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coarser parts, are separated, and must be pressed, to extract, stances in which the growers will not go to the expense of from it what starch still remains.
raising them. The money produce of manufacturing the 4th. Water is poured on the pulp, whilst passing through potatoes may be stated as follows: the sieve. This is run into vats, in which it is allowed to 1 ton of potatoes, or 2,2401b., produces, at 17 per £ s. d. settle. When quite clear, the water is poured off, and a fresh supply put on.
cent., 3 cwt. I qr. 16lb. of starch, at £22 per 5th. When the starch is perfectly clean, the water is 1 cwt. of residue ................
3 15 0
011 0 finally poured off, and the starch taken out, and laid on a perfectly clean floor, where soon becomes hardened
£4 6 0 and consolidated into a firm cake, or mass.
The sixth process finishes the operation, by breaking up Against this must be charged the expense of manufacthe mass into flour, and passing it through a bolting ma- ture, and the wear-and-tear of machinery, neither of which chine like those in a flour-mill, which prepares it for sale. is at all costly, as they require neither skilled labour nor
Any machinist is competent to fit up the necessary appa- complicated machines. ratus, either upon a large or small, cheap, or expensive Were it not for the excise, the starch, when extracted, scale. No grower of potatoes to any, considerable extent might easily be converted into sugar by a chemical process, ought to be without this addition to his agricultural imple- every cwt. of starch (1121b.) producing 140lb. of sugar. ments or machinery, especially in those parts of the The process, however, is both complicated and expensive, country where it is difficult to dispose of a crop of unsound and would only be remunerative upon a large scale, which potatoes, and it may not be convenient to consume them by is not the case with the manufacture of starch, which may cattle or pigs. In such cases, the diseased tubers are scarcely be performed by women in even a less expensive mode (on worth the raising; and we have this season heard of in- ' a small scale) than the one we have described.
EXTRACTION OF FOOD AND STARCH FROM THE POTATO. SIR, I have read with great pleasure your observa- sery of its inhabitants. Notwithstanding all the discussion tions respecting the extraction of starch from the po- which has taken place on the subject, it is surprising that tato; and as I have had much experience in the matter, the real value of the potato should be so little understood. having been, I believe, the first to introduce the manufac- In its ordinary form it is one of the most perishable articles ture into this country, as far back as the year 1830, 1 of food which we possess ; but it is capable of being rendered, would beg to offer my testimony in favour of all you portable, but capable of being preserved for an almost inde
by artificial means of an extremely simple character, not only have stated, and strongly recommend to farmers the conversion of the potato not only into starch, but into food, production capable of being made to assume so many forms
finite period. There is, in fact, scarcely any other vegetable which could be simply accomplished, even with the ap- or of being turned to account in so many different ways; pliances which almost every farmer now possesses. but although this property has been long known to scien
The paper which I send you—the Irish Farmers' tific men, it is surprising how little way has hitherto been Journal, of the 27th of May, 1846-gives a description made in putting the lower classes, who are forced to exist of what was then put into practice at the South Dublin almost exclusively on a potato diet, in possession of this inUnion by the paupers, in producing food from diseased formation. potatoes ; and the facts are, I conceive, of paramount
The disease which made such ravages among the potato interest to every farmer.
crop of last season has caused attention to be forcibly diStrange to say, the whole bas lain dormant since that rected to these facts, and the conversion of the decaying time, notwithstanding that not one word of what is set portion of the crop into farina was a favourite project. It forth can be denied. It is incontrovertible that the actual being known that the attention of Government was directed
to the matter, numerous statements on the subject were nutritive value of food for man, to be had from the pota. placed before his Excellency; and among others one from to, is nearly four times that to be had from wheat, when Mr. Jasper W. Rogers, C.E., who had more than ordinary the produce of each is taken from an equal extent of experience. That gentleman's plan was considered so very land. In other words, an acre of land cultivated with satisfactory that his Excellency the Lord-Lieutenant at wheat will produce an average of-starch, sugar, gluten, once gave directions that facilities should be granted for and oil—1,055 lbs., whilst an acre of potatoes will pro- having it fairly tested. Some of the results of Mr. Rogers' duce, of the same, 4,076 lbs., each constituent being method of making the potato available as food, in many in nearly equal proportion.
