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(Enclosure No. 1.) GENERAL Report of the PROGRESS of the RINDERPEST in the GOVERNMENT of Cracow, from the 1st to the 15th of
April, 1857.-Cracow, 23rd April, 1857.
TOTAL OF THE WHOLE GOVERNMENT. | 14574 | 51 | 67 | 101 | 168 | 8 | 53 | 84 | 23 | 576 | 23 | 361 | 169
(Enclosure No. 2.) nature of the affection, the animal shall be killed, and a post “Circular Notice of the Imperial Royal Government of Galicia
mortem examination made with a view of ascertaining as far respecting the Slaughtering of Caltle to prevent the spread
as possible the exact nature of its ailment. ing of the Rinderpest.
** (a) The disease having been declared suspicious by a
medical officer duly appointed for that purpose ; and “ To prevent the spreading of this disease by the means "(6) The local authorities having been informed by the which are at the command of the Minister of the Interior, it medical officer of his opinion, they shall jointly proceed to has been deemed expedient to issue the following orders :- value the animal to be slaughtered, according to the manner “1st. That whenever there are reasons to suspect the ex
hereafter described. istence of the pest, all diseases occurring among cattle shall be “2nd. Slaughtering is to be enforced in the Austrian do. carefully watched; and when the least doubt exists as to the minions when the rinderpest already prevails
"(a) At its outbreak in places which have hitherto been free Immediately on the receipt of these official documents from it.
and our letters of introduction from Count Clam “(6) When the disease is well marked in its characters, Martinitz, we set forward on our journey to Neu Sandec symptoms, and duration, or by its violence and destructive via Bochnia, passing over the great rock-salt formation ness, and when also the police measures which have been already taken have been without effect in checking its progress,
of Austro-Poland in company with Professor Nicklas, so that there is a probability that either the malady by the
of the Veterinary School at Munich, whom we had slaughtering may be suddenly brought to an end, or that its previously met at Berlin, and who bad been sent by the further spreading may be entirely or partly prevented, to enable
authorities of Bavaria on a similar mission to ourthe communication between healthy and diseased districts to selves. be speedily re-established.
Arriving at Neu Sandec, our first business was to "(c) The ultimate decision as to whether the slaughtering wait upon the President of the department, who referred shall be enforced when the certainty of the presence of the us to the district physician for the latest particulars as rioderpest has been decided op, and to what extent it shall be to the precise location of the disease, as the week's recarried, is to depend on the commissioners who are appointed for port had not yet reached his office. that purpose, who, after having been duly informed of the outbreak of the rinderpest or other disease of a suspicious bature,
It may be aswell here to observe that in this part of of the spreading of the same in the infected communes, shall
, cated veterinary surgeons ; and that from the frequent
the Austrian dominions there are no scientifically educonjointly with those who are charged with the carrying out of the veterinary police regulations, and also, if possib:e, with
occurrence of epizootic diseases, both physicians and a medical officer acquainted with the disease, and two sworn surgeons are appointed by the Government as inspectors valuers, taken from the commune, wbo are well acquainted with of the health of cattle, and to act also as commissioners the price of farm stock, first value the cattle which it bas been of veterinary sanitary police during the prevalence of decided to slaughter. A special report is to be made of tire pro- these affections. To fit them for this purpose, they bave ceedings to the competent authorities.
to make this class of maladies their special study, and " 3rd. With reference to the question by whom and in what subsequently to undergo an examination as a test of manner the estimated value is to be paid to the owner of the
their competency. condemned cattle, and whether it is ultimately to be paid by
By the district physician we were placed in communian order ou the Treasury from the police authority of ihe district
cation with M. Carl Zankel, surgeon and commissioner " (a) The owner will receive the full value ordered by the of Alt Sandec, who received instructions to accompany authorities, after deduction has been made for the parts that
us forthwith to the different places where the disease exmay be used, as determined by competent authorities, for the
isted ; and to proceed, in the first instance, to a village cattle which have been killed on suspicion under rule 1, with called Ludowica, lying at the foot of the high range of a view to ascertain if the disease was the rinderpest or not. the Carpathian mountains, where a case had just oc
"(6) For those cattle where no doubt exists as to the nature curred, and which it was hoped that we might succeed of the disease being the rinderpest, and in those districts in in seeing before the animal was destroyed. the Austrian dominions which are known to be infected. And
On reaching Ludowica we were at once admitted when the slaughtering shall have been ordered by the autho-within the cordon, when we found that this animal, torities, the owner shall only be entitled to receive the amount
gether with nine others which had been exposed to the of their value on condition that he has not neglected any of the precantions wbich are prescribed by the veterinary police,
infection with him, had already been slaughtered and snd thereby contributed to the spread of the infection among
buried. An application was made to have the bodies bis stock, or bas in no way concealed the disease after the out
disinterred, but which for want of due formality was not break on his premises.
