Principles of Pragmatics
Longman, 1983 - 250
Over the years, pragmatics - the study of the use and meaning of utterances to their situations - has become a more and more important branch of linguistics, as the inadequacies of a purely formalist, abstract approach to the study of language have become more evident. This book presents a rhetorical model of pragmatics: that is, a model which studies linguistic communication in terms of communicative goals and principles of 'good communicative behaviour'.
In this respect, Geoffrey Leech argues for a rapprochement between linguistics and the traditional discipline of rhetoric. He does not reject the Chomskvan revolution of linguistics, but rather maintains that the language system in the abstract - i.e. the 'grammar' broadly in Chomsky's sense - must be studied in relation to a fully developed theory of language use. There is therefore a division of labour between grammar and rhetoric, or (in the study of meaning) between semantics and pragmatics.
The book's main focus is thus on the development of a model of pragmatics within an overall functional model of language. In this it builds on the speech avct theory of Austin and Searle, and the theory of conversational implicature of Grice, but at the same time enlarges pragmatics to include politeness, irony, phatic communion, and other social principles of linguistic behaviour.
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A set of postulates
Formalism and functionalism
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action addressee argue argument assertive verbs assume assumption Austin believes Chapter communication context contrast conversational implicature Cooperative Principle corresponding declarations defined described descriptive discourse distinction End-weight English example explain expressive fact follows function grammar Grice Halliday hearer ideational illoc illocutionary acts illocutionary force illocutionary goal illocutionary verbs implicates impositive indirect illocutions Interpersonal Rhetoric irony kind language Leech litotes logical Maxim of Quality Maxim of Relation means means-ends analysis metalanguage normally observing oratio obliqua paradigm performative hypothesis performative utterances performative verb perlocution perlocutionary perlocutionary act phatic polite Pollyanna Principle positive postulates pragmatic force predicates Principle proposition question reason reference relevant rules scale Searle Searle's semantic sense sentence social speaker speech act speech situation speech-act theory speech-act verbs Steak Diane syntactic syntax Tact Maxim tence Textual Rhetoric theory tion tive transformational grammar utionary utterance wants
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Approaches to Discourse: Language as Social Interaction
Podgląd niedostępny - 1994