different forms, were exhibited on Saturday last, in the Should you think right to insert this communication
Board-room of the South Dublin Union Workhouse, before
the Guardians and a number of other influential and scienand the paper I send, I shall at another time put before tific persons in the form of an elegant dejeuner, all the items your readers simple directions for the modus operandi ; of which, with the exception of coffee, were prepared more and some facts which may perhaps explain why so sin
or less from the potato ; when a most satisfactory account gularly advantageous a process, as well for the farmer as was afforded by Mr. Rogers, of the different processes in the public, has been suffered to rest unproductive. their preparation, with much interesting information relaI have the honour to be, sir, your obedient servant.
tive to the value of the potato itself, which, he very justly JASPER W. ROGERS.
observed, is too much overlooked. Every one present was
astonished at the rich treat provided on the occasion, which Peat House, Robertstown, Co. Kildare,
consisted of soup, stirabout, milk porridge, jellies, blancDec. 27, 1857.
mange, Spanish flummery, and pastry of all kinds, made,
as we have already stated, principally of the produce of the ARTIFICIAL PREPARATIONS FROM THE
potato, either as meal, flour, or fecula. POTATO.
After the gentlemen present had partaken of the various
preparations, Mr. Rogers observed that the preparation of There is no other of our agricultural plants which have the meal and flour from potatoes was so simple that it could come in alternately for so great a share of eulogy and abuse be accomplished in the cottage of the poorest peasant. He as the potato. On one hand we hear of its being one of the then described the component parts of each food upon the best of Nature's gifts; and on the other, that to its general table. The general proportion being one-half potatoes ; cultivation in this country we may ascribe most of the mi- some, however--viz., milk porridge, * Scotch bread," and
rock biscuits-being entirely made from it; also the jellies, tainment had been put before them, and in the name of the blanc-mange, &c., produced from the pure fecula, without Guardians, he (the chairman) returned him thanks. He animal matter of any kind-in fact, no addition but the had brought most valuable information before them, which usual seasonings. The soup, also, which appeared to be a would be of great use if disseminated through the country, palatable and nutritious food for the lower classes, was Mr. Rogers returned thanks, and in doing so, observed stated to be made of a small quantity of bacon, thickened that his great object was to render the manufacture of the with the meal of the potato, and which was capable of being potato general, henceforward, throughout the country-not made in a short period of time at a cost of about one far- alone for workhouses and jails, but that every poor cottier thing per pint.
might be enabled to have his bread, his stirabout, and his Mr. Rogers then alluded to the general impression as to soup, as well as his boiled potato-which could be done by the want of nutritive power in the potato, and deprecated teaching the people a most simple process, capable of being the publication of statements which were founded in error, carried on in every cottage in the country. stating that there was a little, if any, nutriment in the po- Considering the large and influential body of gentlemen tato." He contended that the nutritive properties of the before whom Mr. Rogers so successfully exhibited the good meal and four of potatoes were almost, if not entirely, equal account to which our much-abused vegetable may be turned, to that of wheat; and then gave the following analyses of it is to be hoped that some of them, at least, will further each, assuming the constituents, for the support of animal test the advantages which he held forth. No better expelife, contained in vegetables, to be starch, sugar, and gluten. dient could have been adopted for showing the value of the When converted into meal, the potato contains
potato, in a way not likely to be forgotten; and it must be reStarch and sugar..
membered that although it was extraordinary circumstances 84.08
which caused the matter to be brought so forcibly under Gluten
public notice, yet, under ordinary circumstances, it cannot 1.10
be questioned that a portion of the crop may be converted 100
into meal with great advantage, and be made the means of
adding largely to the comforts of our peasantry.- Irish While wheat, converted into meal, contained
Farmers' Journal, May, 1846.