complied with-Ludowica, in fact, being ouiside the "(c) Under the same circumstances of the existence of the circle of Alt Sandec, to which M. Zankel was attached, disease, the sum named by the valuers, after deductiog the and we not baving with us a special order from the Preworth of the parts allowed to be used, such as the skin and sident to the authorities of the circle we were now in for horns, when properly disinfected, will be paid for every head the disinterment. of cattle killed by order of the commissioners. "(d) With a view to facilitate those proprietors whose
The slaughtering had swept away all the animals in the cattle have been slaughtered by the commission for the pur
village which were known to have been exposed to the pose of ascertainiog the nature of the disease, and when it has
infectious influence of the disease, and consequently we been proved not to be the rinderpest, in replacing their cattle pressed forward through the mountain passes, which speedily, the district authorities are empowered to order the here chiefly consisted of the partially-dried beds of rivers payment to be made out of the district funds, and to duly in- and streams, to another village called Zabrzez. It was form the superior authorities of the same.
somewhat singular that at Zabrzez we came upon the " 4th. To estimate the true value of the cattle ordered to be identical farm where the malady had first showed itself slanghtered by the commission, the local authorities as well as
in this locality, and saw on the premises four of the the sworn valuers will have to take into consideration the
original Steppe oxen by which it had been brought. market value, age, and breed of every animal submitted to them.
Three of these had been the subjects of the disease, but " 5th. With regard to the cattle which have been killed as
had recovered, and the fourth had resisted the contagion 811pected, but which are found on a seclio cadaveris to be
throughout, as was believed, because he had before been perfectly free from the disease, the flesh of the same may be affected. They were tied up to fatten, and had every used for food, and the hide, horns, and tallow as articles of appearance of perfect health, baving po trace of disease commerce. Of those, also, which were known to be affected of any kird about them. by the pest, or were discovered to be diseased on the making
Besides these, there were nine other animals on the of the post mortem examination, the horns, fat, and hides may be used for commercial purposes, but only ou the regulations bull, and five cows. They also were feeding, and look
farm in quarantine, consisting of three oxen, a young ordained that in these instances the parts shall be valued, and ing well. Twelve days bad elapsed since the occurrence deduction made from the amount to be paid to the proprietors.
of the last death; and we learned that should no other "The attention of the local authorities and veterinary police
case happen, the animals would not be liberated till the is specially directed to this point.
completion of the twenty-first day from the time of the
last death. “ Lastly. It is ordered that these fresh directions of the district government upon the necessity of the slaughtering of Leaving Zabrze, we went on to Kamienica, five cattle to preveut the spreading of the rinderpest be in force miles distant, and the head-quarters of the Austrian from the present time.
commission, which had been specially sent to adminis“Lemberg, 17th September, 1850.”
ter the sanitary laws applicable to the rinderpest. The commission was constituted of Dr. Anton Karger and to four thousand head were brought together at the fair. M. Johann Rucki,“ Imperial Royal Commissioners of Jacmirz is about twenty German miles from Zabrzez, sanitary police for Epizooties," and from them, during and three full days were occupied in driving the animals our entire stay, we not only experienced all the assistance to the latter-named place. in their power in furtherance of our inquiry, but likewise They were bought by M. Berl Krumholz, farmer and the greatest kindness and friendship. We were thus distiller, and arrived at the farm on the 15th of the left free to pass as often as occasion required between same month, and, after remaining a few hours, were Kamienica and Zabrzez, and so to act in our investiga- sent on to Kamienica, where the distillery is situated. tions, both within and without the cordon, as scarcely They were here put with 14 fat oxen, but, in consecould be anticipated, when the austerity of military dis-quence of these being sold for slaughtering two days cipline in these cases is considered, and which compen- afterwards, the steppe caitle were returned to Zabrzez sated in a great measure for our oat-straw beds and sour on the 18th. Here they were placed in a stable by rye-bread repasts.
