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air, except the door. The heat is almost suffocaling, per head, namely, oxen, 10d., calves 2d., sheep 2d., and the stench abominable. In such unwholesome and lambs 1d., pigs 1d., with an additional duty of thirteen pest-breeding places as these the cattle, often to the ex. per cent. on the gross sum. tent of forty or fifty in a shed, are kept for weeks toge- Although Holland rears immense numbers of cattle, ther to be fatted for the market, by being fed chiefly on she, for her great export trade in these animals, becomes the wash and grains which come from the distilleries. an importing country for hides, receiving her chief sup
The cattle which are sent from Friesland are shipped ply of these from Java and Buenos Ayres, with some at Harlingen direct for England, and the numbers put England, but none from Russia, so that all fear of our on board there are fully six times greater than at Am- | introduction of contagious diseases through the means sterdam. Friesland is one of the great cattle districts of of skins may cease, in so far as Holland is concerned. Holland, and supplies not only the English market with Our investigations led us to visit the cattle feeders, many animals, but other countries likewise. She there- and among others we saw Mynheer A. Poot, who resides fore receives no imports, nor does it appear that any of within a few miles of Rotterdam. M. Poot ships upon the vessels conveying cattle from the ports of the Elbe an average 600 animals a-year. He informed us that no or the Weser, or from any part of the coast of Holstein, disease had prevailed in his sheds since February last, ever touch at the Dutch ports, so that a contagious prior to which time he had several cases of pleuromalady like rinderpest, existing in Holstein or in the pneumonia. He appeared to be an entire stranger to countries watered by those rivers, would have to make any other contagious disease, and said that, in the event its entrance by way of the land into Holland.
of an affection like rinderpest breaking out among his No restrictions are put upon the cattle trade with re- stock, a cordon would be immediately placed around ference to the bringing of animals over the frontier, but the farm by the local authorities, and that he should be all importations of the kind would be immediately pro- compelled to slaughter the diseased animals and bury bibited on the appearance of the disease in question in them with their skins on in quick lime. In his opinion any neighbouring states. The prices obtained for cattle it would be an impossibility to export any portion of in the English market are not viewed as being sufficiently their carcases to England, even if attempts were made to remunerative just now by the Dutch feeders, and hence lo so, in consequence of the strictness with which the the diminished numbers sent here. When the contrary police sanitary regulations are carried out. He adduced state of things prevailed, many animals were purchased
as an instance that on the first breaking out of pleuro. in Prussia by the dealers, and forwarded to the different pneumonia in 1829, and before experience had shown ports of Holland for exportation ; and not a few, it is that the flesh could safely be used for food, he and others said, came even from Switzerland down the Rhine for had to kill the affected cattle and bury them entire, with the same purpose. These facts show that it is possible a view to prevent injury being done to the people, as for a disease of a malignant kind, which is incubated in well as to limit the spread of the malady. the system of an animal for ten days or a fortnight, to On the question of our Government ordering all imbe introduced into England from other countries via ported animals to be slaughtered on their arrival in the Holland : and, also, how necessary it is that we should docks, and their carcases sent to the meat market, M. be acquainted with what is passing on the continent with Poot considered that sueh a step would be tantamount regard to diseases in general as affecting cattle, and to the stopping of the importations entirely. The boats particularly if belonging to the class which forms the very rarely, if indeed at any time, are freighted with subject of this report.
