulls of then perhaps saturated with rain, required their insides kept chaff, and that wetted so as to hold any small particles of the
But in these days a man owning horses and carriages bruised beans-for some such will always be found. The chaff takes them with him by the railroad, as naturally as he takes prevents greedy feeders from swallowing the beans without his hat and gloves when he intends walking. Well, these periproper mastication, and, being given as a distinct feed, does patetic stables, coach-houses, and sitting-rooms are extremely not habituate the horse to their taste with his oats. I hold it convenient. Gentlemen and ladies have not the trouble of a bad plan to accustom a young healthy horse (reasonably rousing themselves to look at the country as they speed worked) to beans. They may be necessary when the stomach through it, not being enabled, if they wished it, to see much becomes weakened and inert from age or over-work; but strong more of it in their carriage than their horses in theirs. stimulants to the stomach, unless taken medicinally, are bad Mais de nos moutons. Bruised oats bave been brought before for biped or quadruped. The strong healthy young man of the public eye with the paramount recommendation of saving twenty may like his bottle of wine a day; so may the five
--in short, the vendors of oat-bruisers understand their busiyear-old horse his beans; but if accustomed to them, what will ness, and they understand the reigoing feeling of the public. the one want at the age of fifty and the other at twelve? They would rarely sell a machine if their recommendation only Beans might be necessary to hunters when they were at cover- went to show that bruised oats were better for the animal than side at daybreak, and probably did not get home till the same whole ones; but they show their use is better for the man, by hour they now usually do when hunts meet at half.past ten or stating that instead of giving five feeds of whole oats, bruise eleven. In such days a fox was hunted to death ; now he is them and you need give but four. Now, if they could prove raced into. Horses' were then absolutely wearied out with a that the borse cut off with four feeds could actually do more day's hunting ; now they are blown and exhausted for the work than the one with five, this would be a saving with a time being, but usually recover themselves ere they reach their vengeance, in two ways. Why, in that case we should not homes. Horses refusing to feed after bunting was much more find a carpenter or wheelwright unemployed; they would be frequent (as I have heard) in those days than it is now. A all making oat bruisers to satisfy public demand. But it forpedestrian, after a long fatiguing match of sixty miles, walking tunately, or unfortunately, happens that bruised oats cannot against time or a competitor, will feel all his energies pros- effect miracles; for I roundly assert that four quarterns of trate ; nor can we wonder if his stomach becomes so also; but bruised oats will not produce the same nutriment as five given the runner of five miles, though more blown and exbausted whole; that is, if the five are properly given. I conceive that than the other when he stops, recovers in a quarter of an hour, the best oat-bruiser ever invented is the grinders of the horse. and is quite ready in half a one for whatever you may put be some say, and indeed with truth, that greedy horses will swalfore him. The case is somewhat parallel as regards horses, low much of their corn whole; granted, but mix a few bandunless their powers have been so overtaxed as to produce abso- fuls of chaff with the oats, he cannot then swallow the mixlute illness. Post-horses, in former days, consumed a good ture without thoroughly and properly masticating the commany beans. Well might horses want them, who frequently pound. Greedy feeders will swallow bruised oats without were taken two, sometimes three, journeys a day, of twenty masticating them, as fast or faster than whole ones. I should miles each. Coach-borses wanted them, that in former days not give them a chance of doing either, or rather the chaff were driven sixteen or seventeen mile stages over roads like a would not; for I hold it just as judicious an adjunct to bruised ploughed field. In my remembrance, the old Bath and Bristol oats as to others. I have heard people say, "A horse Blue drove such stages, Horses undergoing such labour re- swallowing bruised oats does not signify; he gets the benefit of quired beans, as the coal-porter requires porter. Beans for the meal." I should beg to observe, in reply to such opinion, merly were in common use in training stables. Those were tbat a horse bas not the reputed stomach of the ostrich; he the days when the trainer had the majority of bis string (five, cannot digest his shoes, nor can he oats merely bruised. If six-year-olds, and aged horses) running heats, and those often ground to meal it would be a different affair; but an oat does four miles. Here direct lasting stamina was wanted, and the not remain long enough in the stomach of the horse to as it old platers required their old hearts kept warm by stimulants; were dissolve, unless first formed into meal by the grinders of but the case is altered now. If a trainer has a four-year-old the animal, and properly saturated with saliva. I consider in his stable, he is "the old horse," and all the remainder of bruised oats, on the whole, as good enough, if you prevent his lot are juveniles. Escept in the case of a particular colt, a waste, and bruise them at home; for I hold a sack of oats sent trainer would never dream of giving a two-year-old beans. He out for this purpose does not always come home as immaculate would hold them as the forerunners of colic, flatulency, con- as it went out. It is surely enough, if bruised oats convey stipation, and eventually fever. In former days grooms kept more nourishment than whole ones ; but do not cheat your the bowels of horses more or less in a constant state of consti- horse in measure, and thereby cheat yourself, by fancying all pation, and judged the hardness of what a horse voided as a people say of bruised oats as fact. Let me feed my borse as I proof of condition. Formerly, even with a hunter, when he like on five quarterns of whole oats, and you give yours four found occasion for evacuation necessary, he stopped short il quarterns of bruised ones, and give them both similar work; I permitted to do so. It was an effort he could hardly make think I can prophesy which at the end of three months will be while walking; it was all but a painful act. And this was in the best condition, to a far greater certainty than any man held condition. It was a state in which, if I saw a horse of can prophesy who will win the Derby, much more the Leger. mine, I should immediately resort to the bran-bin.
