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Dr. VOELCKER said, this question was a most important The CHAIRMAN, in the course of some observations, one, which it would be most desirable to solve. ‘About asked if the plan recommended for keeping up the wheat four years ago, he paid some attention to what was called was by stiffening the straw? If so, superphosphate would "clover-sickness;" and, like most beginners, in two months be much more likely to do that than ammonia. he fancied he knew something about the matter, and threw The PROFESSOR said he knew, in some instances, that out some suggestions, with a view to remedy the evil. superphosphate stiffened the soil; but that was a different Having, however, followed up the question in various ope- | thing from recommending it for the purpose of stiffening rations, and in the laboratory, and after some long corre- the corn. Ammoniacal manures certainly had a tendency spondence, he had come to the conclusion that, upon the to make corn go down, and should, therefore, be used very subject of clover-sickness, he knew as much or as little as carefully. the man in the moon.
Mr. GEORGE Davies then moved, and Mr. GEORGE Mr. Davies asked if the fermentation of ordinary ma- WATTON seconded, a vote of thanks to the lecturer, which nure would render chipped bones sufficiently soluble to be was cordially carried and acknowledged. of use to the crop ?
A similar compliment was, on the motion of Mr. NEVETT Dr. VOELCKER thought it would be quite sufficient; (Yoreton) accorded to the Chairman, in acknowledging and, after one turning, the bone-dust would disappear. It which, would, in his opinion, be a very great advantage to use Mr. Meire expressed his regret that there was not in bone-dust in that way.
the county town a club where farmers could meet and disMr. Payne inquired if the Professor recommended long cuss subjects connected with the improvement of the land, manure to be ploughed in, or used as a top-dressing ? and other subjects of the greatest importance to the farmer.
Dr. VOELCKER said in very stiff land it would be better The information they had received that day was proof of to plough it in, as in that way they obtained the full ad- how much could be gained in this way. vantage of the manure.
The meeting then separated.
REPORT ON THE CATTLE PLAGUE, STEPPE MURRAIN, OR RINDERPEST.
BY JAMES BEART SIMONDS,
PROFESSOR OF CATTLE PATHOLOGY IN THE ROYAL VETERINARY COLLEGE, LONDON.
Epizootic diseases, and particularly those that have the sad effects of one of these visitations in 810, when it prevailed among cattle and sheep, have in all ages ex- is said that the greater part of the cattle perished throughcited much attention, and taxed the pen of the faithful out the Emperor Charlemagne's dominions. historian, as well as the cultivator of the science of The first recorded instance, however, which we find medicine, to record their successive outbreaks and de- of the cattle in England being affected by one of this vastating effects. It is not, however, our intention in class of maladies is in 1713-14, at which period an this report to follow in a succinct manner the account epizootic, that for a few years previously had prevailed which has been given of these diseases, extending, as it in several continental states, suddenly broke out here, does, from the period of the infliction of "a grievous and swept off many of our cattle. No account suffimurrian ” of “boils and blains” on the cattle of ciently explicit upon the nature and progress of the disEgypt, as a Divine punishment to the obdurate Pharaoh ease has been handed down to us, so that it is difficult for resisting the command to let the Children of Israel to speak with certainty of its true characters, and much go, down to our own times ; but to record the result of more either of its duration or the amount of loss which our investigations into the nature and consequences of the country sustained. It appears, however, that the the disease which recently seemed to threaten to invade malady possessed many of the features of Eczema our shores. Whether "the murrain ” that fell upon epizooticu, now common among us, and it may possibly the cattle of the Egyptians has been permitted in an have been identical with this disease. The infection altered or mitigated form to remain as a scourge to sac- seems to have been communicated by the saliva, as it is ceeding nations is a problem which cannot, we opine, be said that “when this is dropped on the grass, and satisfactorily solved by any supposed resemblance which sound animals are immediately placed on the same pasour present cattle plagues may bear to the one described ture, they contract the disorder ; and in some bullocks by the sacred historian. This fearful and miraculous the tongue was inflamed and covered with many red visitation must be regarded as the chief of these scourges, blisters.” however destructive they may since have been.