cattle all belonging to the same person; the cargo is thereThe continuance of a well-ordered and rigid system of fore mostly comprised of animals the property of several inspection of imported animals on our part will, how- individuals, and identity of each particular animal, which ever do much to protect us, and that not merely by its is necessary for the purposes of trade, could scarcely be leading to the detection of diseased animals on their ar
made under such circumstances; besides, he said, a nerival, but by the effect which it will have upon the ex
cessity would be created for an immediate sale of the meat port trade of foreign countries. Proof of this is given to the injury of the interests of the persons sending the by the circumstance that last year, when it became known
animals. He was equally opposed to the establishment that our Customs' inspectors had received orders to be of a quarantine, and was of opinion that it could never particularly strict in the examinations of cattle, the Ge
be carried into practice, and England continue to receive neral Steam of Rotterdam, un
full of tion of animals committed to their care, appointed a
to consign their cattle to salesmen in the London marveterinary surgeon to examine them when put on board tet, who, as in the home trade, charge a commission on their boats. This company brings by far the largest the sales they sffect. As no animals are brought into proportion of cattle to England, and although this pre- Rotterdam coastways for re-shipment, all consequently cautionary measure was not adopted by other shipping have to pass through the town to reach the vessels, so that companies, they nevertheless declared their intention of they are thus subjected to the general inspection of the having recourse to it, and only refrained from so doing, local authorities, regulations existing to prevent diseased because of the great diminution which took place in the animals from entering into this and the other towns of number of the animals which were shipped. The sys
Holland. Besides the security thus afforded it is clearly tem of examination was kept in force for about three not in accordance with the interests of the exporters to months, when also, and from the same cause, the Gene- put diseased cattle on board, as it is impossible for them ral Steam Navigation Company discontinued it. The to bear up against the fatigue of a sea-voyage, or to be returns of these examinations, together with the results
on their arrival bere in a fit state to pass the scrutiny of were regularly transmitted to the British Consul. Should
our Customs inspectors. the prices again rise in England to an extent which The cattle which are fatted either for the Dutch marwould, in the opinion of the cattle feeders, justify them kets or for exportation are purchased at the different in sending us more animals, then there cannot be a fairs and markets in thecountry, and are for the most part doubt of the re-establishment of this system of inspec- reared in Friesland and Guelderland, scarcely any being tion.
brought in from other countries No duty is chargeable on animals imported into Hol- Upon the whole, notwithstanding the dangers we have land, but an export one has to be paid, and which pointed out, the system which prevails generally with amounts in English money to about the following rate regard to the cattle trade, and the additional regulations
willing to take the responsion ignore the Boroten diren eta "The system at present adopted is for various feeders
which would be enforced did necessity arise, appear to The cattle come chiefly from the distillers, sugar refi. offer a fair amount of security against the introduction ners, and farmers in the town and territory of Hamburg, of a new cattle pest from Holland.
and the adjoining duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg. WESTPHALIA AND HANOVER.
They are usually sent first to the market at Hamburg,
and if not sold are exported to England. An inspection of These countries are entirely free from Rinderpest, and them is regularly made in the market by a duly appointed have been so for upwards of forty years ; and, besides veterinary surgeon ; besides which they are prevented which, very little disease of any kind was found to be entering the town unless found to be in a healthy state. prevalent among the cattle. The laws which are en. These regulations afford us a certain amount of security forced with regard to contagious diseases, are analogous against the importation of diseased animals from this :0 those which are generally adopted upon the Con- port. The system of inspection has been in operation tinent, but differ a little in some of their details.
from the commencement of the recent outbreak of Pleuro-pneumonia was said by the late M. Haus- pleuro-pneumonia in Holstein ; but it has been particumann, Professor of the Veterinary School, to have been larly observed since September, 1856, when the follow. first observed in Hanover as early as 1807. This ing proclamation was made by the Senator of the Marshdisease has existed with some few intervals, and with lands of the territory of Hamburgmore or less severity, down to the present day. Of late
PROCLAMATION. years the animals attacked have been so few as not It having been communicated to the Senator for the district of to create any great solicitude on the part of the Govern the Marshlands that in several parts of the Duchy of Holstein a ment. Precautionary measures are, however, adopted pulmonary disease has again broken out among the cattle ; in on the frontier with regard to cattle coming from Hol- hereby ordered that for the present no cattle can be brought
order to prevent the introduction of this dangerous malady, it is land, which are made to undergo a quarantine, and none
into the district of the Marsblands from the duchies of Holare allowed to enter from Holstein, unless they are cer- stein and Lauenburg without a certificate from the proper tified to be in a state of perfect bealth.