TITHE COMMUTATION. Thus showing that the difference between the gluten was but 24 per cent., while the starch and sugar were more
SIR, -As many of your readers may feel anxious to know abundant.
the result of the corn average for the seven years to Christmas The difference between “meal and flour of potato,” pre- last, published by authority in the London Gazelle of the 8th pared as recommended, and “farina," was pointed out. Fa. inst., viz.rina is the starch of the potato, taken from the fibre, and
7s. 23d. per imperial bushel. coutains nothing beyond the properties of starch ; while
48. 314. the fibre, which is thrown away in the manufacture of fa- Oats ....
29. lld. rina, is rich in animal matter and oil, and by being combined with the farina or fecula, produces a meal or four I beg to state, for their information, that each £100 of tithe closely analogous to that of grain. This fact it was parti- rent-charge will, for the year 1858, amount to £105 168. 31d., cularly necessary to bear in mind, in order to counteract the
which is a little more than 6 per cent. above the last year's
value. impression that there was but little nutriment in potatoes -a strange one, where so many millions lived on them as The following statement, from my forthcoming " Annual their only food.
Tithe Commutation Tables,” will show the worth of £100 of A comparison was then entered into between the relative tithe rent-charge for each year since the passing of the Tithe amount of food obtained from an acre of land in wheat and
Commutation Act, viz. :-For the year potatoes. On this subject, Mr. Rogers stated that he did
d. not rely on his own experience, but cited the authority of
98 13 93 practical men as to produce, and of eminent scientific men,
97 y 11
1839 as to the analysis of the respective crops, stating the follow
95 79 ing as the result of his inquiry :
98 15 9 1841
102 12 54 Starch & Sugar. Gluten. Oil.
105 8 23 1 acre of Wheat 825 lbs. 185 lbs. 45 lbs.
105 12 27 1 acre of Potatoes 3427 lbs. 604 lbs. 45 lbs.
104 3 5$ Thus it appears that potatoes will produce of meal and 1815
103 17 11: flour, FOUR TIMES, nearly, in weight, what can be had from 1846
102 17 8 wheat--a fact not generally known, but which could not
99 18 101 be contradicted. He begged to impress this startling fact 1848
102 1 on the minds of those who heard him, and hoped to rescue
100 3 73 the potato from the calumnies thrown upon it. In an esta
98 16 10 blishment, such as the South Dublin Union Work house, 1851
96 11 43 containing from 1,800 to 2,000 persons, Mr. Rogers stated, 1852
93 16 111 that from fifty to sixty paupers would be able to prepare of
91 13 5 potato mealand flour, by the simple means in operation, a suf- 1854
90 19 ficiency--say, four to five tons per week-for the use of the 1855
89 15 83 house, mixed with other meal, by which a saving would be 1856
93 18 14 made in the expenditure of the establishment of above 1857
99 13 73 £1,500 a year. He sat down midst much applause.
105 16 39 Sir Robert Shaw, Bart., who presided on the occasion, expressed his astonishment at what he had seen, and at the
22) £2,178 2 64 statements made by Mr. Rogers, as to the nutritive properties of the potato, compared with those of corn, which General average for 22 years £990 1} differed greatly from the impression which had been hitherto
I am, sir, your most obedient servant, on his mind, on the subject. He would have supposed it
CHARLES M. WILLICH, impossible to put the potato into so many different forms as they had before them. They all owed great obligations to
Actuary University Life Assurance Society. Mr. Rogers for the handsome manner in which that enter- 25, Suffolk-street, Pall-Mall, Jan. 9.
THE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF DRAINAGE.