This malady was succeeded in 1744 by one of far la the times of the ancient Greeks and Romans the greater importance, because attended with a far greater outbreaks of these diseases were not unfrequent, and fatality. The disease in question early attracted the numerous records of them are left by Homer, Plutarch, attention of the Government, who promptly adopted Virgil, and others. Columella, at about the commence vigorous means of arresting its progress. It is asserted ment of the Christian era, speaks of them as contagious that the malady first appeared in the neighbourhood of maladies ; and Vegetius, in the fourth century, treats London, whence it extended over the length and breadth largely of their contagious properties, and recommends of the land, destroying hundreds of thousands of cattle, that the diseased animals should, “ with all diligence and continuing its devastating effects with almost anand care, be separated from the herd, and put apart by mitigated severity down to 1754-5. Its introduction themselves.” Fracastorius and Weierus also describe here bas been differently accounted for; but it is pretty
generally attributed to the importation of two calves | very few; but others, who would kill none until their
Many difficulties were thrown in the way of carrying Dr. Layard, in bis Essay on the disease, says, how-out the instructions, and not a few impositions were ever, that an opinion prevailed that it was brought over
practised by some designing persons claiming the award by an English tanner, who had purchased "a parcel of for old and worn-out animals, as well as for those which distempered hides in Zealand very cheap, because they were suffering from totally different diseases. In this were forbidden to be sold there, and should have been day, now that veterinary surgeons are practising in every buried.” It seems, therefore, to have been confidently part of the country, such frauds would scarcely be atbelieved at the time that the disease was an imported tempted ; and we believe, in the event of occasion reone—a circumstance of much practical value, now that quiring it, that a system of inspection, comparatively we are receiving several hundreds of cattle week by week inexpensive, might be devised which would effectually from the Continent; although, as this Report will here- prevent any instances of the kind. after show, our own investigations have proved that no It is further recorded that in one year, the third of fear need be entertained at present of "the great cattle the existence of the disease, £135,000 was paid out of murrain " visiting our shores. Notwithstanding the the Treasury as a recompense for the cattle killed acdeep and painful interest which this disease excited, and cording to the prescribed orders, and that during the the efforts made by the Government of the day to stay same year 80,000 head of cattle were killed, and nearly its ravages, no correct estimate can be formed of the double that number died from the disease. To meet numbers of cattle which were lost to the country from this alarming state of things, and the difficulties which its duration and extension ; but it was ascertained by sprung out of the adoption of the measures of the Goone of the Commissioners appointed by the Govern- vernment, various other Orders of Council were promulment that in Nottinghamshire alone 40,000 head of gated, and in the third order we find that no cattle, fat cattle perished in six months, and in Cheshire upwards or lean, would be suffered to pass the Humber and the of 30,000 in the same space of time.
Trent northward from its date, namely, January 19th, By a special Act of Parliament, the King in Council ( 1747, to the 27th of the following March ; the object was empowered to issue such orders as were deemed the evidently being to protect the cattle in the northern most effective to arrest the progress of the pest. In- counties by cutting off all direct communication between structions were thereupon given,
them and the infected districts for two months. 1st. For the killing of all the infected animals, and Newby, in an appendix to his work on mangel-wurzel, burying them entire with the skins on, “slashed from states that the cattle fair at Barnet had its origin in the head to tail,” that they might not be used for the pur- existence of this disease. “The fair," he says, pose of the manufacturer.
formerly kept at Islington, till the distemper, which 2nd. For the burning of all the hay and straw used raged violently among the cows at that place in 1746, about the animals.
obliged the Welshmen to remove to Barnet, where it has 3rd. For the cleaning and fumigating the sheds, &c., | been continued ever since.” and for no sound cattle to be put in them for two months
Great as were the losses, no reasonable doubt can be after the removal of the diseased.