-HARRY HIEOVER, in Field,
WINFRITH FARMERS' CLUB.
INCIDENTAL DISCUSSION ON THE COMPARATIVE WEIGHT AND VALUE OF LARGE AND MODERATE-SIZED ROOTS.
The anniversary dinner of this Club was given on Wednes- competitors as their friend the vice-chairman, who was almost day evening, the 20th January, in the Black Bear Ion, at the champion of Dorsetshire-for, having carried off Mr. WilWool, under the Presidency of Mr. J. A. Damen ; Mr. T. H. liams' prize some years ago, he might be considered as having Saunders occupied the vice-chair.
become some years ago the Champion of the County; and he AWARD OF PRIZES.
was in fact acknowledged to be as as good a farmer as any in The President had no doubt that the most interesting the county. Aud not only was he there, but there was, morepart of the evening's proceedings would consist in the Secre
over, another person who was present to compete with (a laugb), tary's reading the award of prizes, which he, the President, had who, if he had not the deepest land, had as essential a thing; just broken open, as given under the hands and seals of the he had Mr. Weld's pocket to go to, and also those piggeries judges, Messrs. Henry Symonds and George Caines.
and feeding-stalls yielding that first-rate manure which was alike The SECRETARY accordingly read the awards. They were
essential to good farming and essential to the growing of roots.
He felt convinced he should never have grown the roots he bad as follows: 1. For the best ten acres of Swedes, the prize of £5, offered done, bad he not manured them with first-rate farm-yard ma
nure as well as with artificials. He had manured with the by J. B. Lawes, Esq., awarded to Mr. Charles Besant.
dung of fattened beasts, fed ou corn and afterwards with arti2. For the best root crop, upon one-sixth part of an acre officials. Iu the first place, he bad given from 30 to 40 tons of land, occupied by the competitor, the like prize of £5, offered farm-yard manure per acre, and good too; and then, from by Messrs. Cardus and Dixon, awarded to Mr. J. Reader,
a-half to three-quarters of a hundred weight of guano, and the 3. For the second-best ditto, ditto, ditto, awarded to Mr.T.
same quantity of superphosphate. The greater part of his H. Saunders.
roots had been this manured; but seven baulks had been 4. For the best ten acres of turnips, the prize of £2, offered manured with Messrs. Spooner and Bayley's mangel madure by Joseph Weld, Esq., of Lulworth, awarded to Mr. J. A. (applause), which he at first thought to be done at a dear rate, Damen.
for be did not expect the same weight on those baulks, although 5. For the best five acres of Swedes, another prize offered quite the same quantity of manure had beeu used on them. by Joseph Weld, Esq., awarded to Mr. J. Sly.*
In this expectation, however, he had been deceived. He had 6. For the best crop of Mangel Wurzel. No competition. 7. For the best five acres of ditto, prize awarded to Mr. j. thought that the guano and superphosphate would have beaten
-but it was not so. Where he had tried bones on these baulks Reader,
he did not expect the same benefit from them as upon the 8. For the best acre of ditto, prize awarded to Mr. J. Sly. hills; but when he got farther into the upper part of his farm
These last-mentioned prizes were offered, we believe, by Mr. be used a quarter of bones per acre ; and, on the other hand, Robert Damen.
he had now tried guano and superphosphate mixed together, The Judges also highly commended Mr. Reader's Swedes, and had tried the mangel manure against it. He had forgot to Mr. Clarke's Mangel Wurzel, Mr. Thomas Randall's Swedes, tell them that he had used also of salt about 6 tous on 16 acres. and Mr. Saunders' Mangel Wurzel.