We are sometimes told that farmers ought to leave 6th. That water not only descends by its specific their habits and prejudices at home, and come to the gravity, but ascends by capillary action; wherever the discussion of an agricultural subject, exactly as a lob- lower portion of the soil rests in water, the complete ster would if divested of its shell. Let us see how much disintegration of its particles facilitate that object. a meeting conducted on such terms would be worth. 7th. That water passing from a higher to a lower The cultivation of a dark, strong, homogeneous clay, level through the soil, always has a tendency to rise to affected entirely by water on its way from the heavens the surface, and would invariably do so unless interdownwards to the sea, and where the principle has cepted by open or underground drains-hence the been to remove this as quickly as could be effected by origin of springs. open parallel furrows on the surface, a few feet distance 8th. Water, on reaching the surface of the earth, only apart, and intersected by parallel open drains, would continue to descend in the soil until resisted, in a cross direction, some 20 or 30 yards asunder. which it invariably would be whenever a porous soil Such a system with one man is the only drainage that was preceded by a retentive one. he requires to effect his object.
9th. That water in its purest state, as rain water, is The cultivator from another district (probably the slightly charged with ammonia; but to an inconsideraoolitic), where the soil is a dark tenacious clay at top, and ble extent, excepting after long seasons of drought. an open, porous, or absorbent soil below, is satisfied with 10th. That water becoming stagnant in a soil, beany depth of drain, provided it is deep enough to pene- comes deleterious to plants growing upon the surface, trate the retentive soil lying above, so as to give the the mineral deposits, especially iron, after entering water free admission to the porous subsoil below. into its composition, rising towards the surface. Another, who lives in a district of greatly undulating 11th. That water passing through a hollow pipe surface-with a porous subsoil on extensive or dislo- meets with resistance produced by friction. A pipe cated portions, and intersected at all angles with beds of filled at one end cannot be made to run full at the tenacious clay lying at various depths and thickness other. the porous portion supplied and overcharged with 12th. That water in a drain, upon meeting with rewater, endcavouring, by its own gravity, to force its sistance, will fill it continuously upwards until the way through it from the highest to the lowest level, weight of the column of water overcomes such reand constantly endeavouring to escape upwards from sistance by the pipes giving way at the lowest point. its disposition to find a level, or rising to the surface 13th. That the velocity with which drains discharge by capillary attraction whenever the disintegrated par- themselves depends upon their inclination and the perticles rest on quicksands below, already highly charged meability of the soil. with water the resident in such a district says that 14th. The specific gravity of water being greater than nothing but deep-draining will answer, the distance that of air, it invariably displaces the latter in the soil ; apart being only secondary ; but nothing less than but upon its removal, air again occupies the space orifour-feet drains, and in many instances even twice that ginally held by it, and thus a continuous action is prodepth, will suffice to rid the subsoil of its injurious duced in the soil. occupant.
15th. Water when frozen expands, and thus, by its Again, we have the farmer from a country where power, the hardest substances become broken up, or one uniform flat surface prevails, and regularity of have their external surfaces abraded by its action. subsoil, are each of themselves equally remarkable features; and he requires drains as
The foregoing is merely a statement of those princito each other, in point of distance, as can be ples which will ever be coming into operation during effected-6 yards apart at most, and from 26 to the processes of draining; and by observing which the 36 inches in depth, running parallel
to each operator can seldom err. Of all scientific practices, other throughont the whole field. This mode he that of draining is of itself the simplest of application; has found to answer his purpose, and he has no doubt the merely perforating the subsoil with a hollow will equally answer for everyone else.
drain, at a sufficient depth must necessarily draw off And thus might we multiply instances without end. the accumulation of water held in suspension in the adBut as a few invariable and unerring principles are jacent soil. If this be tenacious, from thirty to thirtyconnected with the subject, we will endeavour to re
six inches, in most cases, will be sufficient, keepcord them.
ing in mind that, although a greater depth might be Ist. The specific gravity of water is 817 times heavier desirable, the cost of the drainage ought althan air.
govern the proceeding. On the con2nd. By its gravity it always has a disposition to trary, if the subsoil is porous and charged with water, descend; but the instant it meets with resistance it flowing from a higher level, then the drains must be exerts its force equally in every other direction.
sufficiently decp to carry off the water, that the soil 3rd. That force is invariably exerted until it has found near the surface may not be rendered wet by capillary a level, and it can then only be said to be at rest.