entertained that they would have been much augmented 4th. For no recovered animal to be allowed to go near had not the Government taken the course it did ; and others for a month after its convalescence.
we also fear that the continuance of the disease would have 5th. For no diseased cattle to be driven to fairs been extended over a far greater number of years than or markets, nor for the flesh to be used as food for it was. The attempts at cure were not satisfactory, and dogs, &c.
very little was known of the true nature of the malady 6th. For no healthy cattle to be removed from a farm even by those members of the medical profession who where the disease bad prevailed in less than a month
gave attention to it, for at that time there were no scienafter its disappearance.
tifically educated veterinary practitioners. After a careful And, lastly, orders were issued for the notice of an perusal and analysation of the writings of the different outbreak to be immediately sent by the farmers to either physicians who have treated of the subject, we believe the constables, churchwardens, overseers, or the special that we are justified in saying that the malady was ideninspectors appointed by the magistrates acting for the tical with that which has recently excited so much fear parish or district. The Government also undertook to and alarm in the public mind, as being likely to be inpay forty shillings for every ox, bull, or cow which was troduced from the continent. killed, and ten shillings for every calf, with a corre- From the period of a subsidence both in the amount sponding price for their skins.
and virulence of this cattle pest in 1754-5 until its final Mr. Youatt, in his account of the disease, as pub- departure a few years afterwards, England appears to lished in the work entitled “Cattle,” says, “Of the have been singularly exempt from epizootic diseases, and propriety of this bonus for the destruction of infected to have remained so down to August, 1839, when great cattle, there cannot be a doubt, for there were numerous anxiety was created by the sudden and almost simultainstances in which those who began to kill the sick as neous appearance of a "new affection" (although prosoon as the distemper appeared among their cattle, lost | bably of the same nature as that of 1713-14) among the
cattle in different parts of the country. The earliest a greater or less extent, the integrity of their structure. accounts wbich we received of the outbreak came from The true pathology of pleuro-pneumonia is among the Norfolk, and there seems no reason to doubt that questiones vexate of science. In this report we have it was here that the disease was first observed. Cattle not immediately to do with this question, still we may of all ages and under every variety of system of feeding observe that the most eminent professors of veterinary and management became the subjects of the malady, medicine throughout Europe hesitate to declare, as some which was recognised by the existence of vesicles upon medical men have done, and others also who have prothe upper surface of the tongue, inside the lips, and the bably given but little thought to the subject, that dental pad. Vesicles were also formed between the the changes wrought in the lungs are altogether due to digits, and occasionally upon the teats and udders of inflammatory action. the cows. The existence of these vesicles was associated In Belgium, in France, and in many parts of Italy, with a discharge of viscid saliva from the mouth, loath- the disease is designated exudative pleuro-pneumonia – ing of food, imperfect mastication, suspension of rumi- a name which, while it marks a peculiarity in the disease, nation, loss of milk, a tenderness in walking, and general implies, at the same time, that it differs somewhat in its symptoms of febrile action.