So satisfied was he of the efficacy of salt as a manure for The SECRETARY, in connection with these awards, read mangel, that he should continue to use it for years to come : over the printed rules of competition adopted by the society, he did not think that it benefited Swedes; but as for mangel which appeared to have been acted upon by the judges, with he hoped to use it, as he had said, for years to come. (Mr. exception of that part of them which required the prices and Robert Damen : “ Havè yon weighed any part of your roots ?"] quantities of the manures used to be stated, but this it appeared He had not weighed the whole of his produce, but he bad had not lately been observed.
found that where the mangel manure had been used he had Mr. ROBERT DAMEN proposed the healths of the success- obtained 40 tous 2 cwt. per acre; where superphosphate, ful competitors, which he had much pleasure in doing, and, at 45 tous 2 or 3 cwt. per acre ; and on the upper part of the field the same time, in congratulatiog them on their success. Those 49 tons per acre. These facts he had ascertained by weighing who had not succeeded in this instance would, he hoped, pot in each instance a square rod, topped and tailed, clean. be dejected. That the rule requiring the manure which bad
COMPARATIVE VALUE OF LARGE AND MODERATE-SIZED been used to be stated had not been acted up to, he thought
ROOTS. a pity, for it seemed to him that it would be interesting to know how those great and weighty roots which had gained the
Mr. Bone, of Avon, said he attended there that evening prize had been grown-a mere estimate might have been given anniversary of the Winfrith Farmers' Club, and not being
as a matter almost of course, because he always attended the of so interesting a fact (Hear, hear). He begged leave to propose “The Successful Competitors." All the honours.
at that moment in the best of health, he ought rather to have excused himself, could he have done so with any sort of grace ;
but the knowledge that both Mr. Spooner and Mr. Blundell Mr. J. Reader, in returning thanks, said that he bad ex- were suffering from severe illness, had weighed with him as an pected that Mr. C. Besant, who had gained the first prize, additional reason why the members of local farmers' clubs in would have responded in the first place; but as the second prize the neighbourhood should attend there, in order to keep up was very nearly equal to the first (laughter, “They are both of the intercommunication which they had from time to time held the same amount”), he must say that he felt pleased at finding with that club. Such were the reasons that had induced himself a successful competitor, when he had to meet such him more particularly to attend on that occasion. He was
extremely well pleased to find the Club going on, doing good, Mr. Sly has since favoured us with the following note :- and progressing. The utility of such clubs was beginning to " Manure used for Swedes per acre—2 loads of a mixture of pig- be every year more and more discerned. Every year the nedung and ashes, 2 cwt. of Spooner and Bailey's superphos- cessity for discussion was coming to be felt more than before 15 load (put) of mixed horse, cow, and piz dung, 24 cwt. of salt, agriculture had taken up that prominent position it had done 2), cwt. of Spooner and Bailey's mangel manure, sown by hand
since former years. As agriculture ebbed and flowed, discuson the dung in the baulks before covering up; alongside of this sions ought to be taken over and over again ; papers ought to used 2 cwt. of the best Peruvian guano per acre. When the be re-read and discussed anew, in order that they might revise roots were taken up we could not tell any difference, therefore I am now convinced that we can do much better without using occasions. He need not illustrate this from any other matter
and alter conclusions which they had come to on previous any of the costly
foreign stuff, until the price comes to be equal in agriculture beyond root crops. They all found that with our own country's manufacture, particularly if our landlords will only lend us a hand to erect sheds, pot costly ones, to
the turnip crop was no longer to be depended upon; they also graze different sorts of stock in."
found mangel wurzel becoming of the greatest use in agricul
HOW TO GROW HUGE ROOTS.