action, bearing in mind that the more complete 4th. That whenever this equilibrium is attained, it and minute the disintegration of the soil, the greater the remains in that state (stagnant) until disturbed.
disposition of the water from below to ascend towards 5th. That in perforating the soil with a drain, that the surface. In some cases drains from forty to fifty portion nearest the drain is first set in motion, and inches will be requisite. this is followed in successive rotation by the next In soils alternating in quick succession of beds of Dearest portion, and so on to the extent of its action. gravel, sand, and clay, a few deep drains judiciously
Oth. That its action ceases wherever the compact- placed will generally effect the drainage of large porness of the soil is sufficient to overcome the gravity of tions of a field, remembering that the drain should the water held in it by suspension.
always be cut so as to intercept the water passing in
the gravel or sand before it reaches the clay, and in a it is not our intention to raise discussion, so much as parallel direction with the edge of the deposit. In some to point out general principles to obviate it. cases the merely perforating the clay in one continuous Water is the source of sustentation of the aniline from one gravel bed to another to the lowest level mal and vegetable kingdoms. The agriculturist, more will also equally well effect the object. The drains especially than all others, becomes subjected to its inmust invariably be deep enough to release the gravel fluence. The smallest quantity, either in excess or dealtogether, and a previous knowledge of their extent ficiency, is to him severe injury or proportionate gain. and situation ought to be ascertained. No other If, therefore, we have cleared away any of the imdescription of draining is so difficult to perform as this, pediments by which its withdrawal can be effected, we or when done, repays so largely for the operation. We have not toiled entirely in vain, even if we only sucmight go on multiplying precedents ad infinitum ; but'ceed in obtaining attention.
REGENERATION OF THE POTATO BY CUTTINGS.
"JOURNAL D'AGRICULTURE PRATIQUE."'] The Agricultural Chronicle, of the first fortnight in stalks of that plant, and pricking them into pots December, has in a spirited manner exposed both the filled with mellow earth. He was quite in ignorance precipitous haste of the searchers after the pbilosopher's as to what this first attempt might lead; it was only a stone, and the emptiness of those brilliant panaceæ pilot balloon, and it went forth without pretension or which are produced on all sides as soon as a question of interruption. The only thing that the experimenter a somewhat serious character has been brought before proposed to himself was to observe carefully and note the public. But all this noise quickly subsides when down exactly, all his observations. The result was fathe cause which has occasioned it is removed, and we vourable. M. Décoste had the satisfaction of seeing trouble ourselves as little about it afterwards as before. that most of the cuttings that he had planted followed We knew of no means of preventing it, and submitted the ordinary phases of vegetation. He obtained from to it with every symptom of impatience ; but we do not them small, but perfectly healthy tubers, which he aftertake into account the possibility of its return. What an wards employed in making new experiments. Seven agitation was caused on the occasion of the potato years of consecutive culture have filled M. Décoste with disease, of the scourge that attacked the vine, of the hope and confidence that he is possibly on the eve of a disease which was announced in the beetroot! Is there useful discovery, interesting in the highest degree to any other produce which is not justly entitled to solve the agricultural world ; and it is certainly the least we this important problem-“ Life at a cheap rate"? can do to give him the opportunity of rendering an But how prompt are all voices, erewhile so noisy, to account of his experiments: become silent or to change the theme! One question expels another even to forgetfulness, without the confu- qualities of the potato,' says Parmentier, and to
"Of all the means employed for multiplying the good sion it occasioned having conducted to any good end.
prevent them degenerating, there is none more efficacious “ A mountain in labour uttered a cry so clamorous,
than sowing the seed. It is necessary from time to That every one ran at the noise, believing
time to renew and perfect in this manner the species we It was about to be delivered of a city greater than Paris.
intend to regenerate and propagate.' It brought forth a mouse !” The potato disease is exhausted, and, thank God, tends invalidated this assertion, and proved that the seeds
“ Unfortunately a multitude of experiments have to disappear*. It has been this season less general and have produced crops of diseased potatoes. less intense. We have spoken of it much, but it now engages much less of our attention.