results from ordinary inflammation of the lungs and The malady was not confined to cattle, but sheep, their investing membrane, and which is correctly pigs, and domestic poultry of the gallinaceous tribe were called pleuro-pneumonia. We have no hesitation in likewise its subjects. By common consent it was desig- giving it as our opinion that the changes which are nated the cattle epidemic, but has since been scientifically originally effected in the lung tissue can take place known as Eczema epizootica, or popularly as “the otherwist than by inflammatory action. We observe, as mouth and foot disease.” It has continued from that the analogue of these changes, that in the advancement time to the present, not proving on the whole a de- of the disease, the interstitial areolar tissue, contiguous structive disease to life, but at irregular intervals assum- to the more affected parts of the organs, becomes priing a severer form than ordinary, more particularly in marily choked with serous effusion, which, by its pres. 1845 and 1852, and leading on these occasions to a great sure upon the air cells and their rete of capillary deterioration in the value of the animals affected. vessels, obstructs both the admission of air to the cells,
Shortly after the appearance of the eczema, namely, in and the circulation of the blood through the vessels, and 1841, pleuro-pneumonia broke out among the cattle, and thus leads to an imperfect decarbonisation of the blood, it, too, has remained down to the present time. It is as well as to far more important changes in the fluid worthy of a passing remark that neither of these were itself. Not only, in many diseases, are serous exudaimported diseases. It was not until several months after tions entirely independent of inflammation, but fibri. pleuro-pneumonia had established itself in the country nous are equally so in the opinion of some of the that an alteration took place in the tariff by which live ablest pathologists of the present day. These deposits stock came in free of duty, and up to that time the high may result from the vital force of the vessels being imrate of duty prevented any importations of foreign cattle paired by some depressive influence acting on the or sheep being made. This fact in itself is sufficient to nervous system, either generally or locally, as well as by prove that the malady was not imported by foreign some unexplained or ill-understood alteration taking cattle; besides which, the parts of the country where it place in the composition of the blood, by the existence was first observed could not possibly have had any im- within it of morbific animal or vegetable products. The diate or direct connection with the ports. Pleuro- fibrinous depositions in pleuro-pneumonia succeeds the pneumonia had no sooner gained a footing, than, follow- seroua, and are probably due to either an alteration ing the laws of all epizootics, it quickly spread over a in the relative proportion of the component parts great breadth of country, and continued to devastate our of the blood, or an interference with its vitality, herds with almost unmigitated severity for the first few brought about by the presence of the special materies years. It has since taken on rather an enzootic form, morbi of the disease, and which may have entered it in and has prevailed mostly in such localities and places the ordinary manner of infection. The abnormal action where secondary causes are in full operation to predis- which commenced in the parenchyma of the lungs expose animals to its influence; hence its continuance in tends towards their investing membrane, when, from the the ill-ventilated, over-crowded, and badly-drained nature of this tissue, as well as from the longer existence cow-sheds of the metropolis and other large towns, and of the action itself, an augmented fibrinous exudaon the "cold retentive soils” and undrained farms tion takes place upon their surface. We regard, in the country, especially such as lie in exposed situa- therefore, the implication of the pleura as a character tions.
istic of an advanced stage of the malady, and also of a Besides the special cause, or rather, perhaps, special still further deterioration of the blood, combination of causes, which give origin to the enzootic Since the appearance of pleuro-pneumonia no other form of pleuro-pneumonia, its appearance in a cattle- disease of a fatal character and possessing contagious or sbed, or on a farm, is frequently traceable to the in- epizootic properties has shown itself among our cattle ; troduction of newly purchased animals, who bring the but in 1847 a very fatal malady broke out among the disease in a latent state with them; and which, on its sheep. This affection was recognised as the small-pox declaring itself, extends by ordinary infection to those of sheep ; and it was ascertained in the most conclusive with whom they are located. Infection we hold to be one manner that it had been introduced here by some of the chief causes of the continuance of pleuro-pneumonia Merinos,
,” which had been shipped at Tonning on for so many years among us, as every diseased animal, by the coast of Denmark, and also by some others virtue of the exhalations given off from its body, becomes shipped at about the same time at Hamburgh for the a focus of the malady, and a new source, whence the supply of the English market, and in whose syspoison, so to speak, is disseminated. The same fatality tems the disease was incubated. From the free which marks the progress of pleuro-pneumonia here, commingling of these foreign sheep with our attends it everywhere; and throughout the continent it breeds in the London Cattle Market, and also from is looked upon as an incurable disease, and dealt with the circumstance that many of them were purchased by accordingly. Its great fatality arises from the circum- farmers as "stock sheep," the small-pox was stance that the nature of the changes which take place spread over a great tract of country, proving destrucin the langs is such as immediately to arrest their func- tive to life in numerous instances to the extent of even tion as perfect aerifying organs, and soon to destroy, to / 90 per cent.