local authorities, stating that, at the places from whence the Veterinary surgeons are bound to give notice of all cases same may come, no infectious disease prevails amoug the of contagious disease which they may meet with in their cattle, and this under a penalty of 50 thalers for every case of practice, and proprietors also are required to report the
The whole of the bailiffs and subordinates are hereby reappearance of pleuro-pneumonia or allied affections among their cattle. No animal, although seemingly in perfect quired particularly to attend to this order
, and obtain ohserbealth, if it has been living with others affected with Marshlands all who may disobey or attempt to disobey the
vance of the same, and denounce to the authorities of the plearo-pneumonia, can be pastured or driven on roads 80 &s to come within two hundred yards of other cattle;
ARNING, DR. nor can the owner dispose of any of his herd under such
Senator for the Marshlands. circumstances until it is certified by the department Hamburg, 19th September, 1856. veterinary surgeon that all the animals are perfectly free No cattle intended for the English market are brought from the disease. The period of time which is allowed into Hamburg by the ships from Tonning or the other to elapse after the passing away of the malady and the ports on the coast of Denmark, but they go direct to selling of the cattle is left to the discretion of the veteri
England; nor are many conveyed there for this purnary surgeon. A proprietor can place his animals under
pose by means of the navigation of the Elbe from Cenmedical treatment if he sees fit, or he is at liberty to tral Germany. “The Order in Council," at the time slaughter them and send them to the meat market. The
our visit in April, did not appear to be understood by flesh of those affected with pleuro-pneumonia, even in its the exporters of cattle as to the intention of the Governadvanced stages, is not unfrequently sold, as in England, ment with regard to this port; and they refrained at first by the inferior class of butchers.
from shipping cattle, althougb Hamburgh was not named A regulation exists with regard to the disease of in the probibition, for fear lest on their arrival in Engglanders, which, although it does not belong to the land they should be seized by the Commissioners of special object of this report, may, nevertheless, be men. Customs. tioned. Horses affected with this malady are not only We were informed by Colonel Hodges, Consul. prevented being sold or exposed for sale, but the owner General at Hamburg, that a similar doubt existed with is compelled to bave them killed; and he is not allowed,
regard to hides, and, further, that the order would be under the pain of a heavy penalty, to sell any other horse inoperative for good, presuming that the seeds of a conout of his establishment, or even to place any one of tagious disease could be conveyed by these articles of them in stables belonging to other persons, for six commerce so long as Hamburg, as the port of the Elbe, months after the death of the affected animal.
and Bremen, as the port of the Weser, were left open, M. Hausmann, Veterinary Surgeon to his Majesty the as large quantities of these commodities come down those King of Hanover, informed us that a conviction had rivers. The hides are collected from out of various very recently taken place under this law, where a carrier countries, and it is impossible to trace them to their was heavily fined for putting his horses, which had been
original source. The merchants of Hamburg, however, with a glandered animal, into a stable at a public inn in continued to export hides, first making a declaration the town of Hanover, on the occasion of bis coming to before the consul that they did not come from Lubeck the place on the market day.
or any of the Baltic ports. The consul upon this certi
fied that such declaration had been made, and thus left HAMBURG.
our Commissioners of Customs to deal with the quesThis, as the chief port of the Elbe, receives a consi- tion as they might see fit. Should the necessity unforderable number of cattle from the surrounding districts tunately arise to prohibit the importation of cattle, for exportation to England, and large quantities of hides hides, hoofs, &c., from fear of introducing a contagious are also sent from hence. Some diminution in the disease, such as the rinderpest, then not only must Bremen amount of cattle which of late has been shipped at and Hamburg be named in the order, but Tonning also, Hamburg has taken place, and from the same cause as the port of the Eider, as this place has direct water which is assigned by the exporters from Holland, communication with the port of Kiel on the Baltic, from namely, that the price obtained in the ish markets which place hides, hoofs, &c., can be conveyed. is not sufficiently remunerative when compared with that Little fear, however, need be entertained of the introwhich can be procured at home.
duction of the disease from Denmark by means of any cattle which she might receive from the Baltic ports. | bourhood of Altona. In 1849 and 1851 other outbreaks The difficulties in the way of a direct trade of this kind occurred, the disease extending on the latter occasion are too great for it to be carried on with facility or ad. into Schleswig and Denmark proper, but was quickly vantage. Such cattle would have to make the port of suppressed by the severity with which the law was Kiel, and be then disembarked, in order to be placed on executed. the vessels navigating the canal which connects Kiel with The outbreak from which the country is at present the Eider, and on reaching_Tonning be again re-em- suffering took place in the spring of 1856. It is attribarked on vessels bound for England.
buted to the circumstance of two gentlemen of Hamburg DenMARK, SCHLESWIG, AND HOLSTEIN.