themselves, and stood there until the 20th, wben four of In Kamienica we found two quarantine stations, in them were a second time sent to Kamienica, with 10 one of which seven animals were placed, and in the head of young stock, and on their arrival were placed other nine. Two days prior to our arrival a case had with 21 others. On the following day, the 21st, the occurred in the first station, and more were daily looked six steppe oxen left at Zabrzez were observed to be for. The animal in question, a cow, was observed by trembling, which being supposed to depend on exposure her owner, late in the evening of Thursday, April 30th, to cold, they were put into a shed for warmth, in which to be out of health. She was reported early on the fol
were 18 other animals, consisting of some young bulls, lowing morning, and immediately seen by the Commis- cows, and two calves. On the 22nd, the four steppe sioners, who at once recognised the pest. She lived till oxen at Kamienica were likewise noticed to be unwell 2 p.m. on Saturday, May 2nd, only surviving the attack and trembling, and, the true nature of their illness being about forty-two hours. After the body had been ex- now suspected, they were immediately removed from amined- and which has to be done in every instance- the other stock, and orders were sent to Zabrzez for it was buried. The skin, however, was allowed to be the six to be also taken away and kept by themselves. removed for the owner's use subsequent to its being As a further security to the stock at Kamienica, early disinfected and prepared under the inspection of the the next morning the four steppe cattle were sent back proper officers.
to the farm at Zabrzez. Notwithstanding this precauAt our first visit to these quarantine stations, in com
tion, the disease broke out among the young stock on pany with the Commissioners and Professor Nicklas, the 30th, and eight of them died on the first day; and and which was late in the afterpart of Monday, May 4th, by April 3rd, thirty-one in all were dead. Besides these no indications of disease could be detected in any of the animals, M. Berl Krumholz bad ten others at animals-a fact not without some value, as, on our
Kamienica, and the Commissioners decided upon killing second visit, at 6 a.m. of the following day, an aged them at once, so that he might receive something tocow, one of the seven, exhibited some of the premonitory wards bis loss. The entire number, therefore, lost by symptoms of the pest. This case will hereafter be re- bim Kamienica was 41 animals ; and had it not been for ferred to.
the selling of the 14 fat oxen, they also in all probaAccording to arrangement, we next proceeded to ex- bility would have been sacrificed. hume the animal which had died on Saturday, that we On the same day that the disease manifested itself at might note for ourselves the several lesions which had Kamienica it also broke out at Zabrzez among the been produced by the disease. We found that all the eighteen with which the steppe oxen were placed on the viscera of the chest had been removed, and were lying 21st. Of the entire 28 animals located here, including by the side of the body, and on bringing both these and the 10 steppe cattle, thirteen died, eleven were killed, the carcase to the surface, we were forcibly struck by three recovered, and one resisted the infection entirely. the circumstance that so little decomposition had taken | The three animals which recovered, and the one wbich place, that no unpleasant smell attended our operations, escaped the attack, were all steppe oxen: they have although the animal had been dead about 65 hours. been previously mentioned as being seen by us on our The flesh also was firm, and of a normal colour ; the
first visit to the farm. blood, however, was still fluid in the (vessels, and of a
The establishment of the cordon confined the disease darker hue than natural. It will not be necessary to entirely to this farm, although there were in the village give a detailed account of the morbid appearances which altogether 453 head of cattle, the greater part of wbich were met with in the viscera, and more especially as, in were very poor and weak animals, badly fed and badly the course of this report, we shall have to describe these provided for. in extenso as they were observed in other cases; suffice The progress of the disease was rather singular at therefore to that although they left no doubt of the Zabrzez—thus, 11 of the 13 deaths had occurred by the animal baving died from the rinderpest, they opened end of the third day of the outbreak; every one of the up new ideas in our minds as to the pathology of the animals dying which up to that time had shown sympdisease.
toms of the disease. On the ninth day subsequent to the Before proceeding to a description of the nature and death of these, another animal sickened and died, and symptoms of the malady, or the relation of indivi- on the fourteenth day after its attack a second; while in dual cases of it, we propose to give in the next place the twelve days more a third was taken ill, namely, a young
bull, whose case will be hereafter recorded in full as HISTORY OF THE APPEARANCE OF THE RINDER. coming under our own immediate investigation. PEST IN ZABRZEZ AND KAMIENICA.