This state of things was met by legislative enactments “That it is expedient to send a competent veterinary prowith view to arrest the progress of the disease, and hap- fessor to examine into the pature of the cattle murrain on the pily they proved of essential service in so doing. By the
Continent. That the Society gladly accepts the co-operation expiration of the third year from the outbreak, scarcely
of the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland and the an instance of the disease could be met with in any part of Royal Agricultural Improvement Society of Ireland in this
step. The Society ventures to recommend that Professor the country, and this notwithstanding tens of thousands
Simonds, of the Royal Veterinary College, be commissioned of animals were, to our own knowledge, affected in the
to this task. That he be empowered to take with him a year succeeding its introduction. From the time of its
German veterinary surgeon, established in London, quite comsubsidence in 1850 until now, we have been perfectly petent for the business, and who would smooth the difficulties exempt from cases of small-pox.
of the German language. It is supposed that about three This short historical account of epizootic affections of weeks would be required for a satisfactory examination. That cattle, in this country, brings us down to the present the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland be informed period, and to the especial subject of this report.
that the Royal Agricultural Improvement Society of Ireland It was during the latter part of the past year that the
propose to share the expense of this mission with the Royal public mind became much excited by frequent and join in the same manner."
Agricultural Society of England; and that they be asked to almost continuous reports that a malady of a most fatal description had shown itself among the cattle on It is scarcely necessary to say that the national the Continent, and that it was rapidly extending towards societies of Scotland and Ireland most readily consented those countries whence we received our chief importa- to the proposition contained in this resolution; and on tions. In the early part of the present year the suhject the Government being informed of the step about to be assumed so much practical importance that the atten- taken, Lord Clarendon kindly forwarded the subjoined tion of Parliament was directed to it on two or three letter of introduction to the British Consuls to me, different occasions. Her Majesty's Government, it was through the Secretary of the Society, accompanied found, had early given instructions for our Consuls with the following communication :abroad to collect all the information they possibly could in their several localities, and transmit the particulars
"Foreign Office, April 4, 1857. of their inquiries without delay to the Minister of
“SIR, -I am directed by the Earl of Clarendon to acknowForeign Affairs. These despatches were from time to ledge the receipt of your letter of the 2nd instant, acquainting time forwarded by Lord Clarendon to the Council of
his Lordship with the intention of the Council of the Royal the Royal Agricultural Society, who also had from the Agricultural Society of England, in conjunction with the
Societies of Scotland and Ireland, to send Professor Simonds beginning taken the liveliest interest in the matter, and
to those districts abroad where the disease among cattle is at who lost no opportunity of placing the latest informa- present raging; and I am to enclose a letter which has been tion before the country through the weekly publication addressed, by Lord Clarendon's direction, to the British conof their proceedings. The official documents, however, sular agents in Northern and Central Europe, instructing in no way tended to allay public apprehensions, but them to afford to Professor Simonds all the assistance in their rather, on the contrary, to increase them, as it was dis- | power in carrying out the objects of his mission. tinctly stated that the “murrain” was rapidly making
“ I am, sir, its way westward from the countries where it had been
“ Your most obedient, humble servant, first observed, and that it would ere long be introduced
“ James Hudson, Esq.”
“E, HAMMOND. bere unless the greatest caution was exercised in regu. lating our supply of foreign cattle; and that even then
(Enclosure.) it was more than probable the disease would come in,
“Foreign Office, April 4, 1857. it being said that it could be carried from place to place "SIR,- I am directed by the Earl of Clarendon to acquaint by skins, hoofs, or horns, or indeed anything which had you that the Council of the Royal Agricultural Society of this been exposed to the infection by being brought near to
country bave notified to his lordship their intention, in conthe diseased animals.