" Remedies are
“Up to the present time the process by cuttings powerless to heal this disease," said the Agricultural appears to have a better chance, and offers more certain Chronicle, of the second fortnight of August; and, in guarantees for the crop, than a perfectly healthy sowing, its turn, silence threatens to invade this question. We love and of which the ulterior products should be exempt to see a thing worthy of attention remain “ the order of from the disease. Is it not, to say the least, to this con. the day" to a complete solution. Whilst we have not clusion that the results of the following experiments found any means of preventing the return of the potato
lead us? disease, we think there will be great utility in bringing
“ First Year. - In the month of August 1849 I it forward again: “ It is the dead only that it is needful pricked four cuttings of potatoes into a pot filled with to bury.” Besides, we are probably not far from the a mixture of earth and vegetable mould. The stalks, end.
preserving their verdure, gave out vigorous shoots. ToA practical man, learned'and modest, began in 1849, wards the beginning of November the leaves faded from experiments, which he has renewed every year since maturity, and the stalks became dry, as at the terminathen, having no other object than the regeneration of tion of all healthy vegetation. I then turned out the the potato.
His labours deserve to be known, and his pot, and rummaged amongst the earth, and found at experiments have need to be repeated by a great number, each of the cuttings there were tubers, healthy in apin order to be either confirmed or invalidated. In a pearance and varying in size from a hazel-nut to a word, they ought to be either repulsed or accepted,
walnut. according as numerous facts, everywhere observed, and
“ Second Year.-In April, 1850, I planted the small collected, establish or confute them.
potatoes produced from the cuttings of the previous M. Décoste, a former military veterinary surgeon at August, 1849. In July following I took from vigorous Sésanne, states that walking in his garden wholly occu
and luxuriant shoots a number of cuttings, which were pied with the continuance and serious nature of the planted in different kinds of earth. This was undoubtpotato disease, the idea struck him of cutting some edly the most effectual means of ascertaining the precise
value of the process, either confirming or invalidating * This was written in 1855.
the results of the preceding crop.
“Placed in conditions more generale, and consequently | sufficiently above the soil to allow of there remaining on less exceptionable than in 1849, these cuttings yielded the stalk, thus cut, most frequently two eyes (axil of to the common laws of vegetation ; they faded before the leaves), from whence spring new shoots, which will they resumed that vigour which had led me to select amply suffice, with the non-mutilated stalks, for the them; but this weakness of the stalks was of short complete development of the plant and the proper evoduration. These soon recovered their primitive strength, lution of the tubers it ought to produce. and threw out in good time new shoots full of sap and “The pulling of the bunches of potatoes proceeding hope.
from the cuttings has constantly yielded a crop equal to "I was impatient of success, and wished to detect the that of the bunches which had not had their stalks sup. facts in their progress and development, if I may 80 pressed. express it. During the first days of October I took up “ In the diseased potatoes the first signs of the disorder some of the cuttings, and already the roots showed exbibit themselves upon the stalks which first turn themselves well furnished with small tubers of healthy yellow, and sooner or later acquire a deep brown colour, appearance. There was nothing to do but to leave them then quite black and easy to be perceived. Sometimes, to increase in size and reach maturity ; and in November however, in times of drought, the spots, instead of turn. I gathered potatoes of excellent quality, and weighing ing black, assume a less decided tint, and become on the average from 30 to 34 grammes (about 1 oz.). bleached, whilst the stalk dries up.