ture; and they also found that great stress was laid by agri- | he had not said anything that might be disagreeable to anyculturists upon growing the largest possible roots. This he one on the subject of landlords entering the club. His was inclined to think a great mistake. He had just read (Mr, Saunders's) was only one opinion; everyone had a a very able paper by Dr. Wolf
, the principal of an agricultural right to his own opinion. If the landlord came there to college in Germany, in which he stated that on their experi- see what was wanted, he would find that they wanted only mental farm, there had been a piece of newly broken-up land a fair day's pay for a fair day's work, that they only wanted planted with the sugar beet, which was used for the purposes interest upon their capital; but if he did not come, he might of distillation; and it had produced a magnificent crop of large, think that the results of farming were double what they beautiful, and luxuriant roots; but after they had been grown really were. He would find that the farmer did not get they had been found to be quite useless, for the sugar manu- more money than was his due. Look at the manure bills. facturers would not take them at all. Now, it was a well-known Good crops were not all profit: but, if the landlord was fact that sugar produced fat; yet it was not that principle in willing to spend a shilling, the farmer was willing to spend the feeding materials of roots, or any other thing, but nitrogen, a shilling too. He had omitted to say that he hoped the that possessed the greatest feeding valae. Well
, as regards young members of the club would, more generally than nitrogen, Dr. Voelcker had performed a recent experiment on they did, take up subjects and introduce them for dis. fusty clover hay, and found that it showed more nitrogen when cussion, and thus the opportunity would be given to the fusty than sweet hay did. No practical man would believe elder members of setting them right. He thought that in this ; at least they all knew that sweet hay was better than this view of the matter the clubs were good schools for fusty (a laugh); they were not all scientific men, but scientific
young men. men might meet with practical men at the clubs, and find that
MANURING ROOTS. they had arrived at conclusions such as these. He trusted bis friend Mr. Reader's large roots would not turn out the same
Mr. Fowler said he would observe in regard to the as Dr. Wolf's; it would be a bad affair for him after the liberal subject of their discussion that evening, but without atallowance he had given them, and it was a question whether tempting to detract from the course that had been pursued they ought not to keep to such an amount of roots per square
by Mr. Reader, in using so enormous a quantity of manure acre as pot to produce them of an over large size. They were
for his roots, that he coincided with his friend Mr. Bone. aware that large roots did not possess that amount of nutri- | They might draw an inference from what occurred tiou that small roots did. Mangel wurzels of over 10 lbs.
in managing grass lands; when they placed manure weight when cut open were generally found to be hollow and upon grass lands the stock did not thrive so well.
On insipid. If that were the case it was impossible they could
a field of his own, some large swedes contain the same amount of nutrition. In conclusion he grown on a spot where there had been a dunghiil; and he had expressed himself pleased and proud to meet them all, and
been curious to ascertain whether a solid inch cut from these to see the Club flourishing, and he hoped that they would large snedes weighed as much as a solid inch from the ordinaryall again have the pleasure of meeting togetber and learning
sized swedes in other parts of the field ? He tried this, and that the Club derived benefit from its intercommunication
found that the solid inch from the ordinary swede considerwith others.
ably outweighed the other : he did not go to grains and
minutiæ, but the fact was so. He did not wish to raise a disLANDLORD AND TENANT.
cussion on the point of Mr. Reader's largely manuring; but he Mr. T. H. SAUNDERS, in responding to a call made upon agreed with his friend, Mr. Bone, that they might gather some him, expressed himsell extremely obliged to his excellent practical information by considering the difference in value friend Mr. Randall, and to the company. One thing Mr. betwixt large and ordinary-sized roots. Randall said with especial truth, and that was, tbat whenever an experiment had been made by him, he had always given
Mr. READER said : With regard to the size of roots alluded the advantage of it to the club. He had told them in what
to by Mr. Bone, he (Mr. Reader) never meant to compare a he had failed, and he believed he had told them too in what large root grown, say in a bog, with a root of the same size he had succeeded. He had been happy and proud to belong large roots on bog-land, they would not prove of equal quality
grown on strong land; for he was convinced that, if they grew to the club ever since it bad been established in 1846, and he hoped that it might continue to flourish for many a year to
with roots grown on stronger land. But, still, they were not come. Mr. Bone had alluded to the benefits introduced by afraid, the other way; and, for one mistake they made in
very liable to err in that way. They rather erred, he was the club into the neighbourhood, to which it had been of the greatest advantage; for if they took the line of bills that be
growing roots large, they made fifteen in growing them too
small. The largest he had raised this season had been given longed to the district, no man could fancy the extent of that advantage unless he had previously seen them in their original their feeding qualities : he assured them that these pigs had
to his running store pigs, and that was a pretty good test of state. It was not good for a farmers' club if every man in it did not speak ont whatever be knew. It did no good to come
had nothing else this fall (Hear, hear), and that the sows in there and say nothing. Yet a great many members came there
farrow bad had nothing but the trimmings of the roots. He and never spoke out at all. Nor was there any good in adhering
was glad to say that there were not a few of them that were
not hollow ; in corroboration of which he should refer them to merely to one side of a question. Agriculture could go wuch further than it had yet gone. He thought that it might
Mr. Watt, who had cut them. A square inch, cut from a assist the landlord as well as the tenant. Mr. Calcraft had
root which had grown in a “mixen," was hardly a fairly sample alluded to the propriety of his admission to the club, because
of a field; for it was seldom that they made a “mixen" all Mr. Calcraft was a landowner, and at first sight the club ap
over a field. But, no doubt, were they to take a square inch peared to be merely a farmers' club; but what did that mean?