Notwithstanding that the same sanitary measures Until the present occasion, the villages of Zabrzez were taken at Kamienica as at Zabrzez, the disease and Kamienica, as well as all the surrounding district, reached the village cattle, but was fortunately prevented have been perfectly free from the disease since 1816. making much havoc among them. The ultimate result The present outbreak took place in the month of of the outbreak was that, out of 433 cattle kept in the March, and was due to the introduction of 10 steppe village, 65 were attacked, of which 37 died, and 28 oxen which bad been purchased at a cattle fair held at were slaughtered. Jacmirz, in the Lemberg division of Galicia. These oxen In Kamienica the malady chiefly prevailed among the came with large droves from Bessarabia, and from three cattle of the small proprietors and peasants; and the
daily lamentations of the poor women, to whom was propagate the disease without itself becoming affected; confided the principal care, or rather, on whom was and that even cattle can do this before they are diseased, forced the labour of nursing and feeding the animals, at in consequence af the materies morbi being lodged in the losses they were sustaining, were most distressing the hair which covers their bodies. This is by no 10 witness. Nearly the entire means of living of these means improbable, and the opinion receives support small farmers depend on the well-being of their cattle ; from the circumstance that in numberless instances perand to see them swept away by such a fatal scourge, sous visiting the sick cattle have conveyed the pest to could not fail to excite our deepest sympathy. A gloom other animals of the ox tribe. Thus we see that in was cast over the whole village ; and fear seemed to be these particulars the disease agrees with the small pox depicted on every countenance, lest the disease should of sbeep, or with the plague, small-pox, &c., of man, still further extend itself.
and that it is as infectious among catile as the latterAs a warning to surrounding places, notice-boards named diseases are among ourselves. were erected at the different entrances into the villages, There have been doubters of the infectious nature of setting forth, by their Polish and German inscriptions of the rioderpest; and whenever speculation bas been al“ZARAZA NA BYDLO ROGATE,” and “Horn, Vien lowed to take the place of facts, although it may seem: Seuche,” that the pest was there, while each fresh ingly have had science as its basis, great injury has place of outbreak was instantly surrounded by the mili- resulted to those most interested in the question. A tary cordon, and all communication effectually cut off. notable instance of this kind has been furnished us by
Besides Zabrzez and Kamienica, two other adjacent | Professor Renault, Director of the Allort Veterinary villages in the circle of Kroscienko were the seat of the School, and through his kindness we are enabled to pest-namely, Tilka and Szchawnica. The total transcribe the following particulars. number of cattle kept in the former was 78, out of
Towards the end of 1844 the rinderpest, which had which 11 were attacked ; and of these, 10 died, and i
prevailed among the cattle in Galicia, passed through was slaughtered. In the latter place, 490 were kept, Moravia, and made its appearance in Bohemia, in the and 34 became the subjects of the malady; and of circle of Koniggratz. The malady had already made these, 25 died, 4 were slaughtered, and 5 recovered.
some progress in the district, when M. Verner, chief of It has been ascertained that the outbreak also in these the Veterinary Department of Bohemia, was sent from instances depended upon the introduction of steppe Prague by the government to inquire into the precise oxen, bought at the same fair.
nature of the affection. This gentleman, who had had Characters OF THE DISEASE.