" Third Year.-The crop of 1850 furnished me with “In making cuttings for transplanting, we choose carethe seed of my plantation of 1851, which was made in fully the most vigorous branches upon the most healthy April, like the preceding one. The 5th of July I took stools. In this above all lies the advantage of the process; cuttings, which were again pricked into various kinds for if in the number of cuttings any diseased stalks are of mould; the crop was taken up on the 20th of Sep- selected, they will soon be endangered; the vegetation tember, before completely mature : it was at once will be arrested, the branches dried up, before they are abundant, and fine in the quality of the tubers, which able to produce anything. The disease will thus be were sent, with the cuttings attached, to the exposition stifled in its birth. This is wonderfully explained. Once of agricultural products of the Agricultural Society of separated from its centre of life, the stalk that is about Chalons-sur-Marne.
to be planted needs all the integrity of its organs, to “Fourth Year.-The potatoes of the harvest of 1851
attract and to assimilate to itself, after a proper were planted the 25th of March, 1852, namely-1st, in elaboration, all the materials necessary to its developdry sand, such as is used in paving the streets; 2nd, in ment, and the complete evolution of all its parts. The a sandy earth ; 3rd, in a calcareous earth ; 4th, in an diseased stalk offers none of these conditions, so indisearth with clayey subsoil; 5th and lastly, in an earth pensable to its preservation, for the parts most essential said to be of good quality, both by nature and its state to its existence are the most affected (epidermis utricles of cultivation.
fibres of the Endophlæum, &c.); consequently it is soon "The 10th of June I separated cuttings which I weakened, and ceases to live. planted in the same soil as that of the plants from which “ By the process of cutting, therefore, we should they were taken.
have no more to fear from diseased seed, since we can According to the proportions, the crop was satis- make use of no other than perfectly healthy plants. factory in each kind of soil. The cuttings pricked in “ In any and every case the cuttings seem to possess the dry sand were frequently watered. The tubers had a very great and real advantage over seed, even on the a thin and glossy skin, a firm and close pulp containing supposition that this latter (what experience does not little vegetable water, and presenting to the taste the warrant us in believing) offers all the guarantees desi. flavour of potatoes of first quality:
rable for the regeneration of the plant so deeply affected. "Towards the 25th of July I had been able to take In fact, in order to renew the plant by way of sowing, new cattings from the first, and plant them their turn, it is necessary to wait the crop of the seed, and thus and I obtained from them a crop as abundant and fine. lose a whole season; nor is it less necessary to obtain it The vegetation of the first cuttings was so active and of good quality; and upon that point the uncertainty vigorous that I have measured stalks from half a metre lasts during a whole year. With cutting, on the conto one metre in height (or from 15 to 30 inches). The trary, we obtain two crops during the same season. tubers taken from the good earth weighed from 150 to “Let us not forget to state that it is indispensable to 235 grammes (or from 4 to 7} oz.).
allow to the cutting as many eyes as possible, for from " The experiment of 1852 presented this peculiarity, this part of the stalk spring the tubers. The abundance that the planting produced three crops in the same of the crop is consequently strictly dependent on them. season, one the produce of the tuber itself, the two others " The culture of the cuttings presents nothing parti. from successive cuttings.
cular, demanding only the ordinary conditions required " The facts have been repeated precisely the same in
otherwise by all the weeded plants-a light and deep 1853, 1854, and 1855, and they appear so much the soil, that yields easily to the development of the tubers. more conclusive that they bave lest nothing to wish for, “ In case of drought, it speaks for itself ; we must either in regard to the abundance of the crop or the not neglect to water at the commencement of the good quality of the tubers. The disease has not ap- planting. peared during the vegetation of the cuttings, and the “One more word, in conclusion. Admitting that the potato obtained was excellent to eat and easy to reproduction of the potato by cutting gives only the preserye.”
means so much sought after, of regenerating that plant, Il we were allowed to give our conclusion, we should our experiments will not less have demonstrated to a say:
certain extent, that with a single sowing we may crop
several times in the same season. Had we obtained only From these seven years of conscientious experiment this result, still we should have congratulated ourselves it follows that from potatoes planted in March or April we may in June or July take from each bunch some
on having devoted seven years of experiment in finding stalks, plant them with the precautions usual in like
it. Let others now add to the facts which we have colcases, and in the following October obtain from the lected, by renewing them, the sanction they necessarily cattings a crop equal to that of the primitive plantation require before being adopted in the general agricultural without the latter suffering from it in any manner what. practice.” erer. In reality, the separation of the branches is made The wishes of M. Décoste will certainly be heard.