junction with the Agricultural Societies of Scotland and Ire
land, to send a veterinary professor to the districts abroad Notwithstanding the great amount of information
where the disease among cattle is at present raging, and that which was supplied by our Consuls, but very little of a the Committee have selected Professor Simonds for this sersatisfactory kind could be obtained with reference to the vice. I am, therefore, to instruct you, in the event of Profestrue pathology of the disease. The Council of the sor Simonds visiting any part of your district in the course of Royal Agricultural Society therefore felt that under his mission, to show him every attention, and to afford him all such circumstances as these some more decisive step the assistance in your power in carrying out the objects of should be taken ; and this opinion found a ready the societies by whom he has been appointed – I am, sir, response in the other two national Agricultural Societies
"Your most obedient bumble servant,
“E. HAMMOND of Scotland and Ireland. At this juncture a communi. cation was received from the Royal Agricultural
“ To the British Consular Agents in Northern
and Central Europe.” Improvement Society of Ireland, suggesting “ that it would be desirable for the three agricultural societies of the United Kingdom to join in the common object
The first step, according to my instructions, being to
secure the services of a veterinary surgeon familiar with of despatching abroad a special veterinary inspector, the German language, I at once called on Mr. Wm. for the purpose of ascertaining tbe exact nature of the
Ernes, M.R.C.V.S., a gentleman eminently fitted for contagious typhus."
the task ; and who, besides being a native of Belgium, At a meeting of the Council, held on the 1st of had had the great advantage of travelling almost throughApril, some further communications were read from out Europe, thus becoming practically acquainted with Mr. Hall Maxwell, C.B., Secretary of the Highland and most of the foreign languages. Mr. Ernes had also reAgricultural Society of Scotland, and from Captain ceived an English medical education, and his tastes were Croker, Secretary of the Royal Agricultural Improve- | in full accordance with the objects of the mission. ment Society of Ireland, expressing their willingness to Having secured his co-operation, we left London for concur with the Royal Agricultural Society, in making Belgium on the morning of April 9th, and arrived the arrangements for despatching a veterinary inspector to same evening at Ghent. the districts abroad where the cattle murrain was at pre- We deemed it expedient to ascertain, with as little desent raging. The Council thereupon agreed to the fol. lay as possible, the health of the cattle in those countries lowing resolution :
whence we were receiving our daily supplies, and also the details of the system which prevailed with regard to surgeon, they are found to be the subjects of it, then an the cattle trade, together with the particulars relating to order is given for them to be killed. The skin, horns, the shipment of animals to England. This part of our and other integumental parts are used, but the flesh is mission was the more pressing as the recent Order in buried as a rule, in accordance with the regulation of the Council, prohibiting the importation into the United Government, who pay a proportionate amount of the Kingdom of “cattle or of horns, hoofs, or hides, from value of the animal, and generally to the extent of onethose territories of Russia, Prussia, or Mecklenburgh- third. Schwerin, wbich lie in the Gulf of Finland, or between It appears, however, that this regulation is sometimes the Gulf and the city of Lübeck” might be found to re- evaded, and that the carcases of such animals occasionquire an immediate extension to other countries, or pos. ally find their way into the meat market, but no insibly we might ascertain that a relaxation of it could be stance of injury done to persons eating such filesh is made without the incurrence of a greater risk of the known to have occurred. Many animals also are not disease being introduced. We therefore commence our officially reported, as the proprietor either sells them for inquiries in
slaughtering or has them killed unknown to the authoBELGIUM.