many opportunities of seeing the rinderpest, had no
difficulty in recognising this disease in the malady in Infection.-Rinderpest properly belongs to that class question, and, with a view to arrest its further progress, of diseases which is denominated special or specific, by he recommended to the superior authorities the adopwhich we understand that there is either some certain
tion of those measures wbich experience bad shown to and particular cause which gives origin to them, or that
be best calculated not only for this, but to cause its a marked peculiarity attends their progress and results. quick extermination ; namely, to slaughter the sick Affections of this kind most frequently possess the animals, isolate those which had been exposed to the power of extension, by an inherent property of dissemi. contagion, and establish a cordon around the infected nating the materies morbi upon which they themselves places. These measures were put in force at once, and depend, and which we recognize by the terms infection
soon had the effect of arresting the further proand contagion. Thus each victim may be viewed as
gress of the malady, when some young physicians, who adding new seeds to the malady, by the exhalations
had had an opportunity of making, for their instruction, arising from its own body; it being a remarkable cir
some post mortem examinations of the cattle, thought cumstance that, when the morbific matter has entered
that they recognised in the affection an analogy to that the system, it multiplies to an inconceivable extent be
of the typhus abdominalis of man. They therefore fore it is cast out by the organic functions. The circum
communicated their opinion to some members of the stance of animals, when in health, contracting a disease faculty of medicine at Prague, wbo, after making several of the same description as that affecting others with autopsies, came to the same conclusion. A report was which they are located, is the best proof of the infec- accordingly sent to the government setting forth that tious or contagious nature of the malady. The escape the malady was not contagious, that it could rise sponof some under the same circumstances may be due to
taneously amongst the horned cattle of the country by a variety of causes, and offers no satisfactory proof that other influences than those of the contagion, and that the disease is non-contagious. For example, all animals
the means which the government had adopted were not are not equally susceptible of being acted on at the same
only useless but vexatious. As the faculty had great time by the morbific matter : some may, therefore, re
authority in all sanitary matters, the government, al. sist its influence to-day, but in the course of a few days though it did not entirely remove the restrictive meaafterwards be susceptible of its action.
sures, still did not enforce them with its usual rigour; The facts which have been given with reference to the the result of which was that in a few weeks the malady various outbreaks of the rinderpest do not require the had extended into several other circles of the kingdom, addition of scientific deductions to establish more firmly committing such dreadful ravages, that the Austrian the infectious nature of the malady. We believe that it government took alarm, and forthwith sent M. Eckel, stands second to none in its capability of spreading from Director of the Imperial Veterinary Institute, into Boanimal to animal, the cattle tribe being alone its hemia. He at once found that it was the rinderpest, victims. If the malady were one that owed its exten- and recommended the rigorous enforcement of the sion to unexplained causes; if it suddenly showed itself former measures, the result of which was that in six in one part of the continent, and rapidly spread, despite weeks or two months afterwards the malady bad entirely all precautionary measures and without the introduction disappeared in the kingdom of Bohemia.” of diseased animals, to others near to or at a greater Incubation.—Like small-pox, and many other affecdistance from its origin ; if, in short, it possessed all the tions common to man and animals, rinderpest lies dorcharac'ers of an epizootic, then we might have some mant for a time after the infection has entered the orreason to doubt its infectious nature.
ganism. This period is found to vary in different disIt has been stated, on indisputable authority, that any eases, and also in the same disease at different times, as animal which has been exposed to the infection can well as with animals which belong to different zoological classes. It is influenced by many external circumstances, | known to be the subjects of the pest, unless brought such as the manner in which the infection is received, under the influence of the infection. Besides, the Hunthe heat of the weather, temperament of the animal, garian, Italian, and steppe cattle are all, from their great freedom from other diseases, peculiarity of constitution, similarity, evident descendants of the old Roman ox, and &c. None of these causes can be said, however, to pre- yet it appears that in but one of these has rinderpest a vent the outbreak of the malady, although some of them spontaneous origin. Hungarian oxen are even said to may retard, and others facilitate, its appearance. Dur. be less susceptible to the disease than the other breeds ing the incubative period, the animal gives no indication met with in the Austrian dominions, and to bear up of ill-health, and only does so when the disease is about | better against it, so that the percentage of deaths among to declare itself.