purchasing in Hungary 180 oxen, and sending them to In September last it was officially communicated to disease manifested itself in these animals, and from them
graze on the islands and marshlands of the Elbe. The the Government by Vice-Consul Blackwell of Lubeck, it was communicated to some cows which were sent daily that “the steppe murrain of Russia had made its way from the town of Hamburg to graze in the same pastures, into Holstein, having passed through Poland, Prussia, and was thus spread over the territory and the adjacent and Mecklenburg." We ascertained, however, that this disease had no existence in this part of Europe since the preventive measures previously alluded to, and which
portions of Holstein. This called for the re-adoption of the occasion of its last general outbreak in 1813. It is
are still in operation in the Duchies, but modified to also recorded that up to that time the affection had not
some considerable extent in the town and territory of prevailed in the duchies since 1774 to 1781, when 150,000 head of cattle are said to have perished.
monia in Mecklenburg, which is said to have depended the neighbourhood of Altona, where an active cattle
on the introduction of some cattle from Bavaria, togetrade is carried on. The malady is said originally to have appeared here in 1842, or nearly about the same gether with its existence in several of the German States, time it was first observed in England. At the com
led the Government to issue the following order with remencement of 1843, Herr Rottger, district veterinary
ference to the importation of cattle into Holstein and
Lauenburg. surgeon of Altona, received orders from the Danish Government to watch the progress of the disease. No PROCLAMATION for the Duchies of HOLSTEIN and Lau
Copenhagen, June 18, 1856. active means to limit its extension were, however, had ENBURG, in reference to the IMPORTATION of HORNED recourse to until 1845, when the Government sent Pro
CATTLE from abroad. fessor Witt of Copenbagen, to investigate the matter. Whereas, according to official information, the pulmonary Professor Witt and Herr 'Rottger, with a surgeon and epidemic has recently shown itself again in horned cattle in the Government veterinary surgeon of Hamburg, formed several German States, the importation of horned cattle from a sanitary commission of inquiry. The commission abroad will not, until further notice, be permitted into the came to the conclusion that the disease was highly con
duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg, unless satisfactory certi. tagious, and recommended the Government to adopt ficates, issued by authority, be handed in at the same time, the most stringent measures of prevention. These con
stating the place from whence the cattle have been brought, and
that in such place no signs of the pulmonary epidemic have sist in chief ofa. Sequestration of the places where the disease is described as accurately as possible.
appeared for more than six months, the cattle being therein found to exist.
The above is hereby made known for the information and b. The immediate slaughter of the infected animals. guidance of those who receive it; and at the same time the c. The killing of the whole herd upon the occurrence police authorities are especially directed to see the strict obof fresh cases.
servance of the above order. d. The burial of the diseased cattle with their skins Royal Ministerial Department for the Duchies of Holstein on, cut in such a manner as to prevent their being sur
and Lauenburg, 9th June, 1856. reptitiously disposed of, and the sprinkling the body
(Signed) V. SCHEELE. over with chloride lime,
G. HARBOU. The indemnity consists in the Government paying Pleuro-pneumonia, however, continued to prevail in two-thirds of the value of the diseased animals, and the Holstein, despite all measures precautionary or other. full value of the healthy, the loss to the treasury being wise, which were had recourse to, and this led the Mipartly provided for by the Government selling by public nister to issue new regulations during last year, to stay auction the carcases of the animals which are free from if possible its further progress. It was thereupon ordisease.
dered that “all estates (farms) in which cases of pulFor the carrying out of these regulations, it is ordered monary disease have occurred within the last six among other things that every proprietor of cattle shall, months, are to be closed, and no removal of cattle from upon the outbreak of a disease which seems to possess such estates is to be permitted. The cattle are to resome unusual features, give notice to the district veteri- main as much as possible in the same stalls, and only nary surgeon, or be subjected to a fine varying from to be removed to the pasture grounds of the owners, fifty to a hundred thalers. The veterinary surgeon has which are to be fenced round to the exclusion of all to report the result of his examination to the police, other cattle, as it is deemed necessary to remove cattle and if it should prove that the malady is a contagious from their infected stalls to purer air." one, then the regulations are strictly enforced. The In July, 1856, SCHLESWIG placed the importations animals are valued on the part of the Government, and into her territory from Holstein under restrictions; but branded on the horns for the purpose of identity. Should as these also proved to be insufficient, the Minister of this no other cases occur after the diseased animals are killed, Duchy, in March of the present year, forbade the importhen a proprietor is prevented selling any of those which tations entirely. had been exposed to the contagion, and which bear the In August, 1856, Denmark, by the Minister of the Government stamp, in a less period of time than six | Interior, likewise ordered that no cattle would be permonths, and only then with a certificate from the veteri- mitted to enter the kingdom from Holstein, unless they nary surgeon that they are free from disease.