from a root grown on strong land, and another from a root It meant a club devoted to the benefit of agriculture at large
grown on boggy land, they would find the square inch grown to the benefit of the landlord, the farmer, and the labourer, all
on the strong land considerably the heavier. If, however, the
error alluded to did occur, it was seldom on the strong land of of those three interests being bound up in one. They should be happy, therefore, to see the landlord amongst
their hills, where there was acid enough to dissolve the bones, them, if he came to meet the tenantry, and to hear
and not a particle remained in a short time; for the land ate their discussions month after month. The tenant could
Mr. that spirit, they would be happy to see him, that he
Mr. Bone's view, said that it was better to grow medium-sized might see in their discussions what it was that they really
than large roots, which, before they were pulled, began to required; but if he came not in that spirit
, he ought to be decay; and related an experiment in which he had succeeded expelled the club. If he came to them as Mr. Calcraft had in rendering fusty hay edible by steaming alone, without the come that night-let him come. If the landlord and the
aid of salt. tenant went hand-in-hand together, England might defy Mr. RANDALL took up the point, into which he said the world. He was happy to see Mr. Calcraft becoming a the question raised by Mr. Bone resolved itselt: whether member of the club, and hoped he would continue to be one turnips had better be sown in 18-inch drills 9 or 10 inches for some time to come. The advantages of such clubs were apart, or in 2-feet drills 14 or 15 inches apart ? It was, in too numerous to relate; but in a few words he had given his opinion, the 18-inch drill, yielding a moderate-sized the heads of his opinion regarding them; and he hoped that I turnip, that gave the most crop and the best feed for stock, He also alluded to a peculiarity of the club. He bad scarcely to use 1 cwt. of guano when using the horse-hoe; but he had ever known one member of the club carry off the best prize for not bad an opportunity of using the guano, the season being two years running, the successful candidate being almost al- so dry that it seemed like throwing it away. Taking up 4 ways sure to be beaten next year.
square rods of mangel, he had honestly divested them of all Mr. CLARKB only rose on being loudly called for, and gave tops and roots, put them on the weighing machine, and, althe following very interesting account of his produce. He had though he had not been asked the weight, he should state it: grown upwards of twenty acres of roots, not very large, but, it was 39 tons 18 cwt. The roots were regular, uniform, and, as Mr. Symonds, who was the judge, could tell them, tolerably notwithstanding that the season had been so dry that at one good. His system was a four-course one. His first sowing time there was scarcely a leaf to be seen on them that had not had been on the 10th of May, his next 14th May: to the withered away, they had turned out a very good crop, and baul ked-up land he bad applied 12 cart-loads of dung, pre- would keep his stock for the winter. pared in the field, and spread upon the baulks 3 cwt. super- The conviviality and discussion were kept up till 10 P.M., phosphate and 1 sack of bones, and it had been his intention / when the company dispersed.
HEXHAM FARMERS' CLUB.
The annual meeting was held at The Grey Bull, Hexham,, believed was so familiar to them all as to be rather one which on the 12th of January. The following were appointed the must be dealt with in conversational discussion than in the officers of the society for the ensuing year: Secretary, Mr. manuer of any lengthened lecture. It was not one of tbose Lee; President, John Grey, Esq., Vice-Presidents, w. subjects which was very imposing, as embracing any parti. B. Beaumont, Esq., M.P., John Errington, Esq., Mr. cular or high principle connected with the legal tenure of Nicholson, and Mr. Brown : Committee-Messrs. William | land, or with the rights of landlord and tenant. It was, Trotter, Goodrick, Dodds, Harle, M. Stephenson, Cook, however, notwithstanding this, one of the very greatest imand R. E. Ridley.
portance in all the round of agricultural practice. That any At hall-past two about seventy of the members sat down man of common sense should expend money in purchasing to dinner.