rities. Should this, however, become known, the ani
mal is seized, and disposed of as the Government sees Our investigations here fully confirmed the statement fit, and a fine is also inflicted on the offender. Upon made by Lord Howard de Walden, her Majesty's Am. the whole, the laws of the sanitary police are so strictly bassador at Brussels, in his despatch to Lord Clarendon, enforced, that in the event of the rinderpest extending dated March 20th, 1857, that this country was perfectly into Belgium, it seems scarcely possible for animals free from the rinderpest. We found that eczema which had even been exposed to its infection to be exepizootica prevailed to some extent, but not in a serious ported from the country. form, and that pleuro-pneumonia also existed in several Ac Antwerp, we ascertained that the chief exports of parts of the kingdom. 'Rinderpest had not shown itself animals to England from thence are calves, and that the to an extent to create much solicitude since the Seven major part of the cows and oxen which are fatted for the Year's War, during which time it destroyed vast num. market are sent into France, where at this time a better bers of cattle. From 1813 to 1815 some cases occurred price is obtained for them than in England. The calves in the district between Namur and Luxemberg, and are purchased of the farmers in different parts of Belwhich are said to have depended upon the passage of the gium by commissioned agents, who collect them togeAustrian army into France. The route taken by the ther for shipment from Antwerp, but some of the oxen army was south of the Belgian frontier, and near to the come direct from Holland. The proportionate amount places in question; and it appears that along its whole of oxen to calves which are exported is shown by a recourse the disease was manifested to a greater or less turn furnished by MM. Vandenbergh for the year 1856. extent on either side of the military road. It is also said The MM. Vandenbergh are the largest shippers of cattle that the cattle belonging to the Prussian army being to England ; and although a few animals are sent over healthy, no disease followed its course through the by other companies, they are in about the same proporcountry, and thus a great part of Belgium escaped the tion. The return shows that 2,020 calves were forwarded pest; the measures of sanitary police confining it chiefly here in the year, but only 10 oxen. to the neighbourhood of Namur, and the districts in which it had manifested itself.
HOLLAND. We refrain from commenting on these facts in this As this country sends our principal supply of foreign place, as hereafter we shall have to call attention to the cattle and sheep, it became the more important to ascere freedom of continental states in general from the disease, tain their freedom, or otherwise, from contagious disunless infected cattle, or such as have been exposed to
With the exception of pleuro-pneumonia and the contagious influence of the malady, are introduced eczema, no other affection prevails among the cattle. therein.
Rinderpest has had no existence for upwards of forty At Ghent we visited a cattle fair which was held the years, and is unknown even to the veterinary profession, day after our arrival, and had thus an opportunity of except by name. The parts of the country most affected observing the general state and condition of animals with pleuro-pneumonia at this time are North Holland
and Friesland. brought from all parts of the kingdom, and which proved to be most satisfactory. From the cattle-dealers By a statistical return from forty-three villages in we learned that no difficulties existed in the way of the
North Holland and Friesland, it is shown that only eight passage of cattle to or fro over the frontier, so long as of them have been comparatively free from pleurothey are healthy, but that restrictions would be rigidly pneumonia, and in these but very few cattle are kept. enforced on the breaking out of a contagious disease.
In the villages where the disease has prevailed, about a Lord Howard de Walden writes that "no law exists fifth part only of the cattle-owners have escaped upon the under which diseased cattle can be excluded at the whole, but in many every proprietor has had his herd frontier ; a project of law, with a view to such sanitary affected. In the first quarter of the present year the precaution, was presented to the Chambers two years official returns show a total loss of 3,655 head of cattle, ago, but was rejected ; and therefore the only resource
of which 1,502 died, and 2,153 were killed by order of lies in the activity of the burgomasters in frontier locali. the authorities, which gives an average loss of about 281 ties, by enforcing the general regulations in regard to per week. animals while within the range of their jurisdiction." We are not surprised at the great extent of these
Pleuro-pneumonia has prevailed rather in a sporadic losses, judging from what we saw of the secondary causes than an epizootic form for the last two years, and an of epizootics in operation in the vicinity of Rotterdam. equal number of cases are said to have occurred in places The cattle are often crowded into houses so thickly, wbere the feeding and general management of the ani. that to pass between them is almost an impossibility. mals are unexceptionable, as in those where the opposite The form and size of the building also will frequently state of things obtains, but that, under the latter-named allow of a passage only to be made by a person along its circumstances, the disease has assumed a more fatal cha- centre, where the heads of the animals nearly meet over racter. All animals which are supposed to be affected their feeding troughs, while the height of it is generally by this disease have to be reported by the proprietors, insufficient to stand upright in. No windows exist in and if, on examination by the Governmental veterinary | many of these sheds, nor any other inlet for light and