were accompanied by a certificate of a veterinary surThe adoption of these severe measures led, it is be- geon, stating that they were in good health when exlieved, to the nearly total extinction of pleuro pneumonia ported, and also by the certificate of a magistrate, that in two or three years. In 1847, however, it again prevailed the district from which they came was free from disease. in Holstein, also commencing, it is said, in the neigh-'And in September following proclamation was made to a similar effect by “the Senator of the District of the by the promulgation of similar ones by the Government Marsblands of Hamburg," a copy of which has been of Norway, being in each case evidently founded on the given above.
belief that contagion is the chief, if not the only cause of This succinct history of the proceedings of foreign the spread of pleuro-pneumonia. governments enables us to trace to their probable origin
LUBECK. those restrictive laws which have created so great solicitude in England. We could hardly have supposed
From the circumstance that her Majesty's Govern. that such severe measures would have had the support ment, by the Order in Council" of April 2nd, saw fit of scientific men, and more especially in their exclusive
to prohibit the importation into England “of cattle, application to a disease, whether contagious or not, the horns, hoofs, raw or wet hides or skins of cattle, antecedents of whose history show that it often passes
which shall come from, or shall bave been at any from country to country as an ordinary epizootic affec- place within the territories of the free city of tion,
Lübeck," as well as other places named in the Without wishing to animadvert on the opinions of said order, it was to be expected that the so-called others, we hold that an equal amount of good would
steppe murrain” (rinderpest) would be found to be attend measures far less stringent ; and, if this be so, prevailing
among the cattle at Lübeck. We were inthen a positive injury is inflicted on the country where formed, however, and immediately on our arrival, that no they are enacted. Take, as one illustration, the quan.
such disease existed ; and ample opportunities were affordtity of food which is lost to the people by the burying of ed us of subsequently confirming the correctness of this animals in whose system the malady has made but little
statement. Indeed, rinderpest has never shown itself in progress. We are exceedingly jealous lest any obser
the territory since 1813-15, when by the movement of vation of ours should be supposed to give encouragement troops throughout Europe it prevailed rather extento the sale of diseased meat; but, after fifteen years' sively here and also in most countries of the continent. experience of pleuro-pneumonia in this country, and of spring of 1856, by the Senate of Lübeck, had especial
The precautionary measures wbich were taken in the the sale of the carcases of animals, the subject of it, we do not hesitate to state that the flesh is fitted for food in reference to pleuro-pneumonia, which disease had soinethe early stage of the affection.
what suddenly made its appearance in the adjoining The surprise in the continuance of the system of
Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburgkilling and burying bovine animals becomes the greater Strelitz. Some doubt, however, was felt in this country when we see it adopted in a country where the sale of
as to whether the "
steppe murrain" had not found its horseflesh, as an article of food, is both legalized and
way thence from Prussia ; and this was considerably encouraged by the Government. In Altona we passed added to by the official reports of Mr. J. A. Blackweli
, by the shop of one of these horse-butchers, and saw
who up to the beginning of the present year was British
Vice-Consul at Lübeck. exposed for sale part of the hind-quarters, and sundry pieces of flesh of a horse, and also the liver and kidneys 30th, 1856, Mr. Blackwell informed her Majesty's Go
In two despatches dated respectively May 17th and of the animal. We were tempted to walk in, wben we were informed by the proprietor that there were four vernment, through the Consul-General at Hamburg, other establishments of the same kind in the town, but
that a contagious pulmonary disease or murrain had that his was "the original one.” He said that so ready after giving the particulars of the precautionary mea
broken out among the cattle in Mecklenburgh ; and a sale was found for the meat that it was with great difficulty he could procure horses enough for his cus
sures adopted by the Lübeck authorities to prevent its tomers. The price ranged from about 2d. to 3d. per lb.