and applying manure to his land for the purpose of growing The chair was occupied by John Grey, Esq., Dilston weeds, was too great an absurdity to be for one moment House.
entertained; and they knew that the perfection of cultivaThe CHAIRMAN gave in succession the loyal toasts. He tion was to have the land they were occupying in such a then called upon the secretary to read the following condition as to grow merely that crop which they intended 6 REPORT.
to produce, and to grow it to the greatest perfection. It
would be unreasonable and absurd in any man to think he “ In presenting the twelfth annual report the committee would employ cultivation and manure upon a field which he have again the satisfaction of stating that the society continues to increase, and has now 164 members, with a
had sown with wheat, and theu to let it expend one-half of
its fertility in producing docks and thistles. It would be balance of £35 ls. Ild. in the hands of the treasurer. The equally absurd for any farmer to give such encouragement to committee have to express their thanks to those members
the noxious weeds which were grown as it he were to 80W who have so ably introduced subjects for discussion. The them for the purpose of rearing them.
It happened to him monthly meetings during the past year have been well about two years ago at least the last time he was requested attended, at which discussions took place on the following to take any part in the proceedings of the Royal Agricultaral subjects: – Jan. 13, “The landlord's interest in a lease, Society of Ireland--to have remarked, in passing through that and its tendency to promote good cultivation ;' introduced country, amidst many luxurious crops, a very great proportion by John Grey, Esq., Dilston. February 10, 'On farm of weeds, of course taking away from the bulk of the crop in accounts ;' introduced by Mr.
J. Lee. March 10, . On the the first place, and considerably injuring the sample of corn in prevention of diseases among farm stock;' introduced by Mr. the other. He was called upon on that occasion, in the presence Woomack, Shildon Hill. April 18, On hay-making;' of the Lord Lieutenant and many of the aristocracy, to give introduced by Mr. William Trotter, East Acomb. Oct. 13, an address to the people of that country upon some subject
On the prevention of diseases among cattle and sheep,' which he thought might be beneficial. The show of that introduced by Mr. Woomack, Shildon Hill. Nov. 17, 'On day was a very magnificent one, and he might have taken & the selection of agricultural seeds;' introduced by Mr. C. laudatory strain, and have praised the people of Ireland for Reid, Humshaugh. Dec. 8,' On harvesting corn, and the
the great exertions they were making, and the great success advantages of nowing over reaping ;' introduced by Mr. they had achieved in the breeding of stock; but he took that Harley, Mill Hills. The premiums given by the club for very subject which happened to be the subject of their discusthe different operations in harvest-work excited great com- sion that day-the absurdity of allowing their land to be petition ; there having been 44 entries for mowing, 10 for drained by noxious weeds; and in consequence of that address, binding and stooking, 21 for taking up and sheaving corn some discussion had been going on in that country lately, and after the mowers (by women), nearly the whole of which
a paper had been sent to him, from which he read an extract. work was done in a most satisfactory manner. Only two Now, if there be any truth in this (he continued), that by : reaping machines were brought into operation that of clean system of farming in Ireland, one-fourth, or even much Burgess and Key attracted great attention, and did its less than that, of the produce would be increased, how well work remarkably well. The committee beg to suggest must it be worth the while of the cultivator of the land to that premiums be again offered for the best mowing, taking do all he could for the destruction of the weeds! It was up corn, &c.”
very true that the man who might expend somethivg in On the motion of Mr. STEPHENSON, the report was cleansing his own field of weeds was not very much advanadopted.
taged if his neighbours all around him allowed theirs to go to ON THE DESTRUCTION OF WEEDS.
seed, and even if the road-sides—as he was sorry to say was The CHAIRMAN then said it was now his duty to bring too often the case in this country--were allowed to grow before them the subject of the day's discussion, and be begged thistles and docks, the seeds of which were spread about by their forbearance. That he had not put pen to paper on this winds, and carried down ditches by floods, and so deposited subject, and that he had been able very little, indeed, to on the lands below. There were various kinds of weeds which consider in what manner it ought to be brought forward, he required very different treatment; some, such as the dock, begged them to believe was not out of any disrespect to the thistle, and others, planted their roots in the ground, and club, or from any want of cordial feeling towards its rules, could not very well be extirpated except at great pains in exbut merely that his time had been of late very constantly tracting them individually as they grow. This was an exper. and very anxiously exercised; so that he had come there sive and slow process, yet it was well worth their while to do as with the mere purpose of opening to them a subject which he much in this liue gs they could. There were other weeds which