them is much less than among others. The time that the poison of the rinderpest lies dor. Exertion has been assigned as the cause of the appearmant is also found to vary; many animals sickening on ance of the malady, but like breed this too is powerless the seventh day after exposure, and others not until the with all cattle except with the steppe. We do not rethirteenth or fourteenth. Some are said even to pass to gard, therefore, the fact of the breaking out of the pest the twentieth day before giving evidence of the malady. among steppe cattle at the end of a journey as a satisSuch cases are few and may possibly depend on secondary factory proof that the exertion they have undergone is exposure to the infection rather than on so great a varia- the cause. tion in the periods of incubation. These secondary ex- When we observe a malady to be capable of being posures are not unfrequently entirely overlooked, and es- communicated from animal to animal by innumerable pecially with such an affection as the rinderpest, the infect- means of conveying the materies morbi; and when we ing materials of which can be conveyed by indirect as well take into account the varying susceptibility of animals as by direct means. It must not be forgotten, also, to the immediate action of this matter, and also the tthat it is a rule or law belong to this class of maladies further circumstance of its remaining dormant in the that if an animal passes over the usual period of incu- system for a fortnight, or possibly a longer time, we see bation, it is secure against an attack, and in order to be- many reasons for withholding our assent, without come the victim of an infection, it must be a second greater experience in the disease, to the opinion that time exposed to the influence of the morbific matter. the pest nas a spontaneous origin in the ox of the Direct and well-considered experiments are wanting with steppes. regard to the incubation of the pest, and these we had General Symptoms of the Pest.-When the animal no opportunity of making while on our mission. No sickens, the affection will be recognised by almost condoubt, however, should be allowed to remain on a point tinuous spasmodic twitchings of the voluntary muscles like this, as on it depends the security to be afforded to of the body, more particularly those of the neck and every country which is contiguous to the steppes of shoulders, and of the hind quarters. These twitchings Russia. Austria, which suffers almost annually from are accompanied by tremors, which are more or less this disease in some.parts of her dominions, bas an es- generally diffused, and which interrupt the regularity of pecial interest in the question, and should lose no time the spasms, and give to the animal an appearance of effecting its complete and satisfactory solution. In our suffering from exposure to cold. The coat stares, and opinion Austria should appoint a commission of scientific the patient stands with its back arched and its legs men, and vest it with some of her absolute power to gathered together under the body, but does not seemingly conduct experiments and take every necessary means of suffer much acute pain. In the course of a few hours determining the point in a conclusive manner, for the rumination is suspended, and the appetite fails, but benefit of other countries as well as herself, and she will water will generally be partaken of almost up to the then both deserve and receive the thanks of the world. end.
Spontaneous Origin.—The steppes of Russia are the The temperature of the body is variable, a slightly home of the rinderpest, and here it may be said to hold increased warmth of skin existing at the beginning of almost undisputed sway, little being done by the Im. the illness, which soon, however, gives way to chilliness perial Government to stay its ravages. Here also, as of the surface, and this again to a deatb-like coldness of as has been elsewhere stated, it is alone regarded as hav- the ears, legs, and horns, as the malady advances to a ing a spontaneous origin, but it is very probable that a fatal termination. The pulse is scarcely disturbed at scientific investigation would show that it spreads only first, unless the attack is a severe one; when it quickly from infection directly or indirectly communicated to the rises to 70 or more, but wants tone in its action. In numerous herds of cattle which inhabit these extensive all ordinary cases it becomes gradually more frequent in plains.
number, but less in force, and in the latter stages can Doubtless every disease has had its place of origin, only be felt at the heart. and in it there may exist persistent causes which keep The respiration is but very little altered at the comalive, so to speak, the curse of sin. Such causes may mencement; it rarely becomes difficult, and was never possibly be found on these vast plains of Russia ; and if painful in any of the cases we witnessed It sometimes 80, here would be the natural habitation of the pest. Be rises to 30 on the second day. The contractions of the this as it may, it is certain that in those countries which abdominal muscles are often interrupted in their rhythare contiguous to the steppes the malady has no such mical action by the spasmodic twitchings, which give a origin, and its appearance in them is invariably associated singular motion to the animal's flanks, and has led some with the recent introduction of steppe cattle, and gene- observers to speak of a difficulty of breathing as being rally in the ordinary course of traffic.
invariably present. A discharge comes on early from No disease which we have ever studied appears to be
the nostrils, which has many of the characters of ordigoverned by such precise laws as this, with regard to the nary mucus, but, when carefully examined, will be found means of its extension ; and it is difficult to believe that to contain flocculi of lymph. A slight cough is also it should spread by infection alone throughout Europe, present in some cases; but it cannot be heard except and not be subject to the same law in the steppes. Sup.
one is near to the patient, when it imparts a singular posing the fact, however, to be as asserted, it is evident and almost indescribable sound to the ear. that pecuiiarity of breed is not of the causes on which The expression of the countenance does not denote it depends. Large numbers of steppe oxen are met with much acute suffering, and the eyes are without any dull out of Russia, and in Galicia we saw many which were appearance, except in the advanced stages of the malady, used for the purposes of husbandry, and these are never when the lids are found to be drooping as in sleep, and