entrance into their territories, he states that he had conEnglish money, and it appeared that the meat was often sulted several of the best German authors on the contabought by persons who could not be properly said to
gious maladies of catile, and found that they made a belong to the lower classes. We were invited to see
distinction between “rinderpest and pulmonary mur. the establishment, and visited the slaughter-house and
rain;" but he adds,“ both are equally contagious and stable. In the former, besides more meat, was hanging almost equally fatal, and in a sanitary point of view the lower part of the fore leg, with the foot of the animal
may in fact be regarded as identical." last slaughtered, which had been put aside for the in
Mr. Blackwell next gives, in the despatch of May 30th, spection of the police ; and in the latter were standing heading of the steppe MURRAIN, he says that it has
an epitome of the works in question, and under the two aged and worn-out horses waiting their turn to be been calculated that during the last centary alone this led to the stake. These butcheries are licensed by the Government,
murrain carried off 28,000,000 head of cattle in Gerand are under the supervision of the police. Notice has
many; and in the whole of Europe, including Russia,
but exclusive of Siberia and Tartary, upwards of to be given before a horse can be killed, when the veteri. Dary surgeon of the department attends and examines
200,000,000;" and that “ although the disease which the animal, and, if found to be free from constitutional
has broken out among the horned cattle in Mecklendisease, notwithstanding it may be incapacitated for burg seems to be regarded as the pulmonary murrain' work from lameness or otber defect, he certifies to that
pleuro-pneumonia," it may perhaps be the real effect, and for the sake of identity brands the animal on
steppe murrain, which is now raging in Poland to a its hoof. Within a given time the animal must be
fearful extent, notwilhstanding the stringent measures killed, and its leg and foot produced for the inspection
that have been adopted by the Russian Government for and satisfaction of the police.
putting a stop to it."
In a despatch dated September 17th, the same genSWEDEN AND NORWAY.
tleman reports that the murrain bad extended to We find by a perusal of official documents which have Holstein, and that in consequence of this the regu. been placed at our disposal, that the fear of the introduc- lations of the Lübeck Government were enforced tion of pleuro-pneumonia from Holstein led the govern- with regard to that buchy, as well as Mecklenment of Sweden to interdict the importation of cattle from burg. He concludes his communication by observing that duchy in August, 1856, unless accompanied by that, as this highly contagious murrain has spread satisfactory certificates of health. The importation also from the steppes of South Russia, through roland, of cattle from England and Scotland into Sweden was Prussia, and Mecklenburg to Holstein, to a district prohibited in the same month. These precautionary from which the English market is supplied with cattle, measures on the part of Sweden were quickly followed ' I must beg leave to call the attention of her Majesty's
Government to my Report of its origin, progress, mals, and, on the slightest indication of disturbed health, treatment, symptoms, &-c., transmitted on the 3uth of to have them professionally examined. May last.”
" 4. That an inspector, duly conversant with disease, These statements could not fail to add to the alarm
is to be specially appointed to attend the sick cattle; and wbich was originally felt in this country; and when it is
that without his permission no animal is to be returned to
those which are healthy. considered that for several months afterwards scarcely a
“ 5. That all animals which die are to be buried five feet week elapsed without intelligence reaching us that “ the deep, and covered over with compact earth ;, that the cattle murrain” was spreading, the surprise becomes burial-places are to be not less distant than eight hundred the greater rather than otherwise, that some measures paces from any road or paths travelled by cattle, and that of a preventive nature were not earlier adopted by her they are afterwards to be surrounded by a strong fence or a Majesty's Government. It is true that the reports from ditch. other British consuls did not fully bear out Mr. Black- “6. That the diseased cattle are only to be driven in well's statements, but still nothing satisfactory could be particular roads; that the stables in which they were learned of the true nature of the malady; and up to the placed when attacked are to be carefully cleaned, and the time of the three National Agricultural Societies deter
manure to be covered over with earth. mining on sending a commission to investigate the sub
"7. That none but medical officers are to make postject, the English public were left in a state of uncer
mortem examina: cos, and these only by permission of the
police authorities; and that no part of the carcase is to be tainty and doubt.
taken away or used, with the exception of the skin. In October, 1856, we find that the restrictions
“8. That for the removal of the dead animals special against the entrance of cattle into Lübeck from Meck.
rehicles are to be provided; and these are to be kept in lenburg were removed, as the disease appeared to have proper places, and not used for any other purpose. Persons ceased there; but they were again enforced in February attending upon the sick cattle, or coming in contact with following, as the malady had reappeared, and on our them or with the dead, are not to go near healthy animals, arrival they were still in full operation.
and are to take care that all tools or utensils they may The regulations which had been enforced by the have used are properly cleaned. Senate to guard against the introduction of contagious
“9. That no manure or fodder is to be sold from off an
infected farm. diseases are as follows. They have been established for several years, and are only modified from time to time, killed for food. Great vigilance must be used in respect to
“10. That no animal, however slightly affected, is to be according to the places in which such diseases are known
this order. to prevail.
“11. That, after the disappearance of the disease from a “1. Every owner of cattle is required, in case any disease
commune or farm for a period of eight weeks, it is to be should break out among the same, which leaves no doubt of
considered as being free from the malady ; but that for its contagious nature, to separate the diseased from the other four weeks longer the proprietor is not to sell any cattle or cattle.
other forbidden things from off the place.” “a. The special symptoms of lungenseuche (pleuro-pneumonia) are a husky cougb, which is increased, pariicularly after
It does not appear thatany law is in operation to prevent the cattle have been watered or moved about, less inclination the importation into the territory from Russia or other for food, indifference as to chewing the cud, dulness of the countries, of skins, horns, hoofs, or tallow; but we were inhair, and its rough appearance in particular places, and fever formed by M. Tollhausea, the French Consul, and who was after these symptoms have continued for some time.
acting also pro tem. as British Vice-Consul, that the “ 2. On the appearance of this disease, or even in cases official returns show that from 6,000 to 8,000 only of when it is sur pected to exist, the owners of cattle are required, dry hides annually enter the port of Lübeck from under a penalty of a fine of 20 dollars (about £3 108.) to give Russia, for transit inland; while from Mecklenburg and immediate notice to the chief of the police, or to the bailiff, at
the surrounding countries 80,000 skins are received. Travemunde, who will take the necessary steps to arrest the
These are mostly either salted or fresh, and as such are progress of the disease. "9. The bringing in of cattle into the Lübeck territory
too heavy for transit to a distance, besides being other. from the Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Meck
wise unfitted for such a purpose : they are, therefore, lenburg-Strelitz shall only be permitted when the cattle are
further prepared and dried in Lübeck, and then sent accompanied by satisfactory certificates of their being free
onwards to Belgium, Rhenish Prussia, &c., and up the from disease.
Rhine even as far as Switzerland. “4. All veterinary surgeons are directed, in case this dis- No exports of cattle take place from Lübeck by ease should break out within the Lübeck territory, to adopt means of the shipping, nor are any imported in this the necessary sanitary precautions according to the instructions manner from the Baltic or elsewhere, the supply wbich of the police. The directions of the veterinary surgeons are is needed being sent over the frontier from the surimplicitly to be obeyed under penalty of heavy fines and im- rounding duchies. Besides this, we could not ascertain prisonment.
" 5. Fiually, all police-officers, bailiffs, and gens-d'armes that any cattle have ever been shipped for England from are hereby directed to give notice to the respective police any of the Baltic ports. The difficulties attending such offices in case any horned cattle should be attacked with the
a voyage, and the time it would occupy, are sufficient pulmonary disease, or even in cases where it is suspected to
barriers against a trade of this description being carried exist.
on, even if no facilities existed for the transit of cattle "Given at Lübeck in the Assembly of the Senate, this 14th inland. day of May, 1856. (Signed)
Young stock, however, to the amount, it is said, of “C. TH. OVERBECK, Dr., Secretary." 50,000 a year, pass through the territory of Lübeck, Besides these measures of precaution, special instruc
from Holstein into Mecklenburg, for the supply of the tions are issued for the guidance of veterinary surgeons
dairies and farms. when the disease bas entered the territory. These are
These facts cannot fail to be of importance for legis"!. That, on the appearance of pleuro-pneumonia, im- lation, if lereafter it should unfortunately be the case mediate notice should be given to the police authorities. that the rinderpest should extend thus far westward, and
“ 2. That the affected cattle are to be forth with sepa- in a direction from which foreign cattle are shipped for rated from the healthy, and removed to a distance. If | England. they are put to grass, the meadows must be divided by good fences, and must be at the least five hundred paces
MECKLENBURG-SCHWERIN MECKLENBURGdistant from any in which other cattle are kept.
STRELITZ. “ 3. That the persons who tend cattle are to be directed It was from these Duchies that some of the earliest to note carefully the feeding and ruminating of the ani. I accounts reached England respecting " the